Skip to main content

Full text of "A biological survey of the Oswego River system. Supplemental to Seventeenth annual report, 1927"

See other formats


Please 

handle this volume 

with care. 

The University of Connecticut 
Libraries, Storrs 



»»»»»» ■ » •■» 



hbl, stx 



SH 35.N7N3 1928 



Biological survey of the Oswego Ri 

Hill " 



3 ^153 DDM5MSflS 3 






2 



oo 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/biologicalsurveyOOnewy_0 



7 
STATE OF ]NTEW YORK 

r 

CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 



A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE OSWEGO 
RIVER SYSTEM 



Supplemental to Seventeenth 
Annual Report, 1927 




ALBANY 
J. B. LYON COMPANY, PRINTERS 

1928 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 



Alexander Macdonald Conservation Commissioner 

Francis X. Disney . .Deputy Conservation Commissioner 

Herbert F. Prescott Secretary 

Division oe Fish and Game 

Llewellyn Legge Chief Protector 

John T. McCormick Deputy Chief Protector 

Emmeline Moore, Ph.D Investigator in Fish Culture 

Norman L. Cutler Biologist & Sanitarian 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction . .. 9 

Area covered by the survey 9 

Authorization 10 

Statistics 10 

Program of investigation 10 

General guiding principles 12 

Personnel 12 

Stocking lists and maps 13 

Distribution of fishes in the watershed 13 

Colored plates 13 

Carp control studies 14 

Conditions of pollution in the watershed 15 

Plankton studies 16 

The lamprey, a pest of lake fishes 16 

Papers by specialists 16 

Section I. Stocking policy for the streams, smaller lakes and ponds of the Oswego 

watershed . . . . 17 

Water temperature 17 

Gaseous content of water 21 

Analyses of springs and spring runs 23 

Temperature and gaseous relations in Lowery pond 23 

Temperature and gaseous relations in Green lake 24 

Factors influencing the number of trout to be planted 24 

Area 24 

Primary food organisms 24 

Pool conditions 25 

Effects of angling 25 

Calculating the number of trout per mile of stream 26 

Planting table 26 

Miscellaneous considerations 27 

Brook trout vs. brown trout 27 

Nursery streams 28 

Rainbow trout 2S 

Stream mileage suitable for stocking 30 

Some successful trout streams of the watershed 32 

Pond acreage suitable for stocking 37 

The larger trout ponds 37 

Warm water ponds and lakes . 38 

Section II. The Finger lakes fish problem 40 

Fish catch 40 

Distribution of Finger lakes fishes 43 

Food of Finger lakes fishes 47 

Remarks on food of different species 47 

Vegetation , 51 

Bottom fauna 52 

Conditions affecting abundance of fishes 53 

Over fishing 53 

Illegal fishing 53 

Spawning grounds 54 

Stocking methods 54 

Condition of the tributary streams 54 

Obstructions in outlets 55 

Destructive enemies 55 

Competition of undesirable fish 56 

Condition of the water 56 

Food supply 57 

[3] 



4 Contents 

PAGE 

General conditions in various lakes 57 

Canandaigua 58 

Keuka 58 

Seneca 59 

Cayuga 60 

O vvasco 60 

Skaneateles 61 

Otisco 61 

General suggestions for improving the fish situation 61 

Making regulations 61 

Law enforcement ; 62 

Fish ways 62 

Tributary streams 62 

Elimination of the lamprey 62 

The burbot 62 

Carp control 63 

Development of fish food 63 

Planting of lake trout fingerlings 64 

Stocking policy 66 

Section III. Carp control studies in Oneida lake 67 

Methods of seining 68 

Statistical evidence 70 

Habits of the adult carp 73 

Carp habitats 73 

Breeding habits 74 

Migration 75 

Food habits 75 

Food of the adult carp 76 

Habits of the young carp 77 

Food of the young carp 81 

General considerations of carp control 82 

Section IV. Fishes of the Oswego watershed 84 

Methods of collecting 84 

General nature of the region 84 

Distribution of fish in the watershed 85 

Classification of fish 86 

Food and game fish So 

Non-food, non-game species 87 

Bait fish 87 

Habitat preferences 88 

Fish association 80 

Trout stream associations 9 ) 

Vermin fishes 91 

Fishes in regard to pollution 91 

Minnow tests < 9 I 

Special problems • 92 

Spawning behavior of carp 92 

Fishways 93 

Factors contributing to decline of fishes 94 

Annotated list of fishes 95 

Petromyzonidae Lampreys 95 

Acipenseridae Sturgeons 95 

Lepisosteidae Garpikes 95 

Amiidae Bowfins 95 

Clupeidae Herrings 95 

Osmeridae Smelts 95 

Coregonidae Whitefishes 65 

Salmonidae Salmons 96 

Catostomidae Suckers 97 

Cyprinidae Minnows 97 

Ameiuridae Catfishes 99 

Umbridae Mud minnows 100 

Esocidae Pickerels. 100 

Anguillidae Eels. 100 



Contents 5 

PAGE 

Cyprinodontidae Killifishes 100 

Percopsidae Trout perches 100 

Serranidae Sea basses 100 

Percidae Perches 1 00 

Centrarchidae Sunfishes ;••■•■ 101 

Atherinidae Silversides 102 

Sciaenidae Drumfishes : 102 

Cottidae Sculpins 102 

Gasterosteidae Sticklebacks 102 

Gadidae Codfishes 102 

Section V. Chemical investigation of the Oswego watershed 108 

Types of pollution 108 

Methods employed HO 

The canals H° 

Stream studies 1 12 

Spring studies H^ 

Lake studies 1 1 ' 

Tabulation of data: 

Series I. Chemical analyses of streams 118-125 

Series II. Chemical analyses of springs 126 

Series III. Chemical analyses of lakes 127-132 

Section VI. Biological studies of polluted waters in the Oswego watershed 133 

Sewage pollution 133 

Milk pollution 135 

Paper mill and woolen mill wastes 135 

Oil pollution 133 

Cannery wastes 136 

Sulphur pollution 137 

Conclusion 137 

Tabulation of pollution studies 138 ; 139 

Section VII. Plankton studies of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes 140 

Temperature of the water 141 

Transparency of the water 142 

Water analyses 143 

Quantitative determinations of plankton organisms 143 

Genera of plankton organisms 147 

Cayuga lake 147 

Seneca lake 150 

Oneida lake 151 

Estimations cf quantities of dry matter, organic matter and ash in the lake water. 154 
Section VIII. Life history and economics of the lampreys of New York State. . . . 158 

Part I. Life history of lampreys 158 

Character and distribution of lampreys 158 

Coloration and distinction of sexes 159 

The three or four kinds of lampreys in New York 161 

Nest-building and egg-laying 165 

Number of eggs laid by the different forms 168 

Death of lampreys after spawning 1 69 

Persistence of the notochord 170 

Development of the eggs and duration of larval life, transformation and 

buccal glands 174-177 

Brook lampreys not parasitic 178 

Summary of the life history of lampreys 180 

Part II. Economics of lampreys 181 

Economics of larval lampreys 181 

Economics of the brook lamprey 181 

Economics of the sea lamprey 182 

Economics of the lake lamprey 182 

Experiments on the predatory habits of lampreys 184 

Amount of damage done to food-fish by lampreys 188 

Ridding a lake of lampreys 190 

Summary of the economics of lampreys 191 



Contents 



PAGE 

Section IX. A quantitative study of the fish-food supply in selected areas 192 

Relation of width of stream to quantity of food organisms 193 

Relation of bottom to quantity of food 196 

Comparison of quantity of food in stream and pool bottoms 196 

Comparison of quality of food in stream and pool bottoms 197 

Terrestrial and other food animals falling into streams 197 

Summary of stream drift 199 

Relative abundance and kinds of animals taken in stream drift studies 201 

Pool drift 202 

Summary of pool drift 202 

Comparison of total available food and food actually eaten by trout 203 

Available fish-food in submerged plant beds 204 

Appendix I. Blank forms used in the field 207 

II. Abbreviations and symbols used 208 

III-XL Stocking lists 209-242 

XII. Vegetation of Cayuga and Seneca lakes 243 

Key map of Oswego watershed 1 

Maps showing stocking of streams 

Map 1. Highmarket and Port Leyden quadrangles 

Map 2. Oswego, Fulton, Mexico, Kasoag, Taberg and Boonville | 

quadrangles | 

Map 3A. Macedon, Palmyra, Clyde and Weedsport quadrangles 
Map 3B. Baldwinsville, Syracuse, Chittenango, Oneida and 

Oriskany quadrangles [ Follow page 243 

Map 4A. Canandaigua, Phelps, Geneva and Auburn quad- 
rangles 

Map 4B. Skaneateles, Tully, Cazenovia, Morrisville and San- 

gerfield quadrangles 

Map 5. Naples, Penn Yan, Ovid, Genoa, Moravia and Cortland 

quadrangles 

Map 6. Bath, Hammondsport, Watkins, Ithaca, Dry den and 

Harford quadrangles 

Map 7. Elmira quadrangle 




Shaded area is coverage included in the survey of the Oswego river system. 
Area 5,002 square miles 



A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE OSWEGO RIVER SYSTEM 

Supplemental to the Seventeenth Annual Report, 1927 



Introduction 

By Emmeline Moore 

Investigator in Fish Culture, in Charge of Survey 

The report submitted herewith deals with the biological survey 
of the Oswego river system in its relation to the fisheries. This 
is the second watershed to receive intensive study since the estab- 
lishment of the Conservation Fund in 1925. With the completion 
of the two surveys, the Genesee system last year and the Oswego 
system this year, the ground covered comprises a little more than 
one-sixth of the area of the State. As the surveys progress, the 
Department is enabled to proceed with its program of stocking 
the streams and lakes of the State on a more intelligent and 
scientific basis and to provide for further study where the survey 
brings to light urgent problems bearing on the future status of the 
fisheries. 

Area Covered by the Survey. — The portion of New York 
State included in the Oswego river system and covered by the 
survey is shown on the accompanying map (frontispiece) . The area 
of 5,002 square miles covers in part 12 counties. In point of size 
in the State, this watershed is exceeded only by the Hudson river 
system. 

Within this coverage lies a water storage basin and stream 
system of unusual interest and importance to the people of the 
State. The seven Finger lakes are a conspicuous differentiating 
feature. Each is a deep glacial valley, the reservoir of a vast 
volume of naturally pure, cold water supplied by underground 
springs and inlet streams. The great diversity of beauty existing 
in the valley slopes and the accessibility of the lakes combine to 
make this region a distinctive recreational resource. The water 
area of the Finger lakes comprises 195.60 square miles. The 
largest of these (Seneca) has a length of 30 miles, and a depth 
of 634 feet. As to fish life, the Finger lakes have a vary- 
ing reputation in productivity. Oneida lake, the largest single 
lake in the watershed, with an area of 79.80 square miles, is rela- 
tively shallow, rich in the elements that make good fishing water 
and rates high in productivity. 

Besides these larger bodies there is an assemblage of about 40 
small lakes and ponds aggregating approximately 95.52 square 
miles which with the above mentioned areas supply a combined 
water surface in lakes and ponds of about 289.22 square miles. 



10 Conservation Department 

The lake and pond water areas are further augmented by about 
7,000 miles of streams and 106 miles of barge canal waters. Three 
large rivers, the Clyde, Seneca and Oneida, unite the outlets of the 
lakes to form the Oswego river which carries the drainage into Lake 
Ontario. Of the 7,000 miles of streams in this watershed, 1,888 
miles are considered worthy of stocking and of this mileage, 1,430 
are suitable waters for trout. 

Authorization of Survey. — On March 31, 1927, an appropria- 
tion of $50,000 was made from the Conservation Fund (chap. 592 
of the Laws of 1925) for ''the biological survey, including fish 
protection." In pursuance of this provision this survey, the 
second in the series, was undertaken in the Oswego watershed 
during the summer of 1927. The report of the first survey, that 
of the Genesee river system, became available for distribution 
early in the current year. 

Statistics. — According to the records of the Conservation 
Department the number of fry and fingerlings distributed from 
the State hatcheries into the Oswego river system totals for the 
ten-year period, 1917-1926, 365,630,572 young fish. The distribu- 
tion by species is shown in Table 1. 

It is a staggering number of fish to have carried through the 
hatching process and to have distributed in the watershed. The 
question may well be asked, "What has been the catch?" In 
practice such data are very hard to get. A few sporadic attempts 
are made by sportsmen's clubs to collect data on the catch but as 
a whole interest lags. Yet it is no longer a matter of individual 
or even local interest but a part of a larger problem of the evalua- 
tion of the fishery water. Any sort of satisfactory fishery statis- 
tics if they could be obtained would assist in disclosing the 
condition and trend of each fishery and in the improvement of 
legislation therefor. 

Program of Investigation. — The primary object of this survey, 
as in the initial one of the series, is the development of a stocking 
policy for the streams and lakes of the watershed based on a 
scientific understanding of conditions existing therein. Important 
considerations relate to productivity, the correlation of species of 
fish with different types of waters and the control of competitive 
or destructive species. Investigation has proceeded under three 
main lines — lake survey, stream survey and carp control studies 
together with contributory studies dealing with pollution, dis- 
tribution, parasitism, plankton and other food resources. The 
several papers on these subjects incorporated in this report present 
the results of the survey for this year included mainly within 
the dates of June 15 to September 15, 1927. 

It is manifestly impossible in a single season to cover by inten- 
sive study all fisheries problems arising in the region of the survey. 
For this reason each unit stream system is given a somewhat 
comprehensive treatment with subsequent arrangement and pro- 
vision for correlated research on urgent problems. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



11 



£ 2 



C w 






I T3 s 



H a 



* 2 



00«500'0 
iO id t-- ■* O CD 
b- rf< CD OJ "5 CO 

OS t- <N «0 ■* CO 

CD CT3 CO C5 CD >C 

to i-t r^ ■* co ■* 



»oo 

CIO CO 
O'O^H 

t>eo<N 

cOcDt^ 

>ocoo 



OOOOOO'OOO'tN 

^OOWHHlOOHj..^ 



>ooo 
>ooo 

)Tft>0 



O O ■* iO 'O 



OOO 

ooo 

OOO 



OThO 
OiOO 

oooo 



oo 
oo 
oo 

o"o* 

OGC 

o-# 



OiOOOO 
0)000 

OTt^CCCN 



O iC iO O O iO CD 
iCNNiOOcD 
<M CD CD Tt< CO t> 

i-h iO 00 <M O tJH 
■^GOt-i^ooo 
05 O —I "* |> tJH 



c3 o " 

Mo 2 o 



M™ij V * I* ^ ■*-> 

SOMwOOmO 



ONiOO 
0"OCNO 
00 CN t^cD 



iOtH 

»ooo 

i COO 



ooo 

ooo 

OrfHcD 

ONH 

■ococo 



OOiO 



0} 
CO CD 

cot^ 



OfflM 



12 Conservation Department 

The preparation of a program and the conduct of so large a 
project as the survey involved were made the object of a con- 
ference called by the Conservation Commissioner. Scientists 
representing each of the cooperating institutions and others were 
present as follows : 

Alexander Macdonald, Commissioner, presiding. 

Dr. W. C. Kendall, Ichthyologist, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

Mr. E. Higgins, Scientific Inquiry, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

Dr. Geo. C. Embody, Aquiculture, Cornell University. 

Dr. A. H. Wright, Zoologist, Cornell University. 

Dr. W. C. Muenscher, Botanist, Cornell University. 

Dr. E. H. Eaton, Biologist, Hobart College. 

Dr. Chas. C. Adams, Director, State Museum. 

Dr. Gertrude Douglas, Botanist, State College. 

Mr. F. E. Wagner, Chemist, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 

Dr. P. H. Struthers, Zoologist, Syracuse University. 

Llewellyn Legge, Chief Protector, Division Fish and Game. 

Emmeline Moore, Director of Survey. 

Sumner Cowden, Field Superintendent. 

General guiding principles were adopted governing action 
between the Conservation Department and outside agencies (State 
universities, colleges or other educational institutions) cooperating 
with the Conser\ r ation Department. They are as follows : 

1. The present policy of considering watershed areas as the unit 
area for study shall be continued as the permanent policy. 

2. Specialists and workers generally shall be selected on the 
basis of training and fitness. 

3. The distribution of tasks shall be by duties rather than by 
localities. 

4. The individuals in charge of different portions of the survey 
shall have such measure of freedom in the choice of helpers and 
in the conduct of their work as is compatible with the objects 
sought by the Conservation Department, 

5. Individuals responsible for suggesting policies shall be given 
access to all data bearing on their work by whatever portions of 
the survey gathered. 

6. In the publication of results, full credit shall be given to 
cooperating institutions and individuals. 

7. Any financial obligation incurred by special work for the 
Conservation Department through the use of materials or equip- 
ment in the laboratories of the State or other cooperating institu- 
tions shall be borne by the Conservation Department only on 
authorization. 

Personnel. — In the conduct of this survey the Conservation 
Department has had the cooperation of five educational insti- 
tutions in the State — Cornell and Syracuse Universities, Hobart 
College, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the State Normal 
College — with specialists from each of these institutions actively 
engaged in the field investigations. With such participation there 
can be no doubt that there has been inaugurated a program of far 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 13 

reaching" importance which to an increasing degree as it is con- 
tinued through the years will provide a sound program of study 
and form the basis of constructive administration of our fisheries 
resources. 

Stocking Lists and Maps. — 'A key map of the watershed (see 
appendix) affords a convenient guide in locating the particular 
quadrangle, county or township in which the reader is interested. 
It also serves to orient in the watershed the quadrangle maps 
(U. S. G. S. topographic maps) adapted for purposes of record 
in the survey. On these maps (1-7) all streams are shown with 
suitable indications of dry and permanent streams, the presence 
of springs, pollution outfalls, favorable places for fish planting 
and the appropriate species. Accompanying the maps are the 
stocking lists (App. III-XI) which set forth in tabular form the 
name of the streams (if not named then numbered), the mileage 
available for stocking and the stocking policy per mile. By 
reference to these tables and maps the location of the best places 
to plant fish and the calculation of the number per mile may be 
determined readily. 

Distribution of Fish in the Watershed. — The contributions 
to this aspect of the survey supply a wealth of data concerning 
the species inhabiting the Oswego drainage area. One hundred 
species of fish representing 24 families are listed. Of these 43 
species are of the food and game variety. Of the 57 non-food 
and non-game species some have inferior value as food and are 
occasionally so used. Two species have become extinct. 

A distribution chart* pictures the whereabouts of the different 
species in the drainage basin. 

The Colored Plates of Fishes. — The twelve drawings of fish 
shown in color are the work of the artist, Ellen Edmonson, who 
has reproduced them with great fidelity to scientific detail and to 
the sensitively beautiful coloring as they appear on coming from 
the water. 

Aside from the enjoyment derived in the beauty of line and 
color the reproductions serve an important function educationally 
in emphasizing species of special interest and value to the fishery 
of the watershed. The sawbelly or alewife, a plankton feeder and 
a non-competitive species, is the food par excellence of the lake 
trout and where the balance between these two is well maintained, 
as in Seneca and Keuka lakes, the fishing is good. The cisco and 
whitefish also plankton feeders wholly or in part are in the same 
category and should be fostered. The lake lamprey is the " ver- 
min" of the waters in Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. The eel- 
pout or gudgeon and carp are species of ill repute. The minnows 
and darters are popular as bait or related in important ways 
organically to the lake and stream life. The sculpin is an index of 
brook trout waters. 



See page 103-104. 



14 



Conservation Department 



These valuable color drawings add to the collection begun last 
year with the purpose in view as the survey progresses of bring- 
ing them together finally in a record of permanent Avorth — an illus- 
trated volume of the fishes of New York. 

Carp Control Studies. — The intensive study of the carp con- 
ducted on Oneida lake this past summer represents the first at- 
tempt to focus attention upon the scientific aspects of the carp 
problem as it relates to large bodies of water in this State. The 
control of this species which, within a relatively short period after 
its introduction into this country, has become a dominant factor 
in our fisheries problems is not a simple matter. It is more than 




Habitat sketch of young carp in the advanced fry stage 



a seining industry "to keep the numbers down." It is an inter- 
pretation of the conditions which contribute to the rapid multipli- 
cation of the carp and an understanding of the effects of rapidly 
increasing numbers of this species upon the native species of food 
and game fish whose future needs we require under the circum- 
stances to anticipate. The plan and scope of the work coordinate 
the investigations of the scientific unit engaged upon this study 
with the operations of a trained and experienced carp seiner. 

The efforts of the summer's study have produced positive and 
constructive results. Over forty-five tons of carp have been seined 
and marketed covering a period of about five months, from May 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 15 

to October, and it has been demonstrated that carp in these num- 
bers can be taken with minimum interference of game fish. 

The dominance of carp in Oneida is evidently correlated with the 
richness and abundance of certain food elements such as Crustacea, 
mollusca and insect larvae which are the main food staples of the 
carp in this lake. 

Other contributing factors are associated with the unusually 
favorable physical features which obtain there, such as the exten- 
sive shallows and the intersecting barge canal which provide agree- 
able environmental conditions for this species. 

Although much useful information has been gained by the efforts 
o± a single season, relief measures to be adequate, however, must 
be organized for permanency. In this connection the economic 
aspect is an important consideration. When more carp are mar- 
keted than are yearly produced then we may hope to cope with the 
carp problem in situations where game fishing is to be regarded as 
paramount. 

Conditions of Pollution in the Oswego Watershed. — An 

appraisal of the waters from the standpoint of the oxygen supply 
is shown graphically in the dissolved oxygen profile of the Seneca 
and Oswego rivers (Fig. 1.) These are the recipients of the mis- 
cellany of pollutions of all tributaries, both lakes and streams, in 
the watershed. Gathering up as they do the waters of the entire 
drainage basin they become rivers of considerable volume. The 
profile, therefore, is impressive as showing despite this large 
volume of water a successively lower and lower oxygen sag until 
the final entry of the waters into Lake Ontario. Other profiles 
of the tributary streams interpreting pollution conditions in local 
areas appear in the report on this subject. 

In the biological discussion of the subject (page 138) a useful 
tabulation of pollution conditions in the watershed provides data 
ot importance to each community in which studies have been made. 
The types of polluting substances which enter the river system are 
discussed in their relation to fish life and to the organisms asso- 
ciated with them in the capacity of food of fish either directly 
or remotely. The mileage of stream noticeably affected by the 
polluting wastes is estimated at about 108 miles, an approximation 
based upon the condition of the stream as shown both by oxygen 
depletion and the presence of biological indicators of pollution. 

In stressing the studies of pollution, three objectives stand forth. 
The first of these is to give information of pollution conditions 
in the watershed, to visualize, that is, graphically by profile or 
otherwise the situation as a whole in the area covered by the sur- 
vey. The second to focus attention upon the bad spots, the 
conspicuous cases of stream defilement where the normal fauna 
and flora are completely replaced by pollutional forms and by gas- 
eous or other conditions inimical to fish life, and where under such 
situations stocking the stream with fish is extravagant and waste- 
ful. And third, to emphasize the responsibility of the individual 
and the community. 



16 Conservation Department 

Plankton Studies. — All fish in their young stages require a 
plankton diet. Some species, like the alewife or cisco, are 
"plankton sifters" throughout their life span. The studies, there- 
fore, in this field bear directly upon the problem of fish produc- 
tion. 

Plankton estimations for the period of the survey cover only the 
the largest of the deep lakes (Seneca and Cayuga) and the largest 
shallow lake, Oneida. The values for these lakes are made graphi- 
cally apparent in the charts (1-8, p. 144), values which represent a 
stupendous amount of counting of microscopic organisms. A fur- 
ther understanding is gained by direct comparison of plankton 
quantities as shown in chart 9. 

Associated with plankton studies, however, and requisite for any 
true interpretation of the productive capacity of the lakes, are 
various complex problems related to the abundance of the rooted 
vegetation, and to far reaching chemical, physical and physiological 
relations which play their part in the "going concern" of any lake. 

The Lamprey, a Pest of Lake Fishes. — In the several large 
lakes of the Oswego watershed the depredations of the lake lamprey 
occur with menacing frequency among the food and game fish. 
They are blood suckers, attacking fish only and their extraordi- 
narily rapacious habits in this respect call forth discussion of ways 
and means of combating them. 

Fortunately there is at hand in the researches of Professor S. H. 
Gage of Cornell University, an authority on the lamprey, such com- 
pleteness of knowledge of the life history of this parasite that 
methods of control are clearly indicated. Through the courtesy and 
generous cooperation of Professor Gage the survey report contains 
the important chapter on the lamprey including in the paper both 
the life history and the economics of this serious pest of our lake 
fishes. 

Papers by Specialists on the Survey.— The data collected in 
the several lines of inquiry are presented in full in the following 
sections dealing with : 

(1) Stocking policy for the Oswego river system. 

(2) The Finger lakes fish problem. 

(3) Carp control studies in Oneida lake. 

(4) Fishes of the Oswego river system. 

(5) Chemical investigation of the Oswego watershed. 

(6) Biological studies of polluted waters in the Oswego water- 

shed. 

(7) Plankton studies of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 

(8) Iiife history and economics of the lampreys of New York 

State. 

(9) A quantitative study of the fish food supply in selected areas. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 17 



I. STOCKING POLICY FOR THE STREAMS, SMALLER 
LAKES AND PONDS OF THE OSWEGO WATERSHED 

By G. C. Embody 

Professor of Aquiculture, Cornell University 

The development of a stocking policy for the streams and ponds 
of the Oswego watershed has been based upon studies similar to 
those conducted during the summer of 1926 in the Genesee area. 

The survey of the present year covered approximately double the 
area represented in the Genesee drainage, and while the latter con- 
tained 3,400 miles of stream, the Oswego with all of its tributaries 
constituted a total mileage close to 7,000. In attempting to cover 
such a large stream mileage during a comparatively short period of 
three months., the time allotted to any particular stream was neces- 
sarily short. It was possible to economize in time in the following 
ways : Dry runs were passed over quickly. Badly polluted streams 
flowing through cities were likewise given little attention, because 
in the present state, fishes could not live in them and the nature 
and degree of pollution was to be adequately covered by another 
group of investigators. Likewise streams too small for bass and 
obviously unsuited to trout were passed over quickly. In other 
cases where trout were observed to occur in abundance, our chief 
concern had to do with the size and the evaluation of food and pool 
conditions — factors determining the number of fish to be planted. 
Finally in the case of Oneida and Tompkins, county streams which 
had already been covered, the former by Dr. W. A. Clemens in 
1916 and the latter by the writer in 1918 and 1919, it was likewise 
sufficient to study them with reference only to the number of fish 
to be planted. It may be stated here that the stocking policy set 
forth in the surveys of these two counties has been adhered to in 
almost every case. In a few instances, however, stream conditions 
had evidently changed during the last eight or nine years, neces- 
sitating some alterations. 

In the present survey, field data blanks (Appendix I) slightly 
modified in form from the Genesee blank, have been used. The 
work of collecting information on them has fallen chiefly to six 
persons, namely: Dr. D. J. Leffingwell, Messrs, A. S. Hazzard, E. 
P. Hunter, R. D. Harwood, R. A. Laubengayer and V. S. L. Pate. 

The problem during the past summer has been to determine 
what streams and ponds are suitable for stocking; what species 
of food fishes should be planted in them, and in the case of trout 
streams, approximately how many should be planted per unit 
of length (See Appendix II-XI and maps). The factors studied 
with this end in view were discussed in some detail in the Report 
of the Genesee Survey and are referred to briefly in this paper. 

Water Temperature. — The maximum water temperature in a 
rapid, unpolluted stream suitable for brook trout we have taken 
as 75° Fahr. even though there is some evidence to show that 




Diagram illustrating the method used in designating unnamed streams. Explana- 
tion of diagram : — 

Main stream. : — Name only is used, i.e., Wood river. 
Principal tributaries : — 

(a) If they have a name that only is used, i.e., Trout brook, Rock creek. 

(b) If they do not have a name they receive two or more letters and a 
number as follows :- — 

1st letter is the initial of the first named stream below (downstream) 
on the same side, i.e., T. (for Trout brook). 

2nd letter is the initial of the main stream, i.e., W. (for Wood river). 
Number — indicates that it is the first, second etc., tributary above the 
named stream. 
Thus T.W.I. (Trout, Wood 1.) is the first tributary above Trout brook 
on that side; R.W.I. (Rock, Wood 1.) is the first tributary above Rock 
creek on the opposite side of the river. 
/Secondary & tertiary tributaries: — All receive numbers, the tributary nearest the 
mouth is numbered 1. Thus T.W.3. in the above diagram has 5 secondary tri- 
butaries and of these 1, 2, 4, each has one tertiary tributary. 
Lake tributaries : — Named streams are not numbered. Unnamed streams are 
numbered clockwise around the lake, starting from the right of the outlet, see 
Mud lake in above diagram. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



19 



brook trout may sometimes endure slightly higher ones. In the 
case of brown and rainbow trout the highest suitable stream 
temperature is believed to be close to 80° Fahr. 

In assigning any one of these three species to a stream it is 
important to know whether the water temperature will exceed 
cither of these points during the summer months. Hot days 
were too infrequent during the past summer to permit one to 
secure through actual observation, maxima in more than a few 
streams. It was thus necessary to estimate them by means of 
a table. Table 1 was used throughout the greater part of the 
territory covered with one exception to be noted. 

Table 1. — Relation of Air and Water Temperatures in Trout Streams 



Max. air temp. deg. Fahr 

Max. water temp., Brook trout. . . 
,„- , (Brown trout. . 

Max. water temp. ^ Rainbow trout 



80.0 
65.0 


82.0 
66.5 


84.0 
68.0 


86.0 
70.0 


88.0 
71.5 


90.0 
73.0 


92.0 
74.0 


69.0 


70.5 


72.0 


73.5 


75.0 


76.5 


78.0 



94.0 
75.0 

79.0 



Checking up on the accuracy of this table in as many warm 
streams as were found to contain trout there was found but slight 
error in regions below 1,000 feet elevation, but in the higher 
forested area particularly about the headwaters of Fish creek 
(Lewis county) with elevations from 1,600 to 1,900 feet, the error 
was large, noticeably however, on the safe side. That is, the water 
temperatures corresponding to certain air temperatures as taken 
in these streams were several degrees higher than in Table 1, for 
brook trout. 

Two outstanding examples of this were the upper East Branch 
of Fish creek and its tributary, Alder creek. Both streams were 
densely populated with brook trout and showed the temperature 
relations in Table 2. 

Table 2 — Relation of Water Temperature to Air Temperature in Fish 
and Alder Creeks, Lewis County, N. Y. 





FISH CREEK 






section 


Air 
temperature 


Water 
temperature 


Atmospheric 
condition 


Hour 


Date 


Upper 

Lower 


80 
81 


68 
68 


Bright 

Bright 


10:30 a. m. . 
4:30 p. m.. . 


Aug. 1 
Aug. 1 


A.LDER CREEK 




80 
80 


69 


Bright 

Bright 


12:05 p.m... 
12:00 p. m. . 


July 28 
July 28 


Middle 


71 





Comparing Tables 1 and 2, it is evident that in the latter, the 
water temperatures are from three to six degrees too high for the 



20 



Conservation Department 



air temperatures indicated. This relation (air 80, water 68-71) 
while commonly found in brown trout streams of lower altitudes 
and others which do not contain trout has not often been observed 
by the writer in brook trout streams. 

There is a possible explanation for the occurrence of brook trout 
in these two creeks, namely, that the maximum air temperatures 
in the Fish creek region do not run nearly so high as those in the 
lower altitudes. This is shown by the following temperature 
records furnished by the United States Weather Bureau Office at 
Ithaca, N. Y., for Turin and Constableville, two towns situated 3 
to 4 miles east of the region in question, in comparison with those 
taken during the same years at Ithaca. With no recent records 
available from the upper region we must compare those taken from 
1890 to 1895 (Table 3). 

Table 3. — Temperature Data for Turin, Constableville and Ithaca 



YEAR 


Summer 
maxima 


Number of days maximum 

88 OR ABOVE 


Place 


June 


July 


Aug. 


1890 


91 

87 

85.9 
89 
89 

87 




3 
' 1 


1 
2 


Turin 


1891 


Elevation - 1264 


1892. . 


Av. max. 6 yrs.= 88.1 


1893 


1894 

1895 




1890 

1891 


88 
89 
85.5 

88 


1 

1 
No data 


1 


1 
1 

2 


Constableville 


1892 

1893 . 


Av. max. 4 yrs.= 87.6 






1890 


96 
92 
95 
93 
95 
95 


2 
5 
3 
4 
2 
6 


7 

3 
10 

4 
11 

4 


4 
1 

4 
4 
3 
2 




1891 


Elevation = 928. 5 


1892 


Av. max. 6 yrs.= 94.3 


1893 




1894 




1895 









While the altitudes of Turin and Constableville are 1,264 and 
1,260 feet respectively, the elevation of upper Fish creek ranges 
from 1,600 to 1,900 feet with consequently colder temperatures. 

A comparison of the summer maxima for the various years (Table 
3, column 2) and the average summer maxima for the whole period 
involved is significant. At Turin the absolute maximum for the 
six years was 91, while the average for the summer maxima was 
only 88.1. In the case of Ithaca these two values were 96 and 94.3, 
a difference of 5 and 6 degrees respectively. 

The possible cumulative effect of continued high air temp- 
eratures upon water temperatures is probably not nearly so 
large in the Fish creek region as at Ithaca. This is indicated by 
the small number of days during which the maximum reaches 88 
or above (columns 3, 4 and 5) in the case of Turin compared with 
the large number for Ithaca indicating rather clearly that the 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



21 



high water temperatures encountered at Ithaca are not possible 
in the Fish creek country. 

It is evident that Table 1 cannot be used for altitudes much 
above 1,000 feet in New York, and the following revision is pro- 
posed for such elevations with the understanding that Hs limita- 
tions are unknown. 



Table 4. — Showing Pkobable Relation of Maximum Air and Water Tem- 
peratures in the Upper Fish Creek Region, Lewis County, N. Y. 



Air temperature 

Temperature, Brook trout waters. 



82 I 

72 I 



With reference to the basses, sunfishes, perch, catfish and other 
warm water kinds, it is important to know whether the water 
becomes sufficiently warm to permit reproduction and normal 
growth during the warmer half of the year. Experience during 
the last two summers warrants the assumption that none of our 
streams or lakes in central New York become too warm for such 
species. Nor in fact have Ave found a single stream otherwise 
suited to these fishes in which the summer water temperatures run 
too low. It is rather a matter of size, type of bottom and current 
which restricts distribution. 

Gaseous Content of Water. — -The dissolved oxygen and 
carbon dioxide was given attention in but three types of waters, 
namely, large springs and spring runs, polluted streams, and in 
some of the colder and deeper ponds. Rapid unpolluted streams 
are quite generally suitable for any species so far as the content 
of dissolved gases is concerned, because the water is constantly 
aerated through the agency of rapids and falls which tend to sat- 
urate with oxygen and to liberate carbon dioxide and hydro- 
gen sulphide when present. Many springs, however, are deficient 
in oxygen and at the same time contain carbon dioxide in quantities 
dangerous to fish. The matter is important, because, of the 
practice of planting young trout in spring runs very often too close 
to the place of origin, the spring itself. According to analyses 
made by Mr. F. E. Wagner, the springs examined showed any- 
where from a fraction of one part per million of oxygen (Price 
spring near Auburn) to more than nine parts (Beaver brook spring- 
near McLean) and carbon dioxide from 31 parts per million (York 
Street spring, Auburn) down to one part (Beaver brook spring). 

Price spring about two miles north of Auburn may be taken 
as an example of one forming a short run which is a tempting 
place in which to plant brook trout, With a flow of 300 gallons 
per minute more or less, it forms a brook a few hundred 
yards long eventually uniting with North brook (Price brook or 
Cold Spring). This latter is transformed from a warm troutless 
stream into a cold one, which in the past has been locally famous 



22 Conservation Department 

for its fine trout fishing. The main spring issues from a crevice 
between limestone strata and at this point the water shows the 
following analysis as given in Table 5 : 

Oxygen — 0.1 p. p.m. 

C0 2 — 20.5 p.p.m. 

Just before the spring run enters North brook (Price brook) 
the analysis shows : 

Oxygen — 3.95 p.p.m. 

C0 2 — 13 p.p.m. 

Thus the spring water in passing from source to mouth over a 
gravel bottom with frequent riffles, absorbed 3.8 p.p.m. of oxygen 
and lost about 7 p.p.m. of carbon dioxide. 

Brook trout commonly occur in the lower half of this run but 
rarely have they been observed much farther upstream. Experi- 
mental data indicate that they will live apparently without dis- 
comfort in water showing a temperature of 10° C. (50° Fahr.), 
oxygen content between 2.5 and 3 p.p.m., and carbon dioxide 
around 15 p.p.m. The run starts as an unsuitable planting place 
but becomes suitable at a point somewhat more than half way to 
its mouth. Trout should never be planted in the pools immedi- 
ately below the spring nor in any part of the upper one-half of the 
run. 

It is well to emphasize at this point the necessity of determining 
the suitability of the water in every spring run before stocking, 
for it may not always be possible for the trout to work down into 
a region where gaseous conditions are safe before asphyxiation 
takes place. While it is not always possible to have a chemical 
analysis made, any fisherman may make a simple test by placing 
in the water to be tested, a wire basket containing a few healthy 
fingerling trout and observing their behavior. Distress is indi- 
cated by a marked increase in respiration or a loss of equilibrium. 
If trout turn over on their backs within a reasonable time — say 10 
minutes — it would be a pretty certain indication that the water is 
bad. 

In order to show how variable in oxygen and carbon dioxide 
content springs and spring runs may be, the data in the following 
table has been brought together from analyses made by Mr. 
Wagner. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 23 

Table 5. — Analyses of Springs and Spring Runs 




The gaseous content of the Avater of two ponds was studied with 
reference to its suitability for trout, — one known as Lowery pond, 
a deep marl pond of about 30 acres situated 5.5 miles north of 
Geneva (Map 4A) and the other, Green lake, a very deep pond of 
some 62 acres situated in Onondaga county (Map 3B) about 2.5 
miles northeast of Fayetteville. In the former although the 
temperature conditions were suitable at depths ranging from about 
16 feet to the bottom (52 feet), the oxygen was found to be zero 
from about 30 feet down, the asphyxial point being reached at 
some place between the 16 and 24 foot depths (Table 6). For this 
and other reasons pertaining to the bottom topography, absence of 
inlet, etc., the pond was considered unsuitable for any species of 
trout. 



Table 



-Temperature and Gaseous Relations in Lowery Pond, 
July 18, 1927 



DEPTH IN FEET 


Temp. C° 


2 p. p. m. 


*C0 2 p. 


p. m. 


pH 


Methyl orange 
alkalinity 
as p. p. m. 
calc. carb. 


Surface 

8 


25.3 

21.5 

13.5 

9.8 

9.5 

9.5 


8.3 
11.8 
3.2 
0.54 
0. 
0. 




0. 

0. 

8. 
20. 
60. 
60. 


8.3 
8.4 
7.5 
7.1 
7.1 
7.1 


128 
136 


16 


140 


24 


151 


30 


315 


52 


442 







* Hydrogen sulphide being present, these figures represent phenolphthalein acidity calculated as 
p. p. m. carbon dioxide. 



24 



Conservation Department 



hi the case of Green lake, oxygen was absent from the 65 foot 
level down to the bottom (185 feet). At a depth of 45 feet, oxygen 
was present to the extent of 8.8 p. p.m., and with a temperature of 
11 °C, suitability for a limited number of trout was established 
over a rather large area and depth. 



Table 7. — Temperature and Gaseous Relations in Green Lake, 
August 27, 1927 



DEPTH IN FEET 


Temp. C° 


O2 p. p.m. 


*C02 p.p. m. 


pH 


Methyl orange 
alkalinity 
as p. p. m. 
calc. carb. 


Surface 

25 


20.3 

15.7 

11. 

10.5 
9.4 
9.8 


6.9 
11.9 

8.8 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 


0. 

8 
10 
55 
65 
80 


8.1 
7.6 
7.5 
7.1 
7.1 
7.1 


132 
183 


45 

65 


185 
305 


95 


327 


185 


388 







* Ibid., page 23. 

Other Factors Studied.— Among the other factors to which 
attention was given for the purpose of determining the particular 
species to be planted, were size of stream, velocity, character of 
bottom and barriers to fish movements. Since these were dis- 
cussed in the Genesee report, it is sufficient here to say that the 
size of the water course often determines the practicability of 
assigning bass; the velocity and character of bottom indicates 
whether it shall be the large or small-mouthed bass with such 
associated species as yellow perch, bluegill sunfish and catfish, and 
finally with reference to barriers, their presence may eliminate the 
rainbow trout from consideration in many a stream otherwise 
suitable. 

Factors Influencing the Number of Trout to be Planted. — 

The more important of these are area of stream available to trout, 
abundance of primary food organisms, pool conditions, and the 
effects of angling. 

Area: The available foraging area was calculated from the 
average width and the total length of stream bed over which trout 
might range, the latter being greater than one might at first sup- 
pose. During the colder months from September to June water 
temperatures are low enough to permit trout to forage almost any- 
where barring other unsuitable conditions, But during the hot- 
test parts of the year in June, July and August the foraging area 
may be greatly curtailed by temperatures above the endurable 
points. It becomes necessary to assign a somewhat greater area 
than that based solely upon the summer ranges of trout. 

Primary Food Organisms: Quantitative estimates were made in 
essentially the same manner as reported for the Genesee Survey 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 25 

and the streams were graded as to food richness, Grade I indicating 
the highest value.* 

Pool Conditions: A good fish pool is generally deeper and wider 
than the average for the stream, the current is appreciably slower 
and hiding places for fish are frequently more extensive. Pools 
may constitute a more favorable environment for trout by reason 
of the following: 

1. Shelter from light and such enemies as kingfishers, herons 

and man. 

2. Greater forage possibilities, 

a. Larger surface area for the reception of terrestrial food 

organisms. 

b. More ready detection of food animals falling in or float- 

ing on the surface. 

c. Collecting place for food carried down by the current. 

d. Collecting place for detritus which may support a rich 

fauna. 

e. Exposed pools containing watercress, mosses and other 

plants in great luxuriance, which may supply the com- 
bination of shelter and a dense population of food ani- 
mals. 

f. Pools margined by willows and certain other trees and 

shrubs receiving a larger contribution of food by rea- 
son of the special attraction of these plants for insects. 

Not all pools, however, are equally attractive to fish. A type 
frequently occurring in deep, narrow gorges is scoured out during 
heavy rains and has little if any food left. A shallow exposed 
pool without shelter or food is a detriment to any trout stream. 

There is not much information to guide one in evaluating pools, 
but in the present survey we have tried to study them with refer- 
ence to size, type and frequency, and have finally put streams into 
three classes : A, showing what seemed to represent the best pool 
conditions, B, average and C, poorest. 

Effects of Angling: With the exception of those in Lewis 
county, all streams in the area covered are fished too heavily in 
comparison with size and productiveness. This is most noticeable 
in the trout streams located near the cities of Syracuse, Auburn, 
Geneva and Canandaigua. The few that are suitable for trout are 
generally small, and many of them might easily be relieved of 
their quotas of legal sized trout early in the season, thereafter 
yielding a preponderance of undersized fish. It is not possible for 
such streams to produce fish flesh rapidly enough to meet the 
requirements of the ever increasing numbers of fishermen, and here 
the only hope lies in the planting of larger sizes of trout than has 
been the practice heretofore. 

In that part of Fish creek and tributaries located in upper 
Oneida and in Lewis counties, the case is much different. Here 



* See paper: A quantitative study of fish food supply in selected areas, by 
P. R. Needham, page 191. 



26 



Conservation Department 



we find streams long stretches of which exceed 30 feet in width 
with pool and food conditions generally of A-l grade. The 
numerous tributaries are nearly all permanent and entirely suit- 
able for brook trout. The country is in most part covered with 
forest and the streams in general are densely shaded with alders, 
especially the smaller ones which are too densely covered to permit 
angling. The main stream can rarely be reached except by trail, 
and while many local sportsmen fish it regularly, the country is 
sparsely populated and the stream is far from overfished in com- 
parison with the other localities covered. The density of trout 
population is easily observed to be far greater than in any other 
section studied, and at present natural spawning is an important 
factor in keeping up this population. 

Calculating the Number of Trout per Mile of Stream. — 

The method described in the Report of the Genesee Survey has 
been used in the present calculations. Reference is made to Table 
8 reproduced herewith, showing the number of 3-inch fingerlings 
per, mile for streams of various widths. In order to use this table 
one must first determine the average width of the stream, the 
number of miles suitable for stocking and values for pool (A, B 
and C) and food (1, 2 and 3) conditions as already described. 



Table 



-Planting Table for Trout Streams : Number of 3 -inch 
Fingerlings per Mile 



WIDTH IN FEET 


Al 


A2 


A3 


Bl 


B2 


B3 


CI 


C2 


C3 


1 


144 

288 

432 

576 

720 

864 

1,008 

1,152 

1,296 

1,440 


117 
234 
351 
468 
585 
702 
819 
936 
1,053 
1,170 


90 
180 
270 
360 
450 
540 
630 
720 
810 
900 


117 
234 
351 
468 
585 
702 
819 
936 
1,053 
1,170 


90 
180 
270 
360 
450 
540 
630 
720 
810 
900 


63 
126 
189 
252 
315 
378 
441 
504 
567 
630 


90 
180 
270 
360 
450 
540 
630 
720 
810 
900 


63 
126 
189 
252 
315 
378 
441 
504 
567 
630 


36 


2 


72 


3 


108 


4 


142 


5 . 


180 


6 


216 


7 


252 


8 . . . 


284 


9 


324 


10 . 


360 







As indicated the table refers to 3-inch fingerlings only. To find 
the number of 1, 2, 4, or 6-inch fish, multiply by one of the 
following factors : 

Size in inches 1 2 3 4 6 

Factor 12 1.7 1 0.75 0.6 

This is based upon an expected mortality as follows : 

Size 1 2 3 4 6 

Mortality 95% 65% 40% 20% 0% 

The table covers stream widths up to 10 feet. Values for wider 
streams up to 16 feet, may be determined by multiplying that 
given for a stream 1 foot wide, by the width of the stream in 
question. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 27 

Leger,* after studying the biogenic capacity of certain streams 
in France, concluded that the nutritive richness is proportionately 
much greater in narrow than in wider streams. In streams above 
5 meters in width, the richness in food diminished one-half at a dis- 
tance of 2 or 2V2 meters from the banks. Although this has not 
yet been proved to hold for New York streams, we shall have to 
assume that it is true pending future quantitative determinations. 
With this qualification then, we may calculate the number of fish 
to be planted in streams more than 16 feet (roughly 5 meters) 
wide using the following formula: 

1/2 m w + 8 m — X 

m = number of fish recorded in Table 8, for a stream one foot 

wide, 
w = average width of stream to be stocked. 
X=number of fish desired. 

It must be understood that the above values are merely rough 
estimations subject to change as more information comes to light. 

Miscellaneous Considerations. — Brook Trout versus Brown 
Trout: Which of the two species should receive priority in plant- 
ing? In talking with various anglers with reference to this ques- 
tion difference of opinion is evident. There is the feeling, prob- 
ably of the majority, that native brook trout should be encouraged 
in all fishing waters entirely suitable for them, because among 
other reasons, their range is gradually becoming more restricted 
by numerous adverse agencies. The desire to preserve this Amer- 
ican species in as many localities as possible in order that its con- 
tinued existence may be assured for coming generations, is entirely 
logical and commendable. Yet there is a growing tendency, pos- 
sibly among the minority, particularly in those regions where it is 
the most abundant species, to become dissatisfied with the size to 
which the brook trout attains and to wish to displace it with the 
larger brown trout. 

It is the general belief among fish culturists that the two species 
are incompatible and should not be placed in the same stream. 
There is some evidence to bear this out. It is well to note, how- 
ever, that the brook trout have not in all cases been crowded out 
or exterminated by the browns, but have held their own in many 
of the colder streams in which the most favorable conditions for 
the brook trout are to be found. 

It may be pointed out that in the entire Oswego watershed the 
total stream area for which brown trout have been recommended 
is more than two-thirds greater than that for brook trout. It would 
thus seem that there is a sufficient stream area to be found in the 
warmer streams for brown trout enthusiasts without trying to ex- 
tend the range of this species to the typical brook trout streams. 
For this reason we have consistently advised the restriction of 



* Leger, L. 1910. Principes de la Methode Rationnelle du Peuplement des 
Cours d'eau a Salmonides. Travaux du Laboratoire de Pisciculture de 
L'Universite de Grenoble, fascicle 1, p. 531. 



28 Conservation Department 

brown trout to those warmer streams in which brook trout cannot 
hope to maintain themselves, except in a few of the larger streams 
where stream conditions vary widely and a marked extension of 
trout fishing may be obtained by planting brown trout in the 
warmer parts. 

The East Branch of Fish creek is an example in which brook 
trout are recommended for the upper part from tributary 32 
(Pringle creek) to source, while browns have been designated from 
tributary 32 to mouth. 

In the upper section of the watershed located in Lewis county, 
Map 1, the brook trout stream mileage predominates in the ratio 
of about 135 to 27 for browns. Undoubtedly this circumstance to- 
gether with the larger size attained by brown trout have influenced 
the members of the Fish Creek Club to introduce the latter in that 
part of the stream controlled by them. Just how far upstream 
the browns will move is a question, but during the summer of 1927 
a few were captured a distance of about 4 miles above the Club 
preserve. 

The conditions as studied indicate that the water of Fish creek 
even a short distance below the Club property is entirely suitable 
for brook trout. Nevertheless since the browns are now well estab- 
lished here, it seems unwise to continue stocking the main stream 
with brooks in any place below the private preserve. 

Nursery Streams: Those under three feet in width, without 
sizable fishing pools may be considered nursery streams and it 
is advisable to stock them with the sole idea of increasing the 
population in the main streams to which they are tributary. Quite 
often, however, we find a nursery stream entirely suitable for brook 
trout but flowing into a larger fishing stream suitable for brown 
trout only. Our policy should not change, because we are stocking 
it for the benefit of the larger stream. In this particular case we 
would recommend brown trout. If, however, the little stream hap- 
pened to be tributary to a larger one not suitable for any trout, 
it is unwise to stock it at all. It is true that a few trout if planted 
might grow to be 6 or 7 inches long and quite probably they would 
be caught by the first angler to visit the stream on the opening 
day. There is reason to believe also that a large proportion might 
Avork down into the larger stream during the colder part of the 
year and disappear altogether. It is much better to omit all such 
streams from our stocking program and to concentrate our efforts 
upon those of larger productiveness, stocking more heavily and 
perhaps with trout of larger size. 

Rainbow Trout: The facts concerning the rainbow trout com- 
monly distributed in New York State appear to be as follows : 
They become sexually mature at the end of the third year counting 
from the time the eggs are laid in April. Those kept in the spring 
water of the State hatcheries may spawn at varying times from 
December to April but wild rainbows in New York streams spawn 
principally during April. Young rainbows planted in the smaller 
streams whether cold ones suitable for brook trout or the warmer 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



29 



ones containing browns generally remain there until sometime 
during the second year after which they migrate downstream. 
During the second year many of them ranging in size from 6 to 8 
inches are of legal size for angling. The migrants may or may not 
permanently leave the stream apparently depending upon the size 
and summer temperature of the water to which the stream is tribu- 
tary and the presence or absence of barriers (water falls or serious 
pollution), the latter preventing their return even if it is otherwise 
possible. If it is possible for them to return, they do so towards 
the end of the third and subsequent years in March and April, and 
at this time may range from 15 to 24 inches long thus furnishing 
excellent sport. 




Rainbow trout from Seneca lake 



Among the waters in the Oswego watershed known to stop rain- 
bows in the downstream movement, may be mentioned the Finger 
lakes (Skaneateles, Owasco, Cayuga, Seneca, Keuka and Canan- 
daigua), Potters Falls reservoir at Ithaca and Lake Como (Cayuga 
county). 

The question for the sportsman to ponder is whether to stock any 
stream irrespective of barriers or the condition of the water info 
which it empties in the hope of catching a few 6 to 8 inches long 
and losing the remainder of the plant through migration, or to 
confine them to streams without barriers which empty into suitable 



30 Conservation Department 

lakes, reservoirs or possibly rivers (Genesee) with, the probability 
of catching not only some of the small ones but many of the large 
sexually mature trout as they return for spawning. In the first 
case heavy planting will be necessary every year with the prob- 
ability of huge annual losses through migration. In the second 
more and larger fish will be available, the plantings need not be so 
heavy because some natural spawning will always take place, and 
the losses from migration will be less. Money, space and time will 
thus be saved in our hatcheries for the propagation of other species. 
Because of our belief that the second plan is the better rainbow 
trout are assigned to those streams only to which the adults are 
likely to return. The writer is aware that in some parts of the 
country east of the Rock}' Mountains the rainbow appears not to 
be migratory. This circumstance might alter the policy for such 
localities. What is said here applies only to the two watersheds 
studied, the Genesee and the Oswego. 

Stream Mileage Suitable for Stocking. — The total stream 
mileage in the Oswego watershed is roughly 7,000. Of this only about 
1,688 miles are worthy of stocking. The remainder fall short in 
one or more particulars — either dry, badly polluted, too warm for 
trout, too small for bass and too rapid- for bluegills and bullheads, 
or posted. In the last case they may not legally be stocked with 
State fish. The dry streams appear to be the most numerous while 
those too warm for trout and too small for bass seem to rank second 
in numbers. Of the 1,688 miles worthy of stocking, 1,430 are suit- 
able for trout, 133 for large-mouthed bass and 125 for small- 
mouthed bass. It is well to note that one mile of bass stream 
represents a greater area than one of trout stream because all bass 
streams average more than 30 feet in width, while by far the 
greater number of trout streams are well under this value. 

The most important small-mouthed bass streams are the Oswego 
river (Map 3B), Oneida river, Fish creek, Clyde (Map 3A and 
4A), lower Ganargua, Oneida creek, Canandaigua outlet and West 
river (Map 4B). The better large-mouthed streams are the Oswego 
river (Map 2), Caughdenoy creek from mouth to Crippen pond 
(Map 2), parts of Fish creek (Map 2), Seneca river including the 
barge canal, lower Clyde, Cowaselon and Flint creeks. 

The 1,427 miles of trout stream require a total annual plant 
of about 1,031,461 fingerling trout distributed among the three 
species as follows: — 

Brook trout 685 miles requiring 366,630 fish 
Brown trout 642 '-' ' " 606,248 " 

Rainbow trout 103 " " 58,583 " 

The greater stocking requirements of brown trout as compared 
with brook trout in view of a smaller stream mileage for the 
former is explained by the fact that brown trout generally range 
through the warmer waters lower downstream where the width is 
greater. Consequently a greater area is involved which must be 
supplied with a greater number of fish per mile. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



31 



The following Table 9 shows the comparative figures for the 
various species in the regions represented by the several maps : 

Table 9. — Total Trout Steam Mileage and Planting Numbers by Maps 



MAP 


Brook Trout 


Brown Trout 


Rainbow Trout 


Miles 


Number 
of fish 


Miles 


Number 
of fish 


Miles 


Number 
of fish 


1 


135 

293.4 

20.0 

45.0 

5.2 

86.0 

83.5 

15.1 

2.0 


87,638 
154,933 

5,414 
12,321 

3,205 
29,259 
55,006 
16 , 854 

2,000 


27.0 

158.9 

9.5 

103.8 

33.5 

116.3 

114.9 

75.3 

3.0 


30 , 565 

213,581 

2,095 

134,125 

19,298 

88,473 

64,007 

51,104 

3,000 


'"8.'4 
25.0 
39.4 

27.1 
3.0 




9 




3A 




3B 




4A 


1 050 


4B 


5 775 


5 


24,980 


6 


25 778 


7 


2 000 






Totals 


685.2 


366,630 


642.2 


606,248 


102.9 


58 583 







The region covered by Map 2 has the largest stream mileage 
but this is also the largest area. The greatest mileage in propor- 
tion to area is found on Map 1. This is in the upper East Branch 
of Fish creek which also has a much higher altitude (1,600-1,900 
ft.) than any other region. Here also the brook trout stream mile- 
age and area are much greater than for browns (135 to 27 miles). 
AVe likewise find here less pollution, more timber, fewer dry 
streams, fewer people, fewer roads, a greater advantage for natural 
spawning and a much denser population of brook trout. The 
region stands out above others in the quality of its trout streams. 

The combined areas represented by Maps 3A and 4A have fewer 
trout streams than any one of the others except Map 7 which is 
too small for comparison. There is a total of 66 miles of which 
25.2 are suitable for brook trout, 43 for browns and 8.4 for rain- 
bows. Map 3A includes principally that region lying along the 
route of the barge canal from Cross lake to a place just beyond the 
Wayne-Monroe county boundary. It covers much of the low lying 
country in the Montezuma marshes and along the Ganargua creek 
and lower Clyde river. None of the streams is above the 600 foot 
contour. They are mostly brown water, often turbid, fairly slug- 
gish, badly exposed, in a densely populated section which is in 
general the Avarmest part of the area covered. Here Ave find but 
29.5 miles of trout stream in comparison with 38.7 for Map 4A. 
The ratio of brook trout to broAvn trout streams is hoAvever loAvest 
in Map 4A (5.2 to 33.5). The feAv trout streams in these two sec- 
tions are Avidely scattered and often are formed by one or more 
conspicuous springs. North brook near Auburn made suitable for 
trout solely through the influence of the Price spring is a note- 
Avorthy example. Tt receives pollution. As one goes to higher 
altitudes either east towards the region south of Oneida, (Maps 
(3B and 4B) or south tOAvard the headAvater tributaries of the 



32 Conservation Department 

various Finger lakes, the trout streams become very numerous, 
culminating in that section near the heads of Skaneateles, Owasco 
and Cayuga lakes, (Map 5). 

Some of the More Successful Trout Streams of the Oswego 

Watershed 

Map 1. The upper East Branch of Fish creek* with its numerous 
tributaries is the outstanding brook trout system of the whole 
watershed. These streams are found within an area of about 78 
square miles. Roaring brook, Sixmile, Sevenmile, North Branch 
and Big Alder are the more important fishing tributaries. The 
main stream ranges upward to a maximum width of 70 feet, is 
generally swift, with rubble, coarse and fine gravel bottom. Long 
deep pools are numerous and spawning beds are frequent. In food 
richness it ranks high. It is therefore capable of supporting 
an exceedingly large quantity of trout. On account of the high 
results from natural spawning, the stocking policy has been placed 
at the low figure of 2,200 per mile. 

Map 2. Here was found the greatest number of trout streams. 
by far the greater proportion of which were connected with the 
Fish creek watershed. The East Branch of Fish creek becomes a 
brown trout stream on this map. Rainbows, however, have 
also been planted in the past as follows: 1910, 4,000; 1921, 20,000; 
1922, 10,000; 1924, 2,500. 

A few small rainbows either in the second or third years were 
reported during the past summer, yet it is not evident that they 
return to this stream to spawn nor that they mature in the stream. 
For this reason this species has not been included in this stocking 
recommendation. 

Point Rock creek, Fall brook and Furnace creek seem to be 
the most important fishing tributaries. The first two are productive 
brook trout waters, while Furnace creek is probably more useful 
for brown trout. 

The West Branch of Fish creek varies widely in its conditions. 
It appears suitable for brown trout from tributary 8 nearly to 
Camden. From thence to Williamstown it becomes warm and 
sluggish and at present abounds in large-mouthed bass. Above 
Williamstown it becomes cooler and more rapid and brown trout 
should succeed nearly to Kasoag lakes. (See stocking list, pp. 216, 
217.) The most important tributaries are Little river, Cobb and 
Emmons brooks and Mad river. 

In the southwestern half of Map 2 are located many good trout 
streams more or less directly tributary to Oneida lake. Many of 
the better ones are now posted and cannot be stocked with State 
fish. However, public fishing is permitted in some of them, includ- 
ing Big Bay creek with its tributaries Dykemans creek ; Frederick 



* In the section just west of Michigan Mills, there would seem to be an 
opportunity for securing wild brook trout eggs in sufficient quantities to 
make the attempt worth while. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 33 

creek (in part) ; Spring brook tributary to Scriba creek, and the 
lower 3 miles of Black creek. Further west, Potts creek tributary 
to Oneida river has about 4 miles of suitable brown trout water. 

Map 3 A. The few trout streams occurring on this map are 
small and not important, yet since there are so few of them, they 
are more highly prized than would be the case if located in certain 
other sections of the watershed. Marbletown creek, one of the 
largest and longest, is apparently suitable for brook trout. The two 
small tributaries, 14 and 15, should serve merely as nursery streams. 
Military run, Stebbins brook and to the east, Putnam brook, are 
also worthy of attention. 

Map 3B. The streams of this region are chiefly of the brown 
trout type in the ratio of about 103.8 miles to 45 for brook trout. 
Of those flowing directly into Oneida lake from the south, Black 
creek and tributary 11 are fair brown trout streams, while tribu- 
taries 9 and 12 are suitable for brook trout. 

Oneida creek receives two brown trout streams, Sconondoa and 
Mud creek. The former is larger and considerably more 
productive. 

The Cowaselon itself is not a trout stream on this map but it 
receives three of considerable importance, the Canaseraga, tribu- 
tary 5 and Clockville creek. 

Probably the best trout stream in this section is the Chittenango 
creek, a large stream averaging 35 feet in width, flowing generally 
over limestone bed rock and well shaded. Small springs are well 
distributed throughout its course from Chittenango to the source 
and being supplied with ample shade the temperature is well within 
the limits for brown trout. It is exceedingly rich in aquatic insects 
and should support more trout than apparently exist there now. 
Continued heavy stocking with the larger sizes of brown trout 
should make this one of the best fishing streams in central New 
York. 

The chief tributary is Butternut creek which in turn receives 
Limestone creek. Both streams are above average size and in the 
past have been successful fishing streams for brown trout. 

Farther to the west, Seneca river has one very successful trout 
stream tributary, Carpenter brook, lately opened to the public. 
It is exceedingly rich in food, possesses many fine pools, and in 
the past under private control yielded remarkable catches of good 
sized brook trout. It is easily accessible to fishermen of Syracuse 
and Auburn, hence to preserve good fishing, it will be necessary 
to stock with the larger sizes of trout. 

Map 4A. This region is similar to 3A in that it is generally 
low and contains very few important trout streams. North brook 
about two miles north of Auburn would be the best fishing stream 
were it not polluted. The amount of pollution at the present time 
does not seem to render the water in the trout section wholly un- 
suitable for brook trout but if in the future it is materially 



34 Conservation Department 

increased, it will undoubtedly ruin this stream as a habitat for 
trout or any other game fish. 

Below the junction with Price spring run, the stream is a rather 
close succession of short rapids and long, broad, deep pools with 
overhanging banks often margined with dense patches of water- 
cress. It is one of the richest in food that has come to the writer's 
notice containing countless numbers of Caledonia shrimps (Gam- 
marus limnaeus). Near the source it receives the effluent from the 
disposal plant of the City of Auburn. In the past this stream 
has produced a good many large brook and brown trout. Although 
brown trout have been planted formerly with success, it would 
seem wise under conditions regulating pollution to preserve this 
solely as a brook trout stream, because it is the only sizable stream 
in this region known to be Avell adapted for this species. The 
stream is fished beyond its capacity to produce trout and conse- 
quently the only chance of preserving good fishing lies in stocking 
more intensively with larger sizes. 

An experimental planting of brown trout has been suggested 
for that part of the Clyde river lying between tributaries 29 and 
37. This river showed temperatures generally too high for brown 
trout, yet, in the particular section mentioned, a number of spring 
runs enter, cooling pools in which there is a possibility that brown 
trout may find favorable conditions on hot days. In case this 
section is stocked, it should be watched by local anglers and the 
result reported. 

Map 4B. This region ranks second in the number of miles of 
trout streams and here as in Map 3B, brown trout waters pre- 
dominate. Oneida and Chittenango creeks with the latter 's tribu- 
tary, Butternut creek, constitute the largest area suitable for brown 
trout. Tributaries 8 and 37 of Limestone creek are also important 
brown trout streams. 

Onondaga creek from tributary 26 to source and Butternut from 
39 to source are good fishing waters for brook trout, likewise 
Munger brook and tributary 47, both of the Chittenango watershed. 
The Butternut has an impassable dam at Apulia which prevents 
brown trout from reaching the brook trout section above. All of 
these streams are well provided with nursery runs. 

Going towards the southwest the inlet of Skaneateles lake is the 
outstanding rainbow and brown trout stream. 

Entering Owasco lake at Long point, there is a small brook com- 
ing down through a densely shaded gorge a distance of three- 
quarters of a mile. Though small, it has been used by rainbows 
for spawning during the last 30 years or more. They were first 
noticed by the writer in 1898 and as studied during various sum- 
mers up to 1915, it was possible to distinguish three different age 
groups, namely, young of the year up to 2 inches long, yearlings 
4 to 7 inches long and two-year-olds 10 to 12 inches. The longer 
fish were very poorly nourished and much under weight. Also 
there were very few of them, not more than five having been ob- 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 35 

served in any one summer. In the case of this stream at least the 
greater number probably migrated to the lake some time between 
the end of the second summer and the beginning of the third, but 
a few either remained in the stream through the third summer 
or else migrated normally and later returned early in the third 
year. 

Map 5. The Owasco inlet proper from Moravia to source is one 
of the most successful brown and rainbow trout streams in the 
Owasco watershed. A great many large brown trout are caught 
every year ranging upwards to 5 pounds in weight, and during 
April and early May adult rainbows up to 3 or 4 pounds are not 
unusual. It is a good sized stream with numerous fishing pools of 
the best type and capable of supporting heavy plants of both 
species. Among the sixty primary tributaries, fifteen are suitable 
for stocking, though the greater number are more valuable as 
nursery streams. Among the noteworthy fishing streams are 
Dresserville creek, Hemlock creek and Peg Mill brook. 

The most important and longest tributary of Cayuga lake, oc- 
curring on Map 5 is Fall creek. It varies widely in its conditions. 
The lower part of about 8.5 miles is too warm for trout and at pres- 
ent is overpopulated with small-mouthed bass. From McLean 
to the Groton city dam, it is worthy of heavy stocking with brown 
trout. Above this dam, much of the stream is too warm for brook 
trout ; however, there are some cold pools and since many of its 
tributaries offer good trout fishing, this species has been assigned 
to this upper section. Fall creek would be more productive of 
larger fish, if the small nursery feeders were not fished. 

Taghanic creek with its principal tributary, the Reynoldsville 
creek, in the past has furnished some of the best brown trout fish- 
ing in Tompkins county. In 1918 the trout population was so 
dense that immediate stocking seemed unnecessary. At the present 
time, it is pretty well fished out and should be heavily stocked with 
the larger sizes of trout. 

There are no tributaries of Seneca lake on this map worthy of 
stocking except the outlet of Keuka lake. Although trout are not 
known to occur in this stream the lower .3 of a mile should be 
suitable for adult rainbow trout migrating from Seneca lake. A 
liberal plant* is recommended in an attempt to establish a run. 

In the region around Naples there are a number of trout streams 
all more or less directly connected with the Canandaigua inlet. 
West river is the largest and except in the upper 6 miles is too 
warm for trout. It should be possible to establish a run of rain- 
bows in this section. 

Naples creek with its main tributaries, Grimes, Tannery and 
Reservoir creeks and tributary 12 are all fair fishing streams. 

* Director's note: Because of the conditions of pollution prevailing in the 

stream (see p. 92 and p. 115) dnring- the spring runs of rainbows it is sug- 
gested that such a planting he regarded as experimental only with a view 
to establishing the future policy for this stream. 



36 Conservation Department 

Map 6. Many of the streams on this map have already been 
referred to under Map 5. In the eastern section Virgil creek, a 
stream tributary to Fall creek, was formerly a noteworthy brook 
trout stream, and at present there are a few pools containing indi- 
viduals of this species. However, for the most part the stream 
has become exposed and too warm for brook trout. Better fishing 
will doubtless follow exclusive stocking with browns. It is a good 
sized stream, rich in food and showing the best pool conditions. 
It should receive a much larger allotment of fish annually in order 
to fully utilize its productive capacity. 

The Cayuga lake inlet system is one of the largest and most im- 
portant in Tompkins county, furnishing a total of about 48 miles 
of fishable trout water. The inlet proper has no barriers to the 
upward migration of rainboAv trout from Cayuga lake. It is a 
rather large stream, rich in food and possessing large pools of the 
best type. It is too warm for brook trout though brown and rain- 
bows are known to thrive. Specimens of the latter weighing upward 
of 4 pounds have been taken in April. It is heavily fished and 
never has been stocked heavily enough to take full advantage of 
its productive capacity. All of the larger tributaries possess high 
falls and may thus be stocked independently of the main stream. 
The principal fishing tributaries are Sixmile, Butternut, Enfield 
(Fivemile) and Newfield creeks, All are of good size and pro- 
ductive, and are divided by dams or falls into two or more sections. 
It is thus possible to use both species of trout (brown and rainbow) 
in stocking. 

The upper 3.5 miles of Newfield creek is the most typical brook 
trout stream in the county, in which brown trout have not yet 
appeared. Fed at first by three fair sized springs, it flows down 
through a heavily wooded swamp and receives here and there 
other smaller springs. It is densely shaded, the water is cold and 
there are spawning beds near the source which contribute in no 
small way toward the trout population of the stream. 

Seneca lake inlet, known as Catherine creek, is much like the 
Cayuga inlet in that it is ideal for rainbow and brown trout, the 
former migrating from the lake. Good catches of large rainbows 
are reported each spring and many large browns are taken in the 
upper section in summer. Catlin Mills creek is the principal tribu- 
tary suitable for stocking. Other tributaries of Seneca lake are 
Sawmill creek from mouth to falls suitable for rainbow trout, and 
tributary 44 from Burdett to source together with its main feeder, 
Texas Hollow brook, suitable for brown trout. 

Keuka lake inlet, another stream used for spawning lake rain- 
bows, has an impassable dam located near tributary 5, which limits 
the upward movement to about 2 miles. 

Map 7. But two fishing waters are located on this map. 
Catherine creek to which reference has already been made (Map 6) 
and the abandoned Chemung canal. The latter is broad, sluggish 
and fed chiefly by small springs well distributed throughout its 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



37 



course. The water is cold, temperatures ranging from 63° to 67° 
Fahr. when the air showed 83° and 84° Fahr. It was exceedingly 
rich in food but was badly choked with vegetation principally 
watercress. This latter condition is by no means harmful to trout 
but interferes seriously with the fishing. By removing about two- 
thirds of it much better results would be possible without sacrificing 
the production. 

Pond Areas Available for Stocking. — The total pond area ex- 
clusive of the Finger lakes, Oneida lake and all posted ponds, is 
about 6,900 acres of which 137 are suitable for brook trout, 316 for 
rainbrow trout, 2,334 for small-mouthed bass and 4,113 for large- 
mouthed bass. 

The folloAving table shows the extent of such waters on the sev- 
eral maps : 



Table 10. — Pond Acreage Suitable for Stocking 



MAP 


Brook 
trout 


Rainbow- 
trout 


Small- 
mouthed 
bass 


Large- 

mouthecl 

bass 


1 


64 

72 


72 

52 

192 


"i',6u 
'"i^so 

38 




2 

3A ''.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


1,382 
1,136 


3B 




1,064 


4A 




111 


4B 


1 


420 


5 




6 













The Larger Trout Ponds 

Map 1. The largest pond at Paige with an area of about 50 
acres, is formed by a dam in one of the upper tributaries of East 
Branch of Fish creek. It is cold with silt bottom and now contains 
brook trout. 

Map 2. The Oneida reservoir of 60 acres is the largest in this 
region suitable for brook trout. It is formed by a dam in Florence 
creek at Glenmore which gives it a maximum depth of about 25 
feet, This body of water is the water supply for the City of Oneida 
and in case of future posting, it would appear advisable to change 
the species to rainbow trout, because of the probability of the 
adults moving up into Florence creek where fishing would doubt- 
less be open to the public. 

Map 3. The upper Oneida reservoir of 10 acres and Green 
lake of 62 acres seem favorable for rainbow trout, The former has 
a maximum depth of about 25 feet and shows higher temperatures 
than Green lake. The gaseous conditions are much better, however, 
and it is believed that the area is large enough to be attractive to 
mature rainbow trout. 



38 Conservation Department 

Map 5. Lake Como covering about 52 acres is well adapted 
to rainbow trout but now contains both rainbow and brook trout 
in addition to a mixed population of bass, sunfish, perch, etc. The 
maximum depth is about 20 feet and when examined July 19, 
showed a bottom temperature of 64 and a surface temperature of 
76 with a maximum air temperature on this clay of 77 Fahr. 
Both the inlet and outlet contain brook trout. The latter in addi- 
tion has been stocked with browns and rainbows. 

Map 6. The Potters falls reservoir is the only public pond in 
this area suitable for trout, It is formed by a dam in Sixmile 
creek approximately 60 feet high just east of the city of Ithaca and 
covers an area of about 192 acres. At the present time the maxi- 
mum depth is about 47 feet and the average depth about 20 feet. 
The bottom is covered with mud, sand and gravel, the first pre- 
dominating. On July 11 at 5 P. M. the following temperatures 
were recorded : Air, 87 ; water at the surface, 80 ; water at a depth 
of 38 feet, 58° Fahr. In the past Sixmile creek has been stocked 
with rainbow trout which have migrated downstream, principally 
during the second year, into the reservoir where a good many 
have apparently matured. This is proved by the capture during 
the past two or three seasons of adults in spawning condition in 
various sections of Sixmile up to the first dam at Brookton. 

The recently constructed settling basin about one-fourth of a 
mile above the reservoir will hereafter act as a barrier to move- 
ment further upstream. However, between the basin and the res- 
ervoir, the stream is rapid with gravel and rubble bottom and will, 
it is believed, supply a sufficient spawning area for trout. The 
settling basin itself is a pond of several acres and may also prove to 
be a stopping place for rainbows. Since the stream and reservoir 
are apparently rich in food, they can stand a very heavy annual 
plant, 

Warm Water Ponds and Lakes 

There are approximately 6,447 acres of warm water ponds and 
lakes. The ratio of small-mouthed bass to large-mouthed bass areas 
is a little less than one to two. The largest bass areas are to be 
found in the lower regions, Maps 2, 3A, 4A and 4B. There are no 
warm ponds in Maps 1, 6 and 7.. 

Eleven of the ponds or lakes contain 160 acres or more. Only 
two of these, namely, Cross and Cazenovia lakes, show conditions 
favorable to small-mouthed bass. The others are shallow, warm, 
often with brown water, mud bottom and with large areas covered 
with vegetation both submerged and emergent types, constituting 
ideal conditions for large-mouthed bass, bluegills and bullheads. 

Cross lake is the largest of the group and shows diverse condi- 
tions. All types of bottom are present, the vegetation is luxuriant 
and the food richness is high. It has always been an exceedingly 
productive body of water and a popular one for fishermen. The 
principal food varieties are the large and small-mouthed bass, 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



39 



northern pike, chain pickerel, yellow perch, pike-perch, bullheads, 
and a variety of sunfishes, calico bass, etc. Most of these forms are 
abundant and run to good size. The yellow perch, however, as is 
often the case in shallow, weedy lakes, run small as compared to 
those in some of the Finger lakes. 

Cazenovia lake is second in size. It is divisible into two areas. 
The head of the lake (north end) is narrow, shallow with mud bot- 
tom predominating and with extensive areas of vegetation. 
Margined with water lilies and cat-tails, large-mouthed bass 
find here congenial surroundings. Going towards the foot of 
the lake greater depths are encountered, culminating in a maxi- 
mum of about 48 feet near the south end. The water here is clear 
and the bottom shoreward is hard, consisting principally of mixed 
gravel and sand. This lower region is inhabited by small-mouthed 
bass and pike-perch. Formerly the lake abounded in yellow perch, 
but since the pike-perch have become established, the yellow perch 
fishing has fallen off to a marked degree. 

Table 11. — List of Ponds of 160 Acres or More 



MAP 


Name 


Area in 
acres 




Fish 


2 




230 
320 
512 
320 
320 
250 
160 

1,920 
250 
320 

1,280 


Lm. B. 
Lm. B. 
Lm. B. 
Lm. B. 
Lm.B. 
Lm. B. 
Lm. B. 
Pp. Lm 
Lm. B. 
Lm. B. 
Pp., Sm. 




2 






2 


Neatahwanta lake 

Duck lake 

Otter lake 




3 A 




3A 




3 A 






3A 


Stark Dond 




3B 




4A 






4B 


Jamesville reservoir 

Cazenovia lake 




4B 









40 Conservation Department 

II. THE FINGER LAKES FISH PROBLEM 

By E. H. Eaton, 
Professor of Biology, Hobart College 

Our problem was to discover some means of conserving the fish 
supply of these beautiful Finger lakes and increasing it, if possible. 
A hundred and fifty years ago there was a plentiful supply of 
fish for the 20,000 or more Senecas and Cayugas who in- 
habited this region, but now that there are more than 
half a million of inhabitants of the counties which border 
on these lakes there is no reason to wonder that the supply 
is not adequate to the demands of sportsmen. However, when 
we consider that the seven lakes from Canandaigua to Otisco cover 
a combined area of 195.6 square miles and that their combined 
volume equals 1,078,606,000,000 cubic feet, with a plentiful 
supply of plankton and bottom fauna, there is reason to believe 
that they could be made to support more fish under scientific man- 
agement. With only three months at our disposal, it was deemed 
best to concentrate attention on the distribution of fish which now 
inhabit the lakes, the food which they utilize as revealed by exami- 
nation of stomach contents, the amount of the available food sup- 
ply, both plankton and bottom-fauna and food fishes for the larger 
species, together with an examination of the temperature, oxygen 
content and other chemical characters of the water. Data already 
at hand on the plankton and the character of the water as shown 
in the investigations of these lakes by Birge and Juday* helped in 
arriving at conclusions. 

The Fish Catch. — The object of taking fish in the various 
lakes was to determine what species inhabit each lake, their rela- 
tive abundance, their distribution as to depth, temperature and 
other conditions, to observe the stomach contents and so find out 
the food preferred by each species. Gill-nets were use:l at va- 
rious depths and localities, the size of meshes ranging from %" to 
4". These nets were efficient in taking lake trout, whitefish, ciscoes, 
alewives, suckers, perch, wall-eye or pike-perch, bass, bullhead, 
pike and pickerel. Wall-eye and bass did not gill as readily as 
might be expected. In fact the bass was difficult to take by almost 
all of our methods. Undoubtedly the bass and whitefish could be 
taken more readily in nets strung with greater "take-up" in such 
a way that the perpendicular opening is longer than the horizontal. 
We found the nets much more effective if made of fine thread, that 
is 20/3 for the larger nets and 50/2 for the smallest. Fykes and 
the trap-net were effective in taking almost all of the shallow 
water fishes such as bass, pike, bullheads, suckers and sunfish. 



*Birge, E. A. and Juday, C. A. limnological study of the Finger lakes of 
N. Y., Bull. U. S. Bur. Fisheries, vol. 32, 1912. 

See also Plankton Studies of Seneca, Cayuga and Oneida lakes by W. C. 
Muenscher, in this report, page 140. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 41 

Traps made of wire meshing were used successfully in the capture 
of perch, rock bass, sunfish, young bass, sculpins and sticklebacks, 
but were rather ineffective in taking minnows. These traps were 
made 5' x 3' x 2' with a deep funnel opening at one end. The size of 
mesh used for perch and bass traps was 1", for the small fish such 
as blobs and sticklebacks, %". Set lines were used at various 
depths baited with worms and alewives. They were the only effec- 
tive means we had of capturing eels and were useful in taking bull- 
heads,, suckers, catfish, whitensh, rainbow trout and lake trout. 
Seines were found by far the most effective method of taking min- 
nows and other small fish in shallow water. Lengths of thirty to 
fifty feet, made of linen thread, Yi" mesh, tied at the joints, with a 
bag at the center of the net were found best for this lake work. 

The various appliances used were tried in widely separated lo- 
calities so as to get a fair estimate of distribution. For example, 
in Seneca lake where we worked for four AA 7 eeks the trout nets were 
set only four times in situations where we expected a large catch. 
Tn three out of four of these sets we took 12, 18 and 38 trout respec- 
tively. In Keuka lake we failed to catch trout in any numbers be- 
cause we found it impossible to set our gill net on the trout 
grounds, due to the great number of line fishermen. Fishing in 
this way we did not take a great number of edible fish — not enough, 
if valued at market prices, to pay the wages of two fishermen for 
the period. This shows that fish cannot be caught in great numbers 
except in favored localities. We managed, however, to capture 56 
of the 69 species of fish which have been recorded in the Finger 
lakes. The remaining twelve are fishes of very unusual or acci- 
dental occurrence in these waters. Besides several which had not 
been reported from the lakes we added at least three species which 
have not formerly been recorded from the drainage, that is : stone 
cat (Schilbeodes insignis) ; the sturgeon sucker (Catostomus catos- 
tomus) ; and the lake chub {Couesius plumbeus). 



42 



Conservation Department 



Table 1. — Finger Lakes Fishes 



The depth range of the 
taken in seines and the 
authority. 



mall fishes was from 1 to 10 feet or less, -j- = Fish 
number not counted. R — - Fish reported on good 



THE SEASON'S CATCH 



Lake lamprey* 

Alewife* 

Smelt 

Cisco* 

Whitefish 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead 

Lake trout 

Common sucker 

Sturgeon sucker 

Chub sucker 

Carp* 

Lake chub 

Black-nosed dace 

Long-nosed dace 

Fallfish 

Horned dace* 

Notropis h. heterodon 

Bridled shiner . - • • • • 

Black-nosed shiner ( N. heterolepis) 

Spot-tailed minnow* 

Silverfin ( N. whipphi) 

Notropis atherinoides . . . 

" cornutus frontalis 

Golden shiner* 

Hybognathus nuchalis 

Hyborhynchus notatus 

Cut-lips minnow 

Common bullhead 

Yellow bullhead 

Noturus flavus 

Tadpole cat 

Schilbeodes insignis 

Mud-minnow 

Eastern pickerel (E. niger) 

Pike {E. lucius) 

Eel 



Killifish 

Trout-perch 

Yellow perch 

Wall-eye, pike-perch . . . 
Log perch, zebra darter 

Tesselated darter* 

Fan-tail darter* 

Small-mouthed bass 

Large-mouthed bass . . . 

Bluegill 

Sunfish 

Rock bass 

Crappie (P. sparoides) . 

Skipjack 

Cottus b. kumlieni 

" cognatus* 

Common stickleback. . . 
Nine-spine stickleback. . 
Burbot* 



4 
131 



55 



39 



10 



5 

4004 



89 
174 



20 



28 



4 
+ 
+ 
829 
R 
+ 
+ 



124 

+ 



2 
323 



33 



12 



+ 

5 

4 

15 

+ 

+ 

148 

R 

+ 

+ 



12 



12. 



n 



* See colored plates 1- 

In addition to these 56 species the following have been reported 
as accidental in Cayuga lake and local specimens are in the Cornell 
collection: Lake sturgeon; long-nosed gar; bowfin or dogfish; 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



43 



gizzard shad ; black sucker ; red-horse ; black-nosed minnow ; 
channel cat ; sauger ; sheepsheacl. The white bass is similarly 
reported from both Cayuga and Seneca. The brown trout has also 
been rarely taken in at least four of the lakes and the landlocked 
salmon has been reported by the Skaneateles fishermen.* This 
brings the Finger lakes list to 69 species not counting those which 
inhabit the tributary streams. 

Distribution of Finger Lakes Fishes. — The lamprey was 
found only in Cayuga and Seneca lakes and few specimens were 
taken, but at least 90 per cent of the trout taken in these lakes 
showed scars, where they had been previously attacked by lampreys. 
In many cases the wounds were fresh. In Seneca lake it was very 
evident that the lampreys were more abundant toward the head of 
the lake, as was expected since they are known to breed in Catherine 
creek and its tributaries, but not in the other streams. Over 90 
per cent of the trout taken at Lamereaux landing had from one to 
seven lamprey scars each, while of those taken farther down the 
lake near Reeder's creek only 33 per cent showed scars. The Rev. 
C. J. Clausen, who has been for many years a trout fisherman on 
Canandaigua lake, reports that he has taken several trout with 
lamprey scars and has seen a few lampreys there within the last 
thirty years. But this parasite if now present in Canandaigua lake 
must be very scarce. 

Alewives are extremely abundant in Seneca, Cayuga and Keuka 



* See annotated list, no. 11a. 



page 









, f A 








M fa L 








1 
















f \ . i m 9 




i:';pfft 


*r 


t % 


ma ... -1 


%. .„. 


- 




«M£Migg .: . mm 

: ■- 


■;■■■■■:. 


.'.'.." ' :; 


t^,;;-,|l:; : :/;:.,. 



A catch of alewives, choice food of lake trout. In Seneca Lake 



44 Conservation Department 

lakes. We believe they entered by means of the canal system 
which formerly extended to Keuka lake and still enters Cayuga 
and Seneca. I can find no record of their having been introduced 
intentionally and know from residents of the section that they 
have been present in all three lakes for at least fifty years. They 
are evidently not the remnant of a post-glacial invasion from the 
sea, nor migrants by way of the Oswego river before the dams were 
constructed, for they certainly should have entered Canandaigua 
and Owasco lakes with equal ease. Their appearance in Keuka 
lake is placed by residents of that section at about sixty years ago. 

The smelt has been introduced in recent years into Canandaigua, 
Owasco and Skaneateles lakes. We took them only in Canan- 
daigua and Owasco but we learned from fishermen that mat re 
specimens have been found in Skaneateles. They appeared in great 
numbers in Sucker creek near the foot of Owasco early last spring, 
evidently to spawn, and soon after the spawning season died in 
large numbers along the shore of the lake. They are a wide- 
ranging fish like the alewif e and two were taken in trout nets at the 
depth of 100 feet. 

The cisco inhabits every one of the seven lakes surveyed, but it 
has been planted recently in the eastern-most lakes and in Otisco, 
at least, we believe that all ciscoes are from stock planted by the 
Conservation Department. This fish, however, is certainly a native 
of Canandaigua, Seneca, Keuka, Cayuga and Skaneateles lakes. 
In Canandaigua lake there is a dwarf race, 4 to 7 inches in length, 
a somewhat larger one in Keuka lake and, in former years at 
least, a race which grew to a weight of four pounds in Seneca and 
Cayuga. This, like the alewif e and smelt, is a wide-ranging fish 
in the lakes and is taken in both deep and shallow water. Great 
schools of ciscoes are occasionally seen early in the season near 
shore swimming up or down the lake, but we did not succeed in 
catching them in large numbers in any of the lakes. 

The whitefish is most abundant in Canandaigua and apparently 
always has been. In Keuka, Seneca and Skaneateles there are 
still whitefish but in much smaller numbers than formerly, accord- 
ing to the local fishermen. It is mostly a bottom feeder and an 
inhabitant of the cool, deep water. Early in the season, before 
the shallows have become warm, they are taken on set lines in 
water fifteen to twenty feet in depth, and late in the fall they 
again invade the bars and shallows to spawn. 

Landlocked salmon have been introduced into Skaneateles lake 
on two or three occasions and the local sportsmen feel confident 
that this is the fish they are now taking in some numbers both by 
hand-trolling and by rod and reel. We have thus far been unable 
to secure a specimen of this salmon from the Finger lakes. One 
secured for us by Skaneateles fishermen, and supposed by them to 
be a salmon was a steelhead trout.* 

The brown trout has been successfully introduced in the inlets 



* Loc. cit. page 9G. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



45 




Whitefish from Canandaigua lake 

of the Finger lakes and has been taken by fishermen in the lakes 
themselves on a few occasions, but it is not naturally a lake fish. 

Rainbow and steelhead, however, are unquestionably found in 
all the Finger lakes and especially in Keuka, Seneca and Skane- 
ateles where they have been taken repeatedly by fishermen. They 
range the lakes extensively in the summertime but go up the 
tributaries to spawn early in the spring and then return to the 
lakes, where they range widely in water of moderate depth. The 
steelhead is the predominant form in Skaneateles where it furnishes 
excellent sport. 

The lake trout is confined to cool water at depths from 30 to 
300 feet in summer. Late in the fall and in the spring it invades 
the shallower water while the temperature remains below 50 degrees 
F. to seek a more plentiful food supply. When the shallower 
water warms it retreats to greater depths. Young trout of the 
first season, although we took none in the lakes, are unquestionably 
confined to the deeper water, where both the optimum temperature 
and a bountiful food supply are found. 

The sucker, (Catostomus commersonnii) is still common in the 
lakes in spite of the yearly spearing of mature fish as they are 
running up the influent streams to spawn, and in spite of the fact 
that only a minor proportion of the fry that hatch from the egg* 
which are deposited ever reach the lake, because of the intermittent 
character of so many creeks which formerly were ' ' living streams. ' ' 
The salvation of the sucker has been the fact that many of them 



46 Conservation Department 

spawn on shallow bars off the stream mouths. This fish is a bottom 
feeder like the bullhead and when taken from our cool lake waters 
furnishes a palatable food. 

The carp is a fish of the weedy shallows although it wanders 
widely along the lake shore in depths of from 3 to 15 feet in 
search of crayfish and other food. Early in the summer it invades 
the flooded lands to spawn, usually at a date later than the pike 
and pickerel, but is more or less a competitor of these, as well as 
the perch, bullhead and large-mouthed bass in these situations. 

The golden shiner is a fish of the weedy shallows and rather 
warm water, and consequently is scarce except in sheltered bays 
and around the head or the foot of the lakes where they are more 
or less abundant. 

The bullhead is also a fish of the shallows, among the weed beds 
and on the muddy bottom at moderate depth, but in the summer 
frequently wanders widely in the open lake on calm evenings, 
feeding near the surface on the emerging mayflies. 

Pickerel and pike are distinctly fish of the weedy shallows and 
consequently are scarce in most of the Finger lakes except in such 
situations as the foot of Cayuga and the shallows of Otisco. 

The eel is becoming scarcer in all the Finger lakes and as far as 
we could ascertain has been absent from Keuka for the last twenty- 
five years. It is very scarce, if not entirely absent, from Canan- 
daigua, although it was fairly common twenty years ago. We 
obtained two eel "smears" (where eels had squirmed through our 
nets) in Owasco but got no evidence of the fish in Skaneateles. 
Dams and other obstructions in the outlets of all these lakes are 
the principal cause of the eels' disappearance. Of course it must 
make its way up from the sea to reach the lake, and as the fish 
mature they pass downstream. Their young can never return 
because of insuperable barriers. The history of the eel in Keuka 
lake is a fine demonstration that eels do not breed in fresh water 
and must return to the sea for this purpose. After the old Seneca 
and Keuka canal was abandoned, the fall of 250 feet between the 
lakes and the 7 or 8 dams across the stream some of which are 28 
feet in height, could not be surmounted by the elvers and the last 
one which reached maturity, a large specimen, was captured 25 
or 30 years ago. The race is now extinct in those waters. 

The yellow perch is the most generally distributed food fish in 
the Finger lakes. It is found most plentifully around the weedy 
shallows 5 to 25 feet in depth, wandering widely along the shore 
in search of food. During the latter part of June we took great 
numbers of perch in Seneca lake both in gill nets and traps in 
depths ranging from 10 to 55 feet, but in general the fish is dis- 
tributed in depths from three to twenty feet. It is by no means 
confined to the weedy bottom but prefers those situations for 
spawning purposes. 

The pike-perch, or wall-eye, is now a common fish in Canandaigna 
and Owasco lakes. Although millions of fry have been put in 
Seneca and Cavuga during the last ten years we took no wall-eyes 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 47 

in either lake, but learned from reliable sources that they are 
present in certain localities. However they do not succeed as well 
as in Canandaigua and Owasco. 

The small-mouthed bass is confined mostly to water from five to 
30 feet in depth. It prefers a hard bottom, especially a stony 
bottom where its favorite food of crayfish can easily be found. In 
the spawning' season they are found near the mouths of creeks and 
on gravelly bottoms of moderate depth. 

The large-mouthed bass is a fish of the weedy bays and shallows 
and consequently is found principally in such localities as Otisco 
lake, the foot of Cayuga, in Dresden bay, and the shallows of 
Keuka lake near Penn Yan and Branch/port. It first appeared in 
Keuka only a few years ago. We took no large specimens in any 
of the lakes but quantities of young ones. 

The sunfish also prefers the weedy bays. Although found in 
all the lakes this species is decidedly less common than we expected 
except in such localities as the foot of Cayuga. 

The rock bass is more generally distributed than the sunfish 
and is found during the summer both on weedy and stony bottoms. 

The burbot, ling or eel-pout, as it is called on Canandaigua lake, 
is mostly a fish of the deep water like the trout and whitefish. 
Young burbot, however, were taken in the inlet of Canandaigua 
as far up as the village of Naples in brook trout water. The main 
catch of burbot, both in winter and summer, is in water varying 
from 30 to 100 feet in depth. It is mostly confined to the bottom 
and does not range as widely as the cisco and lake trout. In 
winter it is taken in the Seneca river and must occur to some extent 
in Cayuga lake. 

Food of Finger Lakes Fishes. — During our operations between 
June 15 and September 15 about 2500 fish stomachs were examined. 
Of these 1736 contained food and the contents were carefully 
analyzed by Dr. Charles K. Sibley. In the accompanying tabula- 
tion data have been reduced to a percentage basis to show the food 
taken by each species (see Table 2). 

Remarks on the Food of Different Species. — Of our food 
fishes it will be evident that the lake trout, pickerel and pike are 
almost exclusively fish eaters; that the rainbow trout, whitefish, 
yellow perch, pike-perch, rock bass, black bass, and burbot rely to 
a considerable extent on a fish diet. Larval insects, besides being 
a very important food of young fishes, are an important item in 
the case of the cisco, whitefish, sucker, carp, bullhead, yellow perch, 
pike-perch and black bass. Flying insects which are mostly species 
which have dropped on the lake during their peregrinations, and 
emerging midges and mayflies, are to a considerable extent, in early 
summer at least, a food of the cisco, the whitefish, perch and all the 
basses. Small crustaceans or scuds are an important article of 
food with the sucker, carp, bullhead, yellow perch, rock bass and 
cisco; but plankton erustaeea were food of adult fishes only in the 
case of the alewife, the whitefish, the cisco and the smelt.* The 

* Food of two specimens only was observed. 



48 



Conservation Department 



azoo mo^og 


o 










oo 














OS 






o 

CNI 


































1 






« 


CO 








■** -* ^H • 
CXI ^H 




s ! 


en oo • 
oo 










CM t-i ■ 


■* ■ 








S8^SBqooSi[0 














C 1 




























co • 














sa^rai ja^i?/\\ 






























-H© 


CO 

CM CM • 








lO • 














spasm aa^o « 


© 


o ■ 
^ co 






CM 




■© 












rn : 










t-co 




saSpijY 


o 


oo 




•* . 


;° 






CO CO 


O 
C 1 


t^ 1(3 






■ »0 t^ CN •* • 

■-lONOOCSlOOCiON •© 

■ CO O 00 >— I Ttl • ■— I 


1 ^ 
sawsippeQ ** 






'C 


o ■ 
o • ■ 






CO 

oo i-i 


^ 




CM 






c 




CO ■* 




X5 




saigABjv 


03 


CO 




CD 

O 


CO 




00 CO • 
CM CT> • 


CM 




^ 










oo 

03 C35 




lO CM rH 




BpOOtJi^SQ 






- 
















CM 


CN 




CM 






















BjaoopBjo lo 






CO 


© 










© • 
rtlO © 














'C 


© CM ■* 




© 


1 ^ iC 




- 














to 






00 
CO CM 










CO 


co co io 
co ci 






s ! SA "lAI 




oo —i 

00 -h 








CO K5 

© 






































Biajodo^uoj 








oq -* 








oo 




C5 
CO 




































iqpl^H 
























CO 










CM 










»o 






Oi 


CO 




SmBUIUIBQ 




CO 


















CM 

CO 




CM CM 


03 






o 
o 

M 


CM 




t^ ■ cs 
t^ "O -* • l> 


• 


snjjasy 




>o 


















© 
«5 




"5 




co 








• O CO 

• K5 






■ -CC 




qsy^iQ j 






























lO 


- 


— 




t- 








© ; CV 


• 


saAjBAtg 






CO 




co 












CM 


CO 














" 














S1 IT3Ug 




00 




oo 

CM 




© 


-# 


<M 




■* 






CM 


CI 




>o 










rt c 


• 


•o^a 'SMouiup\[ 
















© 

CM 




co 
4— ^h 












CO 


m 






©oo 

CM 


oo 

CO 
CNJ 


CM • C 


• 


qojag 










































© : 

S2 : 




•© 






© ; 


s 


jjoeqapjo^g 












CM 




























© 






;© 








co • 




uidpog j 










O OSlO 

lO • • 

^'OW ■ o i-~ ^ 

rtM CO -<±l 
























© 








• cc 
O : ic 


) ■ 

• 


oos;o 


















• © T* 02 
•N-HCO 






































saAiMajy 


















O 
03 






















•«5 


CM 




CM 














pauiuiBxa -o|y[ 


<ONO'OMO)N>15»MCOMO:-HiHOH150<DOO)01'*f)iHM!0'*0)00)WHN 

CO i— 1 O <— 1 I— 1 Tt< N ^T|IH rH Hlfl l— 1 >0 CM ■"* 
CO rH —1 >0 


£ • 

O 
Q 




! C 
. c 

:c 
? 

> c 
s £ 

JO 


3 

3 e 

IS 

3 c 

o : 


1 c 
3 -!> 

J - 

3 C 
} c 


■ j 
» i 

A C 
[ 

3 C 
3 C 


;'c 

n 

3 S 

L 

5p 


1 
■ 

D « 

. - 

H 

\Z 

3 i 


3 

n 

- : 

1 

j 

fi 


; 
i 

3 

2 

3 
3 

: ? 

3 £ 

\\ 

i h 


! B 

; J 

• '5 
•-t: 
' c 

• e 

• c 

:c 

;j 

3 a 


) 

= 

I 

3 a 

in 


( 
J 

h 

is 

<■ 

3 ( 


3 
3 

I 
3 
3 

3 

4 f. 

1 a 

^> 

c, 

fi 

il 

- c 


ji 

3 " 


I 

2P 


§ 

a 

5 

a 
_ i 


5^ 


i 1 

3 C 

s 

- ™ 

5c 


3 

3 2 

5 ; 


: | 

• c 

• ( 

I" 

: t 


h 

12. 

u 


3 6 

1 1 

5p 


1 • 

j.": 
i : 

3 • 

3 "23 


. ; 


- a 

J 

3 5= 


: a 
; < 

' "e 

: i 

3 

e 

: i 
i c 

HP 


3.5 

i 

3 t 
S < 
■(*■ 


3 

1 

! i 


h 

5 l 
3 J 

: " 

13 C 
HP 


*0 


s • 

5 : 

3 • 
) • 

3 • ! 

rr 





Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



49 



CO '-o 



CO 



33 2 
t/2 '7: pq 



3° Sd So 
£ 53 rf | sn a 






liji 



^s 



50 Conservation Department 

whitefish was not a feeder on the smaller plankton Crustacea to the 
extent it was hoped, most of its plankton food at this season con- 
sisting of mysis and others of the larger forms. The crayfish was 
an important food of the rock bass, black bass, eel and, to a less 
extent, of the bullhead, pickerel and yellow perch; mollusks of the 
sunfish and whitefish but to a much smaller extent that we ex- 
pected of other species. The mollusks taken by the whitefish were 
largely the small bivalves, sphaerium and pisidium. Algae and 
plant fragments were found in several fish but were evidently 
taken mostly by accident with their other food, except in the case 
of the carp and golden shiner. The latter is our only predomi- 
nantly vegetable feeder. We found that the carp* in these lakes 
fed more extensively on larval insects and small Crustacea than we 
had expected. However, I have found in previous years that carp 
in Canandaigua lake range the shallows along the shale bluffs at a 
depth of from three to ten feet in considerable numbers to feed on 
crayfish which are the natural food of the black bass. It is signifi- 
cant that the carp which inhabits the shallow water is a rival for 
the food supply of the perch, bass and other valuable species. 

The lake trout in Seneca, Keuka and Cayuga lakes feed almost 
exclusively on alewives. The trout in other lakes were evidently 
getting an insufficient food supply as rarely did we take one whose 
stomach was completely filled. In Owasco lake they bore conclu- 
sive evidence of being starved. They were scarcely in edible con- 
dition. Their bodies were light and narrow, their heads propor- 
tionately large and their stomachs contained little but mysis. Only 
five of the fifteen taken in Owasco had succeeded in capturing fish, 
and only one of these had a full stomach — one cisco. It was evi- 
dent that the cisco and smelt in Owasco were not sufficiently plen- 
tiful to furnish the trout with adequate food and in Canandaigua 
we feel sure that the scarcity of trout is due in large measure to the 
scarcity of food fish on which they can subsist. 

The burbot is a gormandizer and feeds largely on small fishes. 
One specimen contained nine fair sized perch. There can be little 
doubt that he gathers up a large proportion of the young trout 
and whitefish before or soon after they leave the spawning beds, 
for he is a deep water fish and must be considered a serious enemy 
of our better food fishes. The stomachs of burbots were almost 
without exception partially filled with sticks, stones and other 
debris which they gather by accident in rushing after their prey. 

A rainbow trout, taken near the surface on Seneca lake and 
weighing 7% pounds, was filled with an enormous quantity of land 
insects which it had evidently taken from the surface of the water, 



* See carp studies by Smallwood and Struthers, page 67. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 51 

including 12 June beetles, 71 winged carpenter ants, 55 mayflies, 
5 bees, an adult sialis, a stink bug, an ichneumon fly and grass- 
hoppers. 

During the early summer the cisco also feeds to a considerable 
extent at the surface during the early evening on emerging may- 
flies and midges. Specimens taken by fly fishermen early in July 
contained large quantities of beetles, ants, mayflies and spittle 
insects. 

Vegetation.* — It is an unfortunate fact, as far as weed beds are 
concerned, that the Finger lakes lie mostly in a north and south 
direction so that the prevailing wind from the southwest sweeps 
down each lake gathering in force, stirring up the lake bottom 
and churning the shallows at the foot of each lake to such an ex- 
tent that weed beds are restricted to the sunken delta at the head 
of each lake and the few sheltered bays which exist along its shores. 
Furthermore all the lakes drop off so suddenly from the shore to 
deep water that very few coves or shallows protected from the pre- 
vailing wind are to be found. Extensive beds of eel-grass or wild 
celery (Vallisneria), pondweeds (Potamogeton), horn wort (Cera- 
tophyllum), ditch-grass (Elodea) and other submerged forms are 
restricted mostly to the head of each lake and a few sheltered bays 
and occasional lagoons near the foot. The depth to which all these 
species grow in quiet water with a rather muddy bottom is 10 to 17 
and sometimes 25 feet. They do not thrive along the surf -swept 
shores of these lakes. These plants, of course, furnish the ideal 
situation for insect larvae, snails, etc., which are the natural food 
of most of the shallow water fishes. The so-called musk-grass 
(Char a foetida), however, is universally distributed on all the lake 
bottoms to a depth of at least 20 or 30 feet and in favorable situ- 
ations thrives at a depth of from 40 to 44 feet. It covers practi- 
cally the whole bottom of Cayuga from the railroad bridge to 
Union Springs. Incidentally it may be noted that this Char a is 
the food which attracts the coots, redheads and other ducks where 
the wild celery and sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) are 
scarce — as they are in nearly all localities of the Finger lakes. 
Char a foetida, lying closer to the bottom, though frequently up- 
rooted by the south swell, which is so characteristic of these lakes, 
is the only plant except filamentous algae, desmids, diatoms, etc., 
of general distribution on the bottom of these lakes. Nitella and 
other species of Char a are often associated with the predominant 
form. This plant is one of the favorite foods of the golden shiner 
and of course it offers shelter to many snails and shallow water 
crustaceans which are valuable fish food. 

The microscopic algae which constitute a large proportion of the 
plankton catches must, therefore, constitute the main primary 
plant food of the small animal plankton which are to furnish the 
main food supply in these lakes. These floating algae also by fall- 
ing to the bottom furnish a large portion of the bottom ooze which 
is the food of midge larvae, small Crustacea and other animals 
which can be utilized as food by the young of deep water fishes. 

* See also page 242, Cayuga and Seneca flora. 



52 Conservation Department 

The Bottom Fauna. — During our survey a large part of our 
efforts were directed to the study of the bottom fauna to discover 
the principal source of the primary fish food in the lake. Six hun- 
dred and thirty-two samples of the bottom were taken with the 
Ekman dredge during the three months and carefully analyzed. 
To supplement these studies 212 samples were taken with the scoop 
dredge in localities where the Ekman could not be worked satis- 
factorily and several hundred samples* were taken in the shal- 
lows near shore with a Needham dredge. 

We find as a result of this work that in the shallow water of all 
the lakes there is a fair supply of snails, bivalves, and insect larvae, 
principally mayflies, caddisflies and midges, ranging to a depth of 
50 feet. The abundance of these forms in shallow water, however, 
is not sufficient to supply a preponderant fauna of shallow water 




Lowering Ekman dredge for a sample of lake bottom 

fishes. The minnows, likewise, which are mostly confined to the 
shallow water of the lake are not abundant except in a few favored 
localities. 

In the deeper waters we find in all the lakes a plentiful supply 
of the small .crustacean (Pontoporeia hoyi),oi chironomus larvae, 
a fair supply of small worms (OligocJiaetes) and a fair supply of 
bivalves. (Spliaerium) . Likewise in most of the lakes near the 
bottom a fairly plentiful supply of the small crustacean (Mysis). 
These forms are the food of young trout, whitefish, etc., and are 
often eaten by the larger fish when other supplies fail. In Keuka, 
Cayuga and Skaneateles lakes we took specimens of Pontoporeia 
filicornix. 

* The determination of the organisms captured was the work of Dr. Thomas 
Smyth of South Carolina University. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 53 

We were unable to secure a quantitative determination of Mysis 
and the crayfish. Only 12 specimens of Mysis were taken during 
the summer in the Ekman, but 68 were taken in one haul of the 
scoop at 45 meters in Owasco. The abundance of Pontoporeia 
and Chironomus in deep water indicates a plentiful supply of food 
for young; lake trout and whitefish. The caddisflies were mostly 
Molcmna, Leptoccrus, Heliopsyche, Phryganea, Triaenodes, Mys- 
tacides. The mayflies were Hexagenia, Heptagenia, Ephemera, 
Caenis. With Chironomus are included about 1% of T any pus, 
Palpomyia and Protenthes. With Sphaerium is less than 1% of 
Pisidium. Large bivalves were poorly distributed. Snails were 
principally Physa, Lymnea, Amnicola, Valvata, Goniooasis and 
Planorbis. Hydracarina were fairly distributed in water from 1 
to 75 feet, sometimes to 225 feet. 

Conditions Affecting Abundance of Finger Lakes Fishes. — 

(1) Overfishing is naturally considered the principal cause of 
the scarcity of game fish and there can be no question that the 
increased numbers of fishermen in these waters during the last 
fifty years has had a very serious effect on the supply of all species 
which are used as food. 

(2) Illegal fishing is talked about in the region very extensively 
and we took great pains to obtain the most reliable information 
available on this subject. There can be no hesitation in asserting 
that illegal fishing with nets occurs to a considerable extent in every 
one of the Finger lakes. Three rather recent instances of the most 
flagrant violations of law will serve to illustrate the danger to our 
fishing interests from this source. About two years ago nearly 
300 trout were taken in a single haul with a large seine, late in 
the season when the fish were in shallow water, probably on the 
spawning bed. This was in a lake where the scarcity of trout is de- 
plored by many good sportsmen. Last winter in another lake over 
200 pounds of trout were taken at one haul in a net which was 
let down through a long opening in the ice. In another lake where 
sportsmen are calling for improvement in bass fishing nearly two 
barrelfuls of bass were taken by fykes in three days. The people 
who vouch for the truth of these stories would not appear in court 
against the violators, but deplore the violation. In some of the 
lakes this fishing is carried on by "pirates" for the purpose of 
selling fish in the open market, but a more general practice is the 
fishing by farmers and other residents of the lakeside in the fall, 
winter or early spring to obtain fish for their own tables. It is a 
quite general practice in most of the lakes to use fish traps of 
wire netting to capture perch and other pan fish. Where spear- 
ing is permitted, trout, bass and other game fish are taken by many 
of the spearsmen when they feel it can be done without detection. 
It is also true that a large proportion of the rainbow trout which 
enter the tributary streams to spawn during the spring are taken 
by the sucker spearsmen, oftentimes, of course, by mistake but as 
we know from conclusive evidence, very often because the inhabi- 
tants of the countryside feel that they are entitled to an occasional 



54 Conservation Department 

rainbow instead of saving it for the sportsmen to capture later in 
the season when the farmer is busy in his fields. 

This general feeling of the residents of the lake shore that they 
are entitled to some of the fish, and the fact that they cannot obtain 
the fish in a reasonable length of time by legal methods has led 
to this general practice of evading the law. If the supply of fish 
is to be improved or even maintained in the various lakes, the 
practice of illegal fishing, especially for the market, must be 
stopped. 

(3) Spawning grounds. The bowfin, bullhead and pike situa- 
tion in Cayuga lake is the finest demonstration one could have 
of the necessity of proper spawning grounds for each species of 
fish. The draining of the Montezuma marshes and the shutting 
off of Cayuga from the Seneca river by the mudlock dam have 
deprived these fish of the spawning grounds which formerly sup- 
plied the greater number of them for the foot of Cayuga lake, 
Now the bowfin is practically unknown and the others are declin- 
ing. . Although there are weedy shallows at the foot of Cayuga 
the temperature and other conditions there are not as suitable as 
those that existed in the marshes and there has been a very decided 
effect on the fish fauna of the shallower part of Cayuga lake. In 
similar ways the spawning grounds of nearly every fish in our lakes 
has been more or less seriously affected by changing conditions. 
For example, the sand and silt brought down by all the tributary 
streams is very abundant compared to what it was a hundred years 
ago when the watershed of the streams was protected by forest, 
and there was less cultivation and rapid drainage of the hill sides. 
This mud and silt entering the lake from every tributary stream 
covers many of the spawning beds with a layer of dirt which is 
unfavorable to the hatching and development of fry. The strong 
south swells, which are stirred up periodically by the wind, seri- 
ously accentuate this unfavorable condition. The waters of these 
lakes are often much roiled to a depth of 30 to 50 feet off-shore. 
This condition must be disastrous to the spawn of lake trout, white- 
fish and cisco, and more or less harmful to bass and perch ; for the 
bass is sometimes unable to keep the spawning bed clean and the 
partially floating spawn of the perch is filled with mud and buried. 

(4) Stocking methods. While our hatcheries have learned to 
raise trout and other kinds of fish with great success the stocking 
methods employed by the clubs and individuals which receive these 
fish from the hatcheries have not resulted in successful planting in 
many cases. A very careful system of planting each species, based 
on the best information available is certainly necessary. 

(5) The condition of the tributary streams referred to is also 
the cause of the very serious decline in the numbers of minnows, 
suckers and other fish which are natural food for the trout, bass, 
etc. Formerly they were reared in great numbers in the tributary 
streams and descended to the lake later in the season. Now more 
than 90% of the streams that flow into the lake dry up in mid- 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 55 

summer so that a very small proportion of the fry of fish which 
run up the streams to spawn ever reach the lake successfully. 

(6) Obstructions in the outlets have also had an effect. An illus- 
tration in the case is mentioned under the distribution of the eel. 
When fish that were bred in the shallow lagoons of the Seneca 
river could run up into Cayuga lake and into other lakes of the 
chain from their outlets, there was a fresh invasion each spring 
or summer from the streams which tended to maintain a vigorous 
stock and restore the fish population of the lakes from the more 
favorable breeding grounds downstream. These obstructions in 
the outlets of all the lakes are now practically prohibiting migra- 
tion of fish such as was possible 50 or 100 years ago. 

(7) Destructive enemies of the fish we believe are accountable 
for a large part of the scarcity of lake trout in Canandaigua, 
Cayuga and undoubtedly in the other lakes. But in Canandaigua 
the burbot, which is found in the deep water, is a voracious fish 
and feeds on any kind of fish it can capture. It is unquestionably 
a scourge of the spawning grounds, devouring the fry and eggs of 
the trout and so preventing to a large extent the natural repro- 
duction of this fish. He is, of course, an equal enemy of the white- 
fish and the cisco. 

In Seneca and Cayuga lakes the lamprey is a deadly enemy of 
the trout and all soft scaled fishes. It even attacks carp and bow- 
fin successfully. However the belief that whenever a lamprey 
attacks a trout the trout is doomed, must be abandoned, for a large 
proportion of the trout which we took during the survey bore from 
one to seven lamprey scars which had healed over completely and 
the trout was in vigorous condition. The lamprey, of course, sucks 
the blood of the trout until he is satisfied and then drops from the 
fish and the wound heals if the fish is sufficiently vigorous or if 
the wound does not pierce the abdominal cavity. But in the case 
of young trout, although we cannot prove it, we believe that the 
attacks of the lamprey are generally fatal. We took no young 
trout under 18 inches in length which showed a lamprey scar. A 
further study of this situation is advisable. 

Besides the burbot and lamprey many fishes are destructive to 
the young or the eggs of trout and other food fish. Perch have 
been taken repeatedly near the spawning grounds of trout with 
the stomach fully distended with trout eggs. Bullheads have the 
same habit and, although they probably do not invade the trout 
grounds to any extent, are destructive of the fishes which breed 
in the shallows. The sculpin and the spot-tailed minnow are fre- 
quently called "spawn eaters." Unfortunately most of our fishes 
often destroy the spawn not only of other fishes but their own, 
as has been conclusively proved of brook trout and other fish kept 
in hatcheries. 

The softshell turtle (Amy da spinifer) which inhabits Keuka, 
Seneca and Cayuga is a predacious species which frequently feeds 
on fish. The same is true of the generally distributed snapping 



56 Conservation Department 



















.'■Ss*''' ; ''' , s '~- ' ;>i:l i||!i 


jliill 












t: t ' : ':' i ' : V. 


11K"; : .diff^jll^ 




if 


f E '|^^||pg 


5", -» ;, """«■■ 


■■:<■:■■■":> 

- ,1k ^ -■ . r* * " ^ * 


■yt 


j^^-W^SpnT 


^4^M^ CS 








_ 










H 










P/;ofo by C. K 


Sibley 



Soft shell turtle (Arayda spinifer), enemy of shallow water fish 

turtle. I have repeatedly captured water snakes (Natrix sipedon) 
with, fish in their jaws which they were carrying to land with the 
object of swallowing; the victim entire. I have taken this snake 
with a ten-inch brook trout in its jaws which was a fully active, 
healthy fish; with a burbot 8 inches in length which must have 
been obtained in rather deep water ; with a bullhead which weighed 
at least a pound ; and with numerous other small fishes. I believe 
the water snake should be destroyed by all sportsmen whenever 
they have an opportunity. We consider loon, grebes and mergan- 
sers also as enemies of our lake fish. I have taken nine good sized 
chubs from the gullet of a single red-breasted merganser and have 
found a dozen minnows in the gullet of a loon. The loons and 
grebes, however, feed mostly on minnows which are of minor im- 
portance and the mergansers do not get into deep enough water 
to be a serious menace to young trout and whitefish. They do, 
however, diminish the food supply of our larger fishes. 

(8) Competition of undesirable fish for the food supply and 
breeding grounds unquestionably has considerable importance. If 
the shallows are invaded by bowfins or carp their immediate vicin- 
ity is avoided by bullheads or sunfish as a breeding spot and if bur- 
bots exist in such larger numbers that they destroy cisco and other 
fish which the trout need, the trout must decline in numbers. This 
question of competition works in the case of all our fishes and it 
is desirable to discourage as far as possible the useless species so 
that the better varieties may flourish. 

(9) The condition of the water as to its temperature, oxygen 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 57 

content and various other chemical conditions must be considered 
when determining the stocking policy for the lake. Fortunately 
all these Finger lakes, with the exception of Otisco, have favorable 
water for the growth of lake trout, cisco, whitefish and pike-perch 
as well as bass. In Otisco in mid-summer the deeper portions of 
the lake, as shown in the table,* are devoid of oxygen sufficient to 
support any fish. Consequently the deep water fishes should not 
be planted in Otisco but shallow water fishes, such as pickerel, 
perch, pike-perch, bass, and pike should thrive there. We have 
been unable to find any condition of the water which would ex- 
plain the scarcity of trout in Cayuga lake and believe it should be 
attributed not to the condition of the water but to the enemies of 
the fish, to illegal fishing and to mistakes in planting. 

(10) Food supply both for the young fish and the mature indi- 
viduals is the prime requisite next to the oxygen supply. There is 
no reason, except the burbot, and absence of alewives why Canan- 
daigua lake should not be nearly as good a lake for lake trout as 
Keuka. There is abundance of food on the bottom for young trout 
but the older fish have difficulty in obtaining the small fish which 
make up 98% of their food. The cisco is scarce, the alewife is 
absent, the smelt, which has been introduced there during the 
last few years, has not multiplied sufficiently. We believe that 
a good supply of alewives in Canandaigua would increase tremen- 
dously the abundance of trout in those waters. The same is true 
of Owasco lake where the cisco is too scarce to furnish food for 
the trout, The smelt has been introduced recently but is not yet 
abundant. The trout which we took from Owasco lake were almost 
starved because of the scarcity of proper food for mature fish. 
They had been feeding mostly on mysis, which is a food adapted 
especially to young trout, These illustrations should make clear 
that a proper food supply is the first consideration in waters which 
are to be stocked and everything possible should be done to in- 
crease the food supply of game fish. 

General Conditions in the Various Lakes. — In all the lakes 
examined, except Otisco, the temperature and oxygen content of 
the water is favorable for lake trout and whitefish. The shallows 
in all the lakes are fairly well adapted to the black bass and the 
perch. In all the lakes the tributary streams have been seriously 
affected by the destruction of the original forest cover and agri- 
cultural improvements so that they furnish small encouragement 
to the suckers and many species of minnows which formerly bred 
in them successfully. In all the lakes weed beds are poorly dis- 
tributed except at the head of each lake and in sheltered bays and 
shallows which are sometimes found along the shore but more often 
at the foot of the lake. Consequently there is a small acreage 
available for weed-inhabiting fishes as compared with the large 
extent of the lake. Therefore fishes which range widely in the lake 
and are either bottom feeders, plankton feeders or feeders on 
smaller fishes which feed on plankton are the best adapted for 
encouragement in these waters. 

* See pp. 117 and 131. 



58 Conservation Department 




Lowering the water bottle to secure a sample of deep water for gaseous 

analysis 

Canandaigua lake: The trout is relatively scarce in this lake 
and the whiteflsh relatively abundant. Pike-perch has been suc- 
cessfully introduced and is an important fish. The black bass is 
fairly common on the rocky bottoms which are found along large 
sections of the lake shore. The perch and pickerel which formerly 
were found in considerable numbers are small and scarce compared 
to conditions forty years ago. The burbot is abundant in this lake 
and in our estimation should be removed. Of course a complete 
destruction of the burbot is impossible but if the use of set lines 
baited with worms were encouraged and the value of the burbot for 
salting and pickling were exploited we believe that its numbers 
could be materially reduced. The small ciscoes which are native 
to Canandaigua and the smelts which have been introduced in re- 
cent years are not sufficiently numerous to feed the trout and we 
would unhesitatingly recommend the introduction of alewives from 
Seneca or Keuka lake. 

Keuka lake: This lake is the bright and shining example of 
what might be accomplished in all these lakes if we could control 
conditions. There are no lampreys or burbots in the lake ; the 
alewife is abundant, Bottom food like Pontoporeia and Chironomus 
is abundant, There are more tributary streams which do not 
run dry, and furnish a favorable breeding ground for the minnows. 
There are weed beds near Branchport and Penn Yan which fur- 
nish satisfactory breeding places for the perch, bullhead and large- 
mouthed bass. The inlets at Hammondsport and Branchport are 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



59 



both good streams for rainbow trout and from these fish descend 
into the lake and furnish sport for the fishermen. Ciscoes are 
also found in the lake which supplement the trout food. 
Whitefish is scarce but could be increased in numbers by 
proper planting. In this lake more lake trout are taken in a 
single week than are taken in Canandaigua, Owasco or Skaneateles 
in an entire season by the line fishermen. Thus it is 
evident that, in spite of the numbers of trout taken, the supply 
can be maintained by proper planting, and protection of the 
spawning grounds. The causes which have maintained the supply 
of trout in Keuka lake in spite of the abundance of fishermen are 
a combination of the most careful planting which has been practised 
in any of the lakes, the guarding of the spawning beds, which was 
undertaken for several years by the Seth Green Club, the greater 
abundance of favorable spawning beds in the lake off the mouths 
of the little tributaries which run down from the hills, by the 
absence of lampreys and burbots, and the presence of a large 
expanse of lake bottom lying between 50 and 175 feet in depth. 

Seneca lake: Here is an abundance of alewives and, unfortu- 
nately, also of lampreys, but no burbots. The eel is fast disap- 
pearing from this lake. The whitefish has become scarce, perhaps 
extinct. The cisco exists in reduced numbers. The pike-perch, 
although it has been planted in recent years, is scarce and the 
pickerel is practically confined to the head of the lake and Dresden 




Lake trout showing lamprey marks. From Seneca lake 



60 Conservation Department 

bay where it is by no means common at present. Lake trout, 
small-mouthed bass and yellow perch are the predominant food 
fishes. On good hard bottom at a depth of 60 to 150 feet the 
trout is still abundant in such localities as Lamereaux, Lodi, 
Willard, Pontius, and Reeders. Curiously enough they do not 
abound . ff the west shore except at times from Long point to 
Glenora. They are, however, distributed, though not abundantly, 
over all the lake. The perch is very plentiful, judging from the 
catches we made both with trap and gill nets. It is found from 
Watkins to Geneva harbor. Many perch range from one to two 
pounds in weight, but curiously enough we heard very little of 
large catches taken with hook and line. This lake would support 
a much larger population of trout and with proper planting we 
believe this could be accomplished. The lampreys of this lake 
should be reduced by capturing them when they run up the inlet 
to spawn.* 

Cayuga lake: The alewife is plentiful furnishing food for the 
larger trout. The lamprey, however, is very abundant and is evi- 
dently one of the causes of the poor trout fishing. The pike-perch, 
in spite of recent introductions, seems to be diminishing in number. 
The whitefish, although formerly present, is scarce. The cisco is less 
abundant than formerly. The pike, pickerel, large-mouthed bass 
and bullhead, as well as the undesirable bowfin or dogfish, are be- 
coming scarcer. This we believe is largely due to the destruction 
of their breeding grounds by the draining of the Montezuma 
marshes and the erection of the dam at Mud Lock where no efficient 
fishway has been installed. The eel is commoner in Cayuga than in 
any other of the Finger lakes because access from the sea is still 
provided. For some reason, probably extensive netting, poor plant- 
ing and the presence of the lamprey, the lake trout is scarce in 
Cayuga. It probably was never as abundant as in Seneca but we 
see no reason why the stock of trout could not be increased if the 
lampreys were captured in the inlets as they go up to spawn and 
the trout fry were properly planted. We learned from many sports- 
men who had helped in the planting of trout in this lake that they 
usually are dumped either off the end of a wharf in shallow water 
or at the head of the lake just out beyond the lighthouse. We 
believe that such plantings of trout are practically all wasted. 
They should be placed in water that is in the vicinity of 100 feet 
in depth and well scattered along the lake. 

Owasco lake: This is naturally adapted to lake trout, rainbow 
trout, pike-perch and small-mouthed bass. There are no lampreys 
or burbots in the lake, but unfortunately a good food fish for trout 
is scarce. The cisco and the smelt, which has been recently intro- 
duced, are far too few to feed the trout after they pass beyond the 
stage in which they feed on the smaller organisms. Almost all 
the trout taken from Owasco lake during our survey were in an 



See paper by S. H. Gage on Economics of the Lamprey, p. 180. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 61 

emaciated condition and although some of them contained smelts, 
ciscoes or sculpins Ave took none which had more than one or two 
of these fishes in the stomach and most of them had been feeding 
on mysis or other small organisms. The pike-perch which is a 
more omnivorous fish seems to find plenty of insect larvae and 
small fish to grow successfully. This was the only fish which the 
local sportsmen were taking with any degree of success, while we 
were on the lake. Eels still exist in Owasco but are fast disappear- 
ing. The carp is too abundant near the head of the lake and may 
interfere seriously with the spawning operations of the pike-perch, 
perch and bullhead. This fish should be held in check. Suckers 
were formerly very abundant in Owasco and are still plentiful 
because there are streams in which they can breed with some suc- 
cess. These same streams are spawning grounds for the rainbow 
trout which could be encouraged to become an important fish in 
Owasco. In this lake we took the only sturgeon suckers (Catostomus 
cat ost omits) which we found in the Finger lakes. 

Skaneateles lake: This is a cool, clear water well adapted to the 
lake trout, the rainbow and steelhead, the whitefish and the cisco. 
The black bass find favorable breeding and food grounds in the 
shallower waters and the perch and sucker, among the humbler 
species, can thrive successfully. On account of the living streams 
entering the lake in which the rainbow and steelhead can breed we 
believe these fish should be encouraged. Lake trout, whitefish and 
cisco should be planted in greater numbers. Possibly the land- 
locked salmon may yet be firmly established. 

Otisco lake: This is the shallowest, warmest and weediest of all 
the Finger lakes. The deeper water is unfit for fish habitation, at 
least during the summer, because of the scarcity of oxygen.* It is 
not a trout lake, but in it the pike-perch, perch, large- and small- 
mouthed bass, pickerel, sunfish, bullhead and sucker can thrive. 
Because of the large number of cottagers and fishermen in pro- 
portion to the size of the lake, however, general complaints of 
scarcity of fish were received. The pike-perch, yellow perch and 
both species of bass should be encouraged in this lake. Incidentally 
such fish as the bluegill, crappie and catfish could be introduced 
successfully. 

General Suggestions for Improving the Fish Situation. — 

Making regulations: We will cite a single example of many which 
occurred to us during the season's work. The open season for 
black bass began on July first, but in both Seneca and Keuka lakes 
many bass were still on their beds protecting the young fry on that 
date. We believe that a postponement of the season was advisable, 
but this could not possibly have been foreseen by last year's 
Legislature. The temperature in all the lakes was slow to rise 
to the summer level during the spring of 1927 and the spawning 
of many shallow water fishes was postponed accordingly. 

* See page 132, chemical analyses. 



62 Conservation Department 

Law enforcement : After the laws have been wisely formed they 
should be strictly enforced with absolute impartiality. It is un- 
fortunate that the hunting' season in the State comes at just the 
season when the trout beds should be guarded, when the protectors 
are mostly in the deer or pheasant country. The spawning beds 
of trout must be protected or our supply of the finest fish in the 
lakes will continue to decline. More protectors are needed, at least 
during' the spawning season of lake trout. 

Fishways: These should be properly constructed and main- 
tained in many streams where they do not now exist. The one at 
Mud Lock near the foot of Cayuga lake will serve as an example. 
If this were an efficient passageway there can be no question that 
fishing near the foot of Cayuga lake would be considerably im- 
proved, although conditions could never be what they were before 
the marshes were drained by the Barge canal. 

Another example, of many, might be the lower falls in Taughan- 
nock glen. A fishway at the lower falls might turn this creek into 
a fine stream for the spawning of rainbow trout, suckers and many 
species of minnows which furnish food for the game fishes of the 
vicinity. 

Tributary streams: They should not only be provided when pos- 
sible with fishways, but pollution of the streams at all seasons of 
the year should be prevented. The Keuka outlet is one example 
which I might cite. Although there was no serious pollution in this 
stream during the period of our survey, the paper mills were 
operating early in the season during the time when rainbow trout 
were spawning 1 and although several rainbows were captured in 
this stream at the beginning of the season, indicating that they 
were ascending to the spawning beds, no young rainbows could be 
taken by repeated efforts. Evidently the poison from the mills 
above had destroyed the eggs or fry. 

Elimination of the lamprey* This parasite is responsible for 
the death of many trout, especially the smaller trout which pre- 
sumably do not recover from its attacks as most of the larger 
ones do. 

The burbot : In Canandaigua lake this fish is a serious menace to 
better food-fish like the trout and whitefish, and any means which 
would reduce its numbers without serious damage to other fish 
should be encouraged. It is a member of the codfish family and 
furnishes a fairly good picketed or salted product and the fresh fish 
is by no means bad for the table when properly prepared. The 
spawning grounds of this fish should be located, if possible, and 
their numbers reduced by taking them during the spawning season 
and fishing for them through the ice in winter. Set lines 
throughout the year should be encouraged as far as possible. Al- 
though it could be caught readily with lines baited with alewives 
or minnows we would not recommend this bait because it would 



See page 158 for full discussion by Prof. S. H. Gage. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 63 

be destructive to trout. Lines baited with worms would also take 
whitefish, but reduction of the numbers of whitefish could be re- 
plenished by planting". 

Carp control*: Although we are by no means convinced of all 
the evil characteristics which have been attributed to the carp, we 
do believe that it is an objectionable fish in these lakes, which are 
adapted to fish which are better than the carp. The danger of carp 
in the Finger lakes is due to the fact that it increases very rapidly, 
grows rapidly and consumes a large part of the food which 
should be conserved for the perch, pike-perch and bass. In search- 
ing for insect larvae, snails and crustaceans it roots up the weed 
beds and roils the lake, in this manner injuring the spawning 
beds of many fishes and destroying the cover in which a large por- 
tion of their food is grown. 

Development of fish food: When existing conditions are inade- 
quate to maintain the proper supply of fish in the lake a proper 
planting of fish food should be made an integral part of the con- 
servation program. Planting fish in a lake where there is no food 
for them to eat will never make good fishing. The Department has 
already embarked on the course of planting food for the game fish 
and Ave believe it should be carried forward at the same time with 
the development of fry and fingerlings. The alewife, in our esti- 
mation, is the best small fish for lake trout and other fish to feed 
upon. It is a plankton-feeder. It ranges widely in the lake, de- 
scends to the depths inhabited by trout and invades the shallows 
at all seasons of the year so that it is a good fish food for the perch, 
pike-perch and bass as well as for lake trout. We see no serious 
objection to the planting of ciscoes and smelt. But ciscoes do not 
increase in our lakes as rapidly as the alewife. They do not feed so 
extensively on plankton, which is the greatest source of food for 
small fish in the lakes, and the smelt evidently breeds in the tribu- 
tary streams which are already insufficient for our rainbows, suck- 
ers and minnows to utilize, whereas the alewife breeds in the 1 open 
waters of the lake and its young grow very rapidly. Golden shiners 
are valuable as perch and bass food, and as minnows for bait. 
These fishes should be encouraged, but unfortunately on account of 
the scarcity of weed beds they could never become abundant except 
in the shallows, which are rather restricted in all the lakes, If 
means could be found of breeding crayfish in large numbers we be- 
lieve this should be practised as it is a most acceptable food for the 
black bass, which is the fish most largely sought by the fly fisher- 
men of the region. The shallow water scud, G-ammarus, was prac- 
tically absent from Canandaigua lake. It may be that the netting of 
Gammarus in large quantities in Seneca lake and planting it at the 
foot of Canandaigua and at Cottage City, Seneca Cove, Vine Valley 
and the head of the lake might be successful in developing an 
abundant food for perch in this lake. It certainly ought to be tried 
as perch in Canandaigua lake, though fairly numerous, are almost 



* See carp control studies, page 67. 



64 Conservation Department 

universally small except a few at the head of the lake where the 
abundance of weeds produces the shallow water organisms which 
are necessary for their growth. 

Planting Lake Trout Fingerlings. — In order to determine 
facts in the much disputed problem of how to plant lake trout fin- 
gerlings two series of experiments were performed, one the first 
week in July, the other the first week in September. Fingerlings 
from the Caledonia hatchery were placed in an aquarium which 
contained a liberal mixture of plankton and bottom organisms. 
These fingerlings fed in about equal proportions on the larger 
plankton, like Diaptomus, and Chironomus larvae. At the same 
time fingerlings were placed in cages of wire netting at depths of 
10, 30, 100 and 200 feet. Those placed at 100 or 200 feet were 
raised the next morning and found to be in perfect condition. 
They had also fed on Pontoporeia and copepods. The fish were 
kept in these cages for an entire week during both series of exper- 
iments and were found in perfect condition at the end. The fish 
planted at 100 to 200 feet were more vigorous than those at 10 and 
30 feet. The absence of Mysis in the stomach content of the fish 
planted at 100 feet is undoubtedly explained by the fact that the 
wire meshing was too fine for the Mysis to pass. Furthermore the 
midge larvae did not enter because they confined their attention to 
the bottom ooze which was outside the trap. We believe that the 
trout would naturally feed on the larvae as they did in the aqua- 
rium if they were free in the lake, and likewise that they would 
feed on Mysis. This shows conclusively that young trout thrive at 
depths of from 100 to 200 feet and find food successfully. The 
temperature at that depth is that to which they have been accus- 
tomed and the pressure has no effect on the fish, even when rapidly 
lowered or raised from a depth of 200 feet. We believe, therefore, 
that plantings of fingerling trout should be made in water exceed- 
ing at least 60 feet in depth because the oxygen content is ade- 
quate, the temperature is much more adapted to the young fish 
than the temperature to be found in depths of 30 to 50 feet where 
at the season of planting it is decidedly above the temperature in 
the hatcheries to which the young trout are accustomed. Further- 
more we find that the waters nearer shore to a depth of 50 feet are 
inhabited by numbers of perch, bass and other predacious fishes 
which would be a serious menace to the survival of the trout. 

The fingerlings should also be well scattered during the planting 
so that each will have a better chance of finding a bountiful food 
supply and predacious fishes will be less likely to devour a large 
percentage of them. 

Several outstanding facts immediately engage the attention. 
There are great areas of the lakes which are fit for fish propaga- 
tion—a plentiful supply of oxygen, a low carbon dioxide content, 
a plentiful supply of bottom fauna in most of the lakes and an 
enormous supply of plankton Crustacea. The 50-foot con- 
tour line is the general line of division between the realms 
of the shallow water and deep water fishes. This is near the bot- 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 65 

torn of the thermocline in most of the lakes and, in general, marks 
the division between warm and cool water during the summer when 
the feeding and general life activities are at the maximum. We 
believe that bass and pickerel confine their attention mostly to 
water shallower than 50 feet but the perch, which is the commonest 
and most generally distributed shallow water fish in the lakes, was 
taken in considerable numbers at depths from 40 to 55 feet. The 
150 lake trout captured by our fishermen were taken at an average 
depth of 85 feet. 

In all the lakes excepting Otisco the supply of oxygen and the 
scarcity of carbon dioxide is such that they are fit for fish habita- 
tion to their remotest depths, so far as the gaseous content of the 
water is concerned. 

In Canandaigua, Owasco and Skaneateles the absence of the 
common scud (Gammarus) is associated with a comparative scarcity 
of large yellow perch. 

The presence of plankton Crustacea in the Finger lakes in 
quantities assumed to be adequate* furnishes the most important 
clue for an improvement of the fish supply. These minute Crusta- 
cea are utilized directly as food only by the young fry and finger- 
ling of our important food fishes. But the plankton sifters like 
the alewif e, whitefish at certain seasons and smelt utilize this boun- 
tiful food supply and, in turn, are devoured by the lake trout, 
whitefish, perch and bass. The greatest hope, therefore, for the 
improvement of fishing in these three lakes lies in the introduction 
of ale wives (sawbellies) or some equally good plankton feeders. 
Alewives can be taken by the thousand in Seneca lake and imme- 
diately transported in trucks to the other lakes. The objection to 
the alewife that it sometimes dies in great numbers, when it be- 
comes unduly abundant, seems a question of minor importance. 
No complaints against this fish were heard on Keuka lake where 
it has been common for fifty years. On Seneca lake there have 
been complaints early in the summer of the odor of decaying ale- 
wives about once in five to seven years. But some of the more 
intelligent cottagers have maintained that this apparent nuisance 
is really a blessing because when they gathered the dead alewives 
from the beaches and buried them in the garden, they found them 
to be a very valuable fertilizer even as our Puritan forefathers 
found them at Plymouth. During the summer of 1927 there was 
no mortality noticeable in the alewife population. 

In connection with the general problem of utilizing the plankton 
in these lakes, it must be borne in mind that these immense vol- 
umes of water, amounting to many billions and even trillions of 
cubic meters in some of the lakes, support a vast amount of 
plankton Crustacea f which can be turned into nourishment for our 
larger food fishes only through the agency of such plankton sifters 
as the alewife, smelt and cisco. 



* See Birge and Juclay (loc. cit. ) . 

t See Charts 1-8, p. 144; chart 9, p. 154. 



66 Conservation Department 

Stocking policy. — We advise the planting of the following fishes 
in the Finger lakes : 

Lake trout in all the lakes except Otisco. 

Whitefish in all the lakes except Otisco. 

Cisco in all the lakes but sparingly in Otisco. 

Rainbow or steelhead trout in the affluents of all the lakes wher- 
ever suitable. These fish descend into the lakes in the summer and 
furnish fine sport as well as food. 

Yellow perch will take care of themselves where shallow water 
organisms are abundant. But new stock could be advantageously 
planted occasionally in Canandaigua and Otisco. 

Pike-perch or wall-eye should be planted in all the lakes except 
Keuka and Skaneateles, where rainbows or steelheads are preferred 
in the affluents. 

Large-mouthed bass might be planted in Otisco and the foot of 
Cayuga, but we should prefer the small-mouthed bass, even in these 
lakes, as it succeeds well and is a better fish. 

We would suggest continuing the experiment of planting smelts 
in Owasco and Skaneateles for a few years, and the planting of 
alewives in Canandaigua where the sportsmen's clubs have made 
this request. Then, at the end of five years, there would be a better 
basis for judgment of the relative merits of these two fish as plank- 
ton feeders and as food for lake trout and other fish. 

By way of variety such fish as the crappie or calico bass, the 
bluegill and the channel cat could be planted in warmer waters 
like Otisco and the foot of Cayuga. Where desired by the local 
fishermen's clubs, pike or pickerel could also be planted in such 
locations. The golden shiner might also be planted with profit in 
all these lakes to furnish food for bass and bait for the fishermen. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 67 

III. CARP CONTROL STUDIES IN ONEIDA LAKE 

By W. M. Smaixwood 

Professor of Zoology, Syracuse University, and 

P. H. Struthers, 

Assistant Professor of Zoology, Syracuse University 

It was in 1905 that Cole's* paper on the German carp in the 
United States was published. Little of importance on carp fisheries 
has appeared since that date. It is greatly to the credit of the 
Conservation Department that attention is again focused on this 
species which has become so numerous among our fresh water 
fish. 

Every one who has attempted to work out with accuracy the 
habits and life history of any animal has recognized that the 
numerous difficulties are greatly magnified when the object of 
study lives in a large body of water. Most Natural History studies 
and the more modern ecological investigations cover a period of 
years when the object of investigation is a terrestrial form. Years 
have been given to a study of plant relations in such a habitat. 
So when we undertook to obtain accurate information concerning 
the food, daily life and spawning habits of the adult carp, and the 
development and food of the young carp in a lake containing 
about eighty square miles with a shore line of nearly sixty-five 
miles, we recognized that the first summer would be mostly in the 
nature of reconnaissance and the trying out of methods. 

It is generally agreed that the carp have become very numerous 
in many of the lakes of New York State; and it is equally agreed 
that sportsmen regard them as a distinct menace to the develop- 

* Cole, L. J. The German Carp in the United States. Rept. U. S. Com- 
missioner of Fisheries. Washington, 1905 (1904). 





Channel in the Montezuma marsh, a place where carp spawn 



68 Conservation Department 

ment and catching of game fish. They are certain that they feed on 
the spawn of game fish and that they destroy the vegetation that 
is in the last analysis the source of the food of game fish as well 
as of some of the wild ducks. These and numerous other ques- 
tions have been submitted to us during our study this past summer. 
Some of the questions can be answered even from this brief survey, 
others will require more time. 

This preliminary report on carp control studies is submitted 
under the following: 

1. Methods of seining. 

2. Statistical evidence. 

3. The habits of the adult carp. 

4. The food of the adult carp. 

5. The habits of the young carp. 

6. The food of the young carp. 

7. General considerations. 

Methods of Seining. — To make statistical studies of the carp 
a large number of individuals is necessary. To obtain this material, 
without encroaching upon the time of the scientific staff, the 
services of Mr. Howard, a trained carp seiner from Bayport, 
Michigan, were procured. He furnished his own equipment con- 
sisting of a flat-bottomed power boat, scows and row boats, a 
winch engine mounted in the stern of the power boat and two 
half mile seines, one six feet and the other twelve feet wide. These 
seines were one an a half inch mesh and each was fitted with a 
bag or pound forty feet deep. The nets were heavily leaded and 




Bag or pocket of net approaching back stop 



Biological Survey.— Oswego Watershed 69 

at forty foot intervals brails were attached to prevent rolling of 
the seine, especially on grounds with a heavy vegetation. Three 
men were regularly employed to handle the equipment, but as the 
work progressed it was found necessary, especially when the 
bottom was rough, for the game protector detailed to this unit to 
assist in the hauling of the seine. 

A preliminary survey of the carp feeding grounds on Oneida 
lake showed the advisability of confining the major seining opera- 
tions to a few stations. It was found that large schools of carp fed 
in Fisher's bay, at Lakeport, and in the vicinity of Oneida creek. 
The bottom of the lake in these regions was well suited for seining, 
possessing large areas of shallow water comparatively free from 
obstacles such as tree stumps, rock piles or dense vegetation. 
The north side of the lake would have several excellent seining 
grounds if the bottom Avere free from obstacles. Seining was 
carried on continuously at Fisher's bay from May to the middle 
of October with occasional hauls being made at other stations on 
the lake. 

It was customary for Mr. Howard to make a scouting trip in 
his small boat early in the morning or late in the afternoon in 
order to locate schools of carp. If the fish were feeding their 
presence could be seen by the roily condition of the water, at 
other times they were located by fish jumping, while again the 
carp might be seen lying in shallow water. On locating fish the 
large seine, was laid out around the school, the power boat was 
anchored inshore from the net and the seine then drawn in by 
the aid of the winch engine. During the operation the net was 
watched constantly to guard against its catching on snags or 
rolling up. In most cases the catch was landed on the shore. 
Occasionally this was impractical due to the absence of a beach 
and at such times the bag was drawn up to a back stop, made 
from a part of the seine, and the catch removed to a scow. The 
feeding grounds for the carp on Oneida lake are for the most 
part in shallow water which makes it unnecessary to use a deep 
water seine or a back stop. Fisher's bay is such a good carp 
feeding ground, with an abundance of food, protection against 
wind and its proximity to deep water, that the use of bait such as 
corn or potatoes does not produce a marked increase in the number 
of fish. It does however cause the fish of one or more schools 
to congregate in one place and thus increase the size of a single 
haul. Because of this two bushels of corn were scattered each 
week over an area about equal to the space which the seine would 
encompass. 

The seining operations of the scientific staff were confined to 
the taking of small numbers of carp and game fish inhabiting 
the seventy-two carp stations made on the lake. Most of the 
carp were caught in a. two hundred and fifty foot gill net (three- 
inch stretch) laid out loosely around a school of carp. The fish 
were then driven into the net and seized before they could work 
themselves free. The gill nets were also used for catching game 
fish for population studies and to show the movement of fishes. 



70 



Conservation Department 









!1BS| 












1 ill 


- 


^^- fiS ***»* . •«£ 




t ^i 


* 






\wM 


^kW3L; ■ 


i; ',-v. --"'.. "' 


m 
f 




■('■ -, . .,.■'. 





A boat load of carp, part of a catch weighing one and a half tons 



Four such nets, each of a different sized mesh, were placed in a 
zigzag formation beginning with the fine mesh near shore and 
grading into the larger sizes offshore, Trap nets were used more 
successfully for taking fish other than carp. They were used 
singly or in groups of two or more. By joining the wing of one 
net with the leader of another a complete barrier was produced. 
Both trap and gill nets were set for one day a week throughout 
the summer in Three Mile bay, where an intensive study of a carp 
ground was made. 

The twenty-five and sixty foot minnow seines were found very 
valuable in collecting young carp and small fish inhabiting carp 
grounds. Either size of net could be operated by two men, and, 
except for regions covered with dense flora, they worked perfectly. 
A rigid trawl, made of fine mesh hardware cloth and shaped 
somewhat like a Petersen trawl, furnished an excellent means of 
catching small fishes living in thick vegetation. This trawl was 
also used for deep water dredging and had an added advantage 
of being available for a trap when not otherwise in use. 

Statistical Evidence. — From May 25 to September 21 more 
than 45 tons of carp were seined. This represents some 8,000 fish. 
The exact number cannot be given as accurate records were not 
made during the first month and in the larger hauls where as 
many as a thousand fish were successfully taken, some degree of 
error is to be expected. Those who have not worked at carp seining 
can hardly appreciate the difficulties. In the taking of this large 
number of fish, three thousand one hundred and eight other fish 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 71 

were temporarily held in the seine. Just as soon as possible these 
fish were released and returned to the lake. 

All sportsmen and protectionists are anxious to have the detailed 
facts in regard to the effect of carp seining on the other fish. 

Fish other than carp taken in the seines from May 25 to Sep- 
tember 22 were : 

Catfish 1,216 

Bullheads 505 

Silver bass 401 

Pike 322 

Large-mouthed bass 260 

Sunfish • 248 

Rock bass 67 

Suckers 38 

Pickerel 29 

Small-mouthed bass 20 

Ling 1 

Strawberry bass 1 



3,108 



From this list one would judge that not more than 1,000 game 
fish were caught during this entire period, all of which were re- 
turned unless injured by becoming enmeshed in the seine. 

Beginning June 18 and continuing from time to time until 
August 19 we made accurate measurements of 1,643 adult carp. 
Each fish was weighed and the length from snout to notch in 
caudal fin taken in inches. Scales from the side of the body dorsal 
to the lateral line and below the dorsal fin were removed and 
placed in an envelope. On the envelope was recorded the weight 
and length. The average weight of these 1,643 adult carp taken 
with no selection was 8% pounds. The length of these same fish 
was 22.12 inches. Scales were taken of the first 25 weighed or the 
first 50 or the entire lot. Three hundred and thirty-one sets of 
scales were examined with the microscope. The lines of growth 
are best seen when the scale is covered with water. The average 
age of the six sample lots was 5.89 years. 

The age of those taken as shown by the study of the lines of 
growth on the scales ranged from 2 to 13 years with the larger 
number of specimens four or five years old. But relatively few 
specimens were taken less than four, actually 13 ; while the num- 
bers above these dominant age groups gradually decreased. It 
might be inferred that carp after they became nine years old, either 
died or ceased to travel in schools. Practically no dead carp 
were found by us during the summer. What becomes of the older 
members and what their habits are remain problems still to be 
worked out. 

The habits of the young carp of one, two and three years, 
especially of the one-year-old carp are mostly unknown. The very 
few taken during the summer indicate either that they escaped 
through the meshes of the seine or that they live somewhat apart 



72 Conservation Department 

from the adults which move about in larger schools. This is clearly 
an important aspect of the carp problem that should be solved. 

Cole quotes the English ichthyologist Goode,* in regard to the 
relation of weight to length. One cannot judge of the variation 
from this table of Goode. The following summary of our observa- 
tions is in close agreement indicating that the carp grows rapidly 
but irregularly. Selecting 62 specimens that were five years old the 
range of weight was from 4 to 11 pounds and the range in length 
was from 16 to 26 inches. 



No. of specimens 


Pounds each 


No. of specimens 


Len< 


1 


4 


2 


16 inct 


6 


5 


3 


. . . 17 ' 


12 


6 


2 


. . . 18 ' 


15 


7 


8.........: 


. . . 19 ' 


20. . 


8 

9 


8 


... 20 ' 


5 


15.. 


. . . 21 ' 


1 


10 


9 


. . . 22 ' 


2 


11 


13 


. . . 23 ' 






2 


. . . 24 ' 


- 




1 


. . . 25 ' 






1 


. . . 26 ' 



This variation in the most numerous age taken indicates a larger 
variation in growth and explains why there is not much significance 
in the table by Goode. 

The following table indicates the range of weight for the same 
length in fish taken from Oneida lake. 



Number of . 


specimens 


Length in inches 


Weight in pounds , 


1. 








7.5.... 




11 ounces 


1. 








11.5.... 




. 1.25 


1. 








12 




. 1.4 


1 








13 




1 5 


1. 


14 




. 2 


2. 








15 




. 2,6 


3. 








. 16 




. 4, 5, 6 


4. 








. 17 




. 8, 5, 6, 5 


5. 








. 18 




. 5, 3, 4, 4, 3 


6 








. 19 




. 5, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5 


6 








. 20 




. 6, 7, 5, 5, 5, 6 


12 








. 21 




. 6, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 6, 6, 8, 5 


5 








. 22 




. 8, 7, 8, 10, 7 


9 








. 23 

. 24 




. 13, 8, 8, 9, 11, 9, 9, 8, 8 


5 








. 10, 9, 10, 8, 9 


5 








. 25...... 




. 10, 12, 10, 8, 9 


5 








. 26 




. 13, 12, 10, 12, 10 


5 








. 27 




. 14, 16, 18, 12, 11 


3 








. 28 




. 12, 14, 14 


4. 








. 29 




. 15, 15, 15, 20 


2. 








. 30 




. 20, 18 


4 








. 31 




. 18, 20, 24, 20 


3 








. 32 




. 21, 20, 23 


2 








. 33 




. 20, 20 


1 








. 34 




. 21.5 


1 








. 35 




. 24.75 


1. 








. 39 




. 29 


1. 




B. 


40... 

American Fishes. 


New York, 


. 32 


* 


Goode, G 


1888. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



73 



The Habits of the Adult Carp.— The limited space at our 
disposal makes it necessary to consider only those elements in the 
behavior of this fish, which seem to be directly associated with 
the problem of carp control. The habits of the carp in Oneida 
lake agree in general with the description set down by Cole.* 
Certain habits of breeding and migration seem to be modified to 
suit the local conditions. 

Carp habitats.- — An examination of the shores of the lake and 
islands reveals seventy-two regions inhabited more or less fre- 
quently by carp. These stations fall into three distinct types : 
(1) Rocky shoals typically covered with growths of water-willow 
(Diamthera americana), American bulrush (Scirpus americanns) 
or scattered beds of pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata). Such 
shoals lying near the feeding grounds as well as deep water afford 
a place where carp can rest in water made tepid by the summer 
sun. (2) Protected bays with a bottom of sand, clay or mud 
which have a wide stretch of shallows separating them from deep 
water. This type of habitat is rarely visited by large schools of 
carp although single individuals or small schools seem to live in 
such places continuously throughout the summer. (3) Protected 
bays similar to the preceding but close to deep water. Such 
regions furnish the ideal feeding grounds for the adult carp. 
Being easily • accessible to deep water the fish need travel but 
a short distance in search of food or escape in case of molestation. 
During July and the first part of August the shallow parts of 
such bays supporting growths of cat-tails or bulrush offer excel- 
lent places for the carp to rest in the warm water. 

The most dominant forms of plants identified in the second and 
third types of habitat are as follows : 



Narrow-leaved Cat-tail 

Floating Pondweed 

Clasping-leaf Pondweed 

Sago Pondweed 

Narrow-leaved Arrow-head 

Broad-leaved Arrow-head 

Wild celery, Eel-grass 

American Bulrush 

Lake Bulrush 

Duckweed 

Duckweed 

Pickerel-weed 

Cow Lily 

Sweet-scented Water-lily 

Swamp Loosestrife 

Water-milfoil 

Water-willow 



Typha angustifolia 
Potamogeton natans 
Potamogeton perfoliatus 
Potamogeton pectinatus 
Sagittaria arifolia 
Sagittaria latifolia 
Vallisneria spiralis 
Scirpus americanus 
Scirjms occidentalis 
Lemna trisulca 
Spirodela polyrhiza 
Pontederia cordata 
Nymphoea advena 
Castalia odorata 
Decodon verticillatus 
Myriophyllum verticil hi I n m 
Dianthera americana 



When the seventy-two stations are grouped according to the 
types of habitat there are fourteen in type one; fifteen in type 
two ; and forty-four in type three. This last named group, which 
represents good feeding grounds for carp, is distributed evenly 



Loc. Cit. 



74 



Conservation Department 



between the north and south sides of the lake. At the same time 
it should be pointed out that the stations along the south shore 
are generally larger and therefore capable of supporting a greater 
carp population. 

Breeding habits. — The carp spawn principally in May.* This 
somewhat earlier date than that reported by Cole for the Great 

* For other observations in the watershed, see p. 92. 




Young stages of carp. The two smallest from Oneida lake, July 21, 1927; 
young leather carp from Cassadaga creek, July 14, 1925 ; largest specimen 
from Oneida lake, Sept. 15, 1927 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 75 

Lakes may be influenced by the fact that the shallowness of Oneida 
lake causes the temperature of the water to rise more rapidly in 
the spring. More information is necessary before it will be pos- 
sible to state what percentage of the carp spawn in the streams 
flowing into the lake or the canal. From observations "made dur- 
ing the last half of May it is certain that some carp breed in the 
bulrushes growing in sheltered bays and on the south side of 
Frenchman's island. Judging from the relatively small number 
of young carp caught in the lake it seems likely that the majority 
of the carp may breed in the streams. This idea is further sub- 
stantiated by the statement of fishermen who say that they find 
many young carp in the small streams when they are catching 
minnows for bait. Our observations began June 15 so that we 
were not able to verify these reports nor to observe personally 
the spawning habits. Further investigations should be started 
early enough to permit work on this phase of the breeding habits. 

Migration. — In April and May there is a general tendency for 
the carp to move up the creeks and the canal. In the large creeks 
such as Chittenango they migrate ten or fifteen miles, often leaving 
the creek proper to scatter over tillable land inundated by spring 
freshets. It is not known whether this migration is primarily for 
breeding or simply foraging for food. By June first the carp 
have returned to the lake, are very thin and languid and do not 
move far from the feeding grounds. At this season of the year 
the carp are gregarious, living in schools of five hundred or more 
individuals, which migrate from deep water to feed or rest in the 
shallows. By the middle of July the carp have regained their 
normal vigor together with a greater feeding range. In October 
when the water begins to grow cold the large schools are broken 
up and the carp become sluggish and migrate but little. 

Food habits. — Carp are considered bottom feeders, rooting up 
their food from the bases of pondweed and other aquatic flora. 
This agitates the sand and mud producing the characteristic carp 
roil. Contrary to an existing belief that carp eat everything that 
comes in their way, our observations show that they exercise a 
preference. As it feeds the fish will every so often eject a mouth- 
ful of undesirable material and then continue its feeding. Close 
observation shows that they also nose along the stems and leaves 
of plants sucking in a large number of crustaceans and insect 
larvae. On one occasion carp were seen scooping along the surface 
of the water in quest of mayflies. 

Carp have been accused of driving game fish away from their 
feeding grounds. In contradiction of this belief we found that 
catfish, pike and pickerel were frequently taken in the same haul 
with carp indicating that these game fishes were occupving the 
feeding grounds together with the carp. In Three Mile bay small- 
mouthed bass were observed feeding among the bulrushes witli 
carp, neither species seeming to take any notice of the other. 

Sunrise and sunset seem to be the preferred hours for feeding. 
Carp taken during the middle of the day showed their stomachs 



76 Conservation Department 

to be empty. They do not feed every day for they will not venture 
into shallow water when the lake is rough and even when it is calm 
the feeding grounds are often deserted. Even while feeding carp 
are ever on the alert for danger. The creaking of an oar lock or 
a sudden movement may cause them to rush for deep water not 
to return again until the following day. If however there is a 
good cover of vegetation the fish is more likely to lie perfectly 
still relying on its power of concealment for protection rather 
than flight. 

The Food of the Adult Carp. — There is probably more mis- 
conception about the food of the adult carp than about any other 
phase of its life. This is largely due to the lack of information in 
regard to their daily activities. Cole comments on the difficulty of 
studying carp in their natural environment and the even greater 
difficulty of taking carp at a selected time of day. While Ave have 
taken adult carp at all times of the day, in practically every in- 
stance the stomach has been empty and the intestinal contents 
partly digested. Before any very definite conclusions can be 
formulated in regard to the significance of their diet in Oneida 
lake additional studies will have to be made. However some facts 
of importance were gathered as the following, selected from our 
data, illustrate. These have been taken to show the scope of the 
feeding habits of the adults: 

June 18. Length, 22 inches; weight, 5 lbs. Station 53, Lake- 
port. Food : small fragments of muscle of fish, fragments of in- 
sects and crayfish, copepods, 1700 ; algae, abundant ; bits of leaves 
and roots of higher plants. 

June 10. Length, 15 inches; weight, 2 lbs. Station 60, Sylvan 
beach. Food : stomach empty and contents of intestines mostly 
digested; Spirogyra, Vallisneria and insect fragments. 

July 12. Length, 20 inches; weight, 8 lbs; age, 5 years. Sta- 
tion 8, Three Mile bay. Food : two small snails ; small clam • parts 
of two young minnows, probably golden shiners ; ostracods, cope- 
pods, phyllopods and insect fragments ; remains of algae and 
Potamogeton. 

July 14. Five carp were taken in Station 17, Poddygut bay, 
at 4:30 p. m. and the intestinal tract removed and preserved at 
6 :00 p. m. Carp are found in this habitat during the entire day. 
Theoretically the food conditions are ideal, but the intestinal tract 
was practically empty in each one except for sand and a few 
plant fragments. 

August 19. Twenty carp vvere secured in Station 46, in Fisher's 
bay and preserved at once. These were taken in the seine which 
had been placed around an area where corn had been scattered. 
Three had the stomach full of corn, nine had the stomach empty 
and three the intestine as well as the stomach empty. In this habi- 
tat where the carp were being fed it is interesting to examine the 
detailed intestinal contents of the following three : First speci- 
men. Length, 27 inches; weight, 12 lbs; age, 12 years; male; 
stomach contained mostly partially digested corn, a few Crustacea 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 77 

and fragments of water plants. Intestine (in order of frequency 
of occurrence ) ; small snail shells and fragments ; caddis worm 
cases ; midge larvae ; amphipods ; copepods ; ostracods ; legs and 
antennae of various Crustacea; filamentous algae; small mollusca; 
cladocera. Second specimen. Length, 21 inches; weight, 6 lbs; 
age, 5 years ; stomach empty ; intestine : snail shells and fragments ; 
midge larvae ; caddis worm cases ; plant fragments ; ostracods ; clad- 
ocera; amphipods; small clams. Third specimen. Length, 21 
inches ; weight, 8 lbs ; male ; contents of stomach : caddis worm 
cases ; snail shells ; midge larvae ; plant fragments and stalk frag- 
ments; ostracods; 3 fish scales; w^ter mites; plant leaf; minute 
algae ; crustacean legs. 

To test out the report that carp destroyed plants, a cage was 
constructed at Three Mile bay. Three adult carp were confined 
for two months in this wire screened cage covering an area of 
about 25 square feet. At the close of the experiment a few plants 
of eel-grass had been uprooted but there remained a large num- 
ber of these plants and others which carp are reported to root up 
in feeding. The cage was located in a place where carp had been 
found to congregate and after the cage was constructed carp were 
repeatedly seen in the weeds close to the cage. The conditions 
then, were as near ideal for testing out this question as possible, 
and the result indicates that the damage done to vegetation was 
insignificant; but on the other hand the detailed studies on the 
food of adult carp in Oneida lake clearly indicate their preference 
for animal food. 

Cole states that the food is largely vegetable. Tracy 1 reporting 
on Rhode Island fisheries says that the carp eat principally vege- 
table matter; and Forbes and Richardson 2 emphasize vegetable 
food as the main constitutent. It is hardly to be expected that there 
would be such a marked difference in the food habits of the Oneida 
lake carp. The explanation may be in the fact that our material 
was preserved very soon after the fish were caught, The studies of 
this summer indicate that animal food predominates and that 
there is some selection in the animals eaten. The finding of 
muscle fragments and fish scales is rare and probably means that 
they were taken in with the debris that is so characteristic of the 
intestinal contents. 

The Habits of the Young Carp. — Up to the present time prac- 
tically nothing has been known about the habits of young carp. 
This is probably due in part to their hiding in vegetation when 
disturbed rather than exposing themselves in an attempt to escape. 
Moreover they do not live in schools as do many of the young 
game fishes, a characteristic which causes them to escape the notice 
of a casual observer. It is easy to distinguish carp fry from the 
young of other fishes for they are a replica of the adult in form 

"Tracy, H. C. Annotated list of fishes known to inhabit the waters of 
Rhode Island. Com. Inland Fisheries, R. I., 1910. 

2 Forbes, S. A. and Richardson, R. E. The Fishes of Illinois. 111. State Lab. 
Nat. Hist., vol. 3, 1908. 



78 Conservation Department 

and arrangement of the fins. The back is much lighter in color 
than that of the adult, being a light mouse gray. At the base of 
the tail there is a vertically placed black bar, while the abdomen 
has a distinct yellowish tinge. When young carp are caught in 
a dip net this yellowish color and the deep body distinguish them 
from many other species of fish. It is very difficult to identify 
young carp in the water when looking down on them from above, 
but a triangular area somewhat lighter than the back can be seen 
in good light lying just back of the head. 

All the small carp found during the past summer were confined 
to a very characteristic environment. In general this consisted 
of a region protected against waves by the presence of a sand bar 
from the open lake. At Lakeport a wide stretch of cat-tails and 
bulrushes served to break the force of the waves. The bottom of 
these carp grounds was invariably sandy or a combination of sand 
and mud, the latter being usually found near shore and therefore 
associated with the very young carp. In all the habitats observed 
the water was free from sediment, decaying vegetable matter or 
contamination from creeks. The temperature of the water in these 
protected regions ran about ten degrees warmer than that of deep 
lake water. The( shores bordering these carp habitats consisted of 
low land covered with a growth of meadow grass or bulrushes 
with here and there small bayous extending shoreward. Each of 
these set-backs was carpeted with tender grass, Elodea, Chara, or 
Myriophyllum among which the young carp lived. As the carp 
increased in size they moved lakeward into deeper water. By 
September first the young carp were living in one or two feet of 
water close by scattered beds of Pondweed (Potamogeton pectin- 
atus) or of Hornwort. 

The rapid rate of growth of young carp is remarkable. This is 
shown in the following table which gives the dates the fish were 
caught, the ranges in size and the locality. 

July 12 10 mm. long (about % inch) Lakeport 

July 21 12 mm. — 26 mm Damon's point 

July 27 14 mm. — 30 mm dough's bay 

July 29 12 mm. — 40 mm Lakeport 

Aug. 12 38 mm. — 42 mm Frenchman's island 

Aug. 20 41 mm. — 78 mm Damon's point 

Sept. 5 80 mm. — 112 mm Frenchman's island 

Sept. 7 72 mm. — 106 mm Damon's point 

Nov. 25 50 mm. — 110 mm Damon's point 

The carp caught on July 12 at Lakeport were very young for the 
yolk-sacs were still present. They were living close to the shore 
in not over one inch of water. The fish taken in Clough's bay on 
July 27 were living in the short meadow grass in about four inches 
of water. The carp taken during August inhabited water six 
inches to one foot in depth, while those taken the first week of 
September were living in water from one to two feet deep. Further 
observations are necessary to determine when the young carp go 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 79 

into deep water. The yearling carp were found in schools similar 
to the adult carp but not associating with the more mature fish. 

Young carp are found scattered over a favorable habitat, each 
individual conducting itself independently of other young carp. 
In seining it was never possible to catch more than two or three 
of them in any one haul. On July 21 at Damon's point twenty 
little carp were taken from one of the shallow set-backs, covering 
an area of not over thirty square feet. A similar catch was made 
at Clough's bay July 27, in a growth of short grass. In each of 
these instances the cover was excellent and this fact probably ac- 
counts for the large number in a small area, On September 7 at 
Damon's point a strip of shore three hundred feet long and extend- 
ing fifty feet into the lake Avas systematically seined. The territory 
had several beds of Potamogeton pectinatus, Elodea and Chara, 
each an excellent cover for young carp. Only ten fish were caught 
in this area. Such data show how widely the young carp of 70 mm. 
to 100 mm. are distributed over a favorable habitat. 

Invariably a little carp will hide rather than seek safety in flight 
if molested. It is this characteristic which makes them so difficult 
to find. When catching them with a hand-net it is possible to 
work over a whole bed of Chara or Elodea without driving the fish 
away. Not until they reach a length of about 100 mm. do they 
seem to appreciate the possibility of fleeing from an intruder. On 
September 15, several carp over 100 mm. in length were seen to 
dart out from small patches of Potamogeton (P. pectinatus). 
Their movements were very rapid and directed toward deep water. 
Even the youngest carp observed were fast swimmers, comparing 
favorably with young darters which are frequently found living in 
the same habitat. Several pens of young carp were kept in Clough 's 
bay for purposes of study. Here we found they spent a consider- 
able amount of time completely buried in the mud and sand. This 
habit is undoubtedly valuable for very young fish living in shallow 
water, as a means of protection, especially against predacious birds 
and sudden changes in the temperature. 

Small carp are very sensitive to temperature changes and also 
to impurities in the water. To test these reactions, young carp 
were placed in aquaria with young sunfish, bullheads and common 
perch. A sudden change of temperature invariably affected the 
carp first, Any pronounced change in the hydrogen-ion concentra- 
tion, due to the presence of decaying matter, was fatal to the carp 
although not to the other young fishes living with them. In their 
natural habitat young carp were seldom found in the vicinity of 
green algae such as Spirogyra or Cladophora, decaying vegetable 
matter, or quagmires. 

The feeding habits of young carp are very interesting. On July 
21 some carp fry 12-26 mm. long were observed feeding, about 
noon, in a bed of Chara at Damon's point, Twenty individuals 
were scattered over an area of some thirty square feet. The fish 
would start in at the base of the stalk, work up the stem and then 
down the other side, then go to another plant and repeat the 
operation. At times they would work out onto the leaves, but 



80 Conservation Department 

never come to the surface of the water. Sometimes two fishes 
would be working on one plant, each apparently unconscious of 
the other's presence. At intervals a fish would remain motionless, 
except for the slowly waving fins, and then suddenly dart off to a 
new clump of Chara, More detailed observations of the feeding 
habits of the little carp were obtained from fish living in aquaria 
and the artificial pens at Clough's bay. The bottom of the 
aquarium was covered with fine sand and clay rich in organic 




Flooded land along old channel of Seneca 
river, habitat of spawning carp 

material. Within a few days the surface showed numerous small 
pits. These were made by the young carp which often take a 
position forming an angle of about 90° with the bottom and with 
the tip of the snout in the sand. Next a cloud of sand is seen 
passing out of the opercular opening. Sometimes this is all that 
happens and the fish proceeds to swim about in the aquarium ; but 
at other times the fish takes a position horizontal to the bottom 
and works the jaws repeatedly as if chewing, the jaws opening 
and closing from 12 to 18 times according to some of our records. 
After this chewing, the fish swims around. There is still another 
feeding habit of the young carp in aquaria that has been interest- 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 81 

ing to watch. They suck up a mouthful of the debris from the 
bottom, eject this from the mouth, then dart forward and gobble 
up bits of desirable food. This preferential type of feeding has 
not before been attributed to carp. The young fish living in 
aquaria frequently resort to top feeding, working here and there 
with their mouths just below the surface of the water sucking up 
bits of floating matter. This is probably an unusual type of feed- 
ing for young carp in their natural haunts, for the fish lives near 
the bottom. Observations made on the stomachs of little carp 
taken at different hours during the day, indicate that they have 
rapacious appetites which keep them busy foraging for food at all 
hours of the day. 

Young carp are very active, strong swimmers and their inquisi- 
tive natures keep them continually exploring the domain in which 
they live. But being more timid than our common game fish it is 
difficult to observe them. Their tendency to live in dense growths 
of flora and to bury themselves in the mud indicates that the young 
fish may be to some extent negatively phototrophic, in which case 
their behavior differs from the adult, which shows no aversion to 
light. The instincts seem to be poorly developed in the young carp, 
for our observations show no indications of pugnacity or on the 
other hand of a tendency to be gregarious. A characteristic occa- 
sional darting about aimlessly through the water might be at- 
tributed to play. 

The Food of the Young Carp. — Pearse* reports on the food of 
42 young carp, ranging from 15 mm. to 460 mm. These were taken 
between the dates of July 12 and September 14, with one specimen 
secured April 22. The collections extended over two summers. 
The summary of the food in percentages of these 42 is as follows : 

Food : insect larvae, 39.7 ; insect pupae, 6.8 ; adult insects, 3.5 ; 
mites, 1.8; amphipods, 6.9; cntomostracans, 20.9; snails, 6,9; 
oligochaetes, 2.8; rotifiers, 1.1; protozoans, -f- ; algae, 0.8; plant re- 
mains, 4.9 ; silt and debris, 1.5. 

While several hundred young carp were taken during the sum- 
mer the study of food contents was made on only 87. The collec- 
tions were from both the south and north shores and Frenchman's 
island. Fish taken from such widely separated regions should show 
variations in their food, if the fish were merely taking what was 
available or were omniverous, but we find a great similarity in the 
stomach contents of the young fish taken from these widely sepa- 
rated localities. Animal food dominates throughout the period 
with the ostracocls, copepods, snails, and chironomid larvae per- 
sisting as the most important food. It is interesting to discover 
that the same conditions obtained in these young as are found 
in the adults, for many had the stomach empty and some the en- 
tire intestinal tract. Such conditions cannot be due to the scarcity 
of food for there was a continued abundance of these food or- 
ganisms throughout the summer. 

The following individual studies introduce the summary in 

* Pearse, A. S. The Food of the Shore Fishes of Certain Wisconsin Lakes. 
Bull. U. S. Bur. Fisheries, vol. 35, 1918. 



82 Conservation Department 

percentages of the food table of young carp and reveal the selec- 
tive nature of their food. 

I. Length, 16 mm. Stomach empty. Food in the intestine: Cladocera, 
10; copepods, 20; ostracods, 00; unidentifiable debris, 10. 

II. Length, 16 mm. Food: Planorbis, 75; ostracods, 7; copepods, 4; 
mites, 3; algae debris, 1; eggs of snail, 10. 

III. Length, 18.5 mm. Food: Chironomid larvae, 20; ostracods, 10; cope- 
pods, 30; cladocera, 10; debris, 15; eggs of snail, 15. 

IV. Length, 23, mm. Stomach filled: Ostracods, 25; copepods, 25; 

cladocera, 5 ; debris containing planorbis, 40. 
V. Length. 2(5 mm. Stomach filled: Parasitized by 5 nematodes in the 
alimentary tract. Food: Ostracods, 80; copepods, 8; misc.: Arcella 
mites; insect; cladocera, 12. 

VI. Length, 12 mm. Stomach empty. Copepods, 80; ostracods, 15 
cladocera, 5. 
VII. Length, 40 mm. Stomach empty. Planorbis, 25; chironomid larvae, 35 
ostracods, 10; copepods, 5; insects, 6; Arcella, 1; cladocera, 3; water 
mites, 5; debris, including Planorbis shell fragments, ostracods, plant 
fragments, diatoms, Pediastrum, filamentous algae, Eremosphera, 
sand, 10. 
VIII. Lenth, 82mm. Weight, 9.5 gm. Stomach empty. Snail shells, 10 
copepods, 10; seed pods, 15; ostracods, 15; midge larvae, 10 
cladocera, 10; insect larvae, 5; plant leaf and stem fragments, 5 
insects, 5; amphipods, 3; fish spine and caudal fin, 3; fish scales, 
2 ; debris, including shell fragments, 5 ; algae, 2. 

Summary of the food of the eighty-seven young carp ranging 
from 11 mm. to 112 mm. 

No. of individ- 
uals containing 
food in the ali- 
mentary tract 
{stomach and 
Food Item intestine) 

Crustacea fragments 70 

Ostracods 65 

Copepods 61 

Cladocera 39 

Insect larvae 69 

Algae 46 

Snails 31 

Debris 29 

Shell fragments 27 

Worms (Nematode) 16 

Plants (plant leaf fragments) 16 

Mites • 15 

Eggs 

Snail 4 

Insect 5 

Copepod 3 

Rotifers • • • 3 

Clams . 2 

Eleven had the intestinal tract empty. Thus 70 per cent of the 
76 containing food had eaten some form of Crustacea. 

The individual studies and this table indicate that their food 
is similar to those found in Casadaga creek* ; and that they com- 
pete with perch, bass, pumpkinseecls, suckers, bullheads, darters 
and minnows. 

General Considerations of Carp Control. — The studies on 
carp control which have been carried on during the past summer 
furnish new and valuable data upon the life of the carp in a 



Genesee Survey, p. 56, 1926. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 83 

large body of water. These studies have shown us the wide scope 
of this carp problem, which presents many phases as yet unstudied 
or in which the investigation is not complete, and whose solution 
is necessary before it will be possible to formulate regulations that 
should be adopted for the control of carp. It is very much to be 
doubted if any regulations other than the natural consumption of 
carp will be successful in keeping their numbers down. To just 
what extent the carp are really detrimental to the development of 
game fish in large bodies of water, still remains a problem. When 
the carp come in in large numbers where fishermen are casting 
for bass, the bass usually cease to take the fly. In this sense they 
may be characterized as detrimental to the catching of one of our 
popular game fish. They are exceedingly shy and remarkably 
swift in their movements, so that any detailed study of their 
habits in a large body of water presents numerous difficulties. 
But it is in large bodies of water in the State that they have come 
to live in vast numbers, so that it is important that their adapta- 
tions and habits be closely scrutinized. 

In this one summer it has been shown that the food of carp is 
selected in part, chosen from animal sources. Their breed- 
ing habits in the spring should be one of the first problems taken 
up and this will necessitate beginning observations early in May. 
We have been able to check up on many of the stories of the 
fishermen and found most of them to be unreliable but of course 
we were unable to make observations on the activities of the carp 
during the early spring when they are said to be present in great 
numbers in the over-flooded regions in the swamps of Three Mile 
bay, Chittenango creek and elsewhere. 

We are, at the close of the summer not able to give a consistent 
account of the one-year old carp. Where do they live and upon 
what do they feed and are they associated with the large schools 
of adults? Also, when do the young leave their characteristic 
shallow water habitat and enter the deeper water? Do they con- 
tinue to select their food and is it almost entirely of an animal 
nature as it is during the first summer? These and similar prob- 
lems must be studied before anything like the complete story of 
the carp in a large lake can be told. Some one should take up the 
whole problem of marketing carp for we feel that just as soon 
as a constant demand can be created for carp as food, that the 
simplest and most reasonable method of their control will have 
been adopted. Associated with the selling of carp there will de- 
velop a rather perplexing problem for the Conservation Depart- 
ment, in giving its endorsement to some means of seining these 
fish, for they cannot be taken to commercial advantage in any 
other way. Before it is wise to issue permits for seining, it will 
be necessary, we believe, to train men in this work, for while carp 
are abundant, it does not follow by any means that they can be 
taken regularly so as to meet a continuous demand. The casual 
and superficial methods of local fishermen if utilized will surely 
result in financial failure. The man who undertakes to catch 
carp to supply a market demand must know the detailed habits 
of carp and he must be equipped with an understanding of seining. 



84 Conservation Department 

IV. FISHES OF THE OSWEGO WATERSHED 

By J. R. Greeley, 
Instructor in Zoology, Cornell University. 

The entire Oswego drainage has never before been investigated 
with the purpose of listing the fishes found within its waters, al- 
though the fish fauna of subdivisions of the watershed, the Cayuga 
and Oneida lake basins, have received much careful study. 1 ' 2> 3 - 

During the summer of 1927 the Conservation Department car- 
ried on as a part of its program, an investigation of the fishes of 
the entire Oswego watershed. 

Extensive collecting in the creeks, rivers and ponds of the 
region was done by one collecting party made up of the writer 
and Mr. Carl Van Dieman and by another similar unit comprised 
of Messrs. Myron Gordon and W. M. Reynolds. A survey party 
under Dr. E. H. Eaton collected in the Finger lakes in connection 
with work toward the development of a stocking policy for those 
bodies of water and under Dr. William Smallwood in connection 
with carp control studies. The work of labeling and cataloguing 
the collections was done by Mrs. J. R. Greeley, who served as 
curator. 

These collections include over 1,500 lots of specimens. Repre- 
sentative series of all species will be placed on record in the New 
York State Museum at Albany. As far as possible complete data 
regarding type of bottom, current and water temperature has been 
kept for all specimens. 

Methods of collecting. — The greater part of the stream collect- 
ing was done by means of seines. These ranged in size from a 
length of 6 feet and a mesh of 1/6 inch to a length of 200 feet 
and a mesh of 1 inch. Set lines and fyke nets were used in several 
of the rivers. 

In the lakes the collecting methods included the use of gill nets, 
seines, fyke and trap nets, set lines and dredges. 

General Nature of the Region. — The Oswego river drains an 
area lying within the region of glaciation. Toward the southern 
headwaters of this watershed, especially in the country drained by 
tributaries of the Finger lakes, there are numerous high hills. 
From these run many precipitous streams and here, as in Wat- 
kins and Enfield glens, waterfalls are frequently encountered. 

i Meek, S. E. Notes on the Fishes of Cayuga Lake Basin. Annals of N. Y. 
Acad, of Science, IV, March, 1889. 

2 Reed, H. D. and Wright, A. H. The Vertebrates of the Cayuga Lake Basin 
New York. Proceedings Am. Philos, Soc. Vol. XLVII no. 193, 1909. 

s Adams, C. C. and Hankinson, T. L. Notes on Oneida Lake Fish and 
Fisheries. Trans. American Fisheries Society, Vol. XLV no. 3, June, 1916. 

Acknowledgements are due Prof. T. L. Hankinson who contributed infor- 
mation on the Oneida lake fishes; Prof. A. H. Wright for valuable sugges- 
tions ; Prof. C. L. Hubbs who made several determinations of fishes ; and many 
sportsmen and game protectors of the region. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 85 

Toward the north however, the country becomes more flat, and is 
drained largely by less rapid streams. Although a high plateau 
is to be found north of Oneida lake, even here the descent is gener- 
ally more gradual than it is in the region of the Finger lakes. 

There are many lakes and ponds throughout the Oswego water- 
shed. These tend to prevent floods in the streams which they sup- 
ply by acting as temporary storage basins. Because of this fact the 
Oswego river is much less subject to excessive high water, as is 
emphasized by G. W. Rafter in his work on the Hydrology of New 
York State (p. 110). 

This author gives much important data about the Oswego water- 
shed which may be summarized, in part, as follows: Total catch- 
ment area 5,002 square miles; total area of water surface approxi- 
mately 310 square miles; total area of water surface, flats and 
marsh, 530 square miles (10.6 per cent of total catchment area) ; 
mean annual rainfall 30 to 40 inches; evaporation approximately 
28 inches; annual runoff, calculated from a mean annual rainfall 
of 36 to 37 inches, not more than approximately 9 or 10 inches; 
highest waters (Fish creek region) about 1,800 feet above tide 
level; lowest waters (at Oswego) about 400 feet above tide level. 

Distribution of Fish in the Watershed. — The problem of the 
distribution of the various species of fishes throughout this large 
area is not capable of being entirely solved. There are too many 
factors to be taken into consideration. Not only would we need 
to understand perfectly the geologic history of the area but also 
must we consider the many changes brought about by mankind in 
clearing the forests, polluting the streams, building canals and 
otherwise disturbing the natural fish fauna. However it may be 
of interest to note a few facts that are apparent in regard to the 
question of distribution. 

(1) There are generally more species of fish in the lowland 
where there are more gradual watercourses, than in the highland 
where there are more precipitous ones. The tributaries of the 
Finger lakes are poorer in number of species than are their outlets 
and conversely, the northern area of the watershed is, as a whole, 
richer in this respect than is the southern. 

(2) The headwaters of some streams of the Oswego drainage 
have their sources very near others of either the Susquehanna, 
Mohawk, Lake Ontario or Genesee watersheds and in certain cases 
have acquired species of fish from the neighboring drainages. 
This has occurred either by means of a former, natural, direct 
connection or by a recent artificial one. 

The first case is illustrated by upper Buttermilk creek (Cayuga 
lake drainage), which has its headwaters in close proximity to 
those of Danby creek (Susquehanna drainage) and, judging by the 
similarity of the fish fauna of the two streams, was once connected 
with this creek. 

An example of the second case is shown in Catherine, creek 
(Seneca lake drainage), which was joined with the Susquehanna 
stream system by an artificial canal, which allowed certain fishes 



86 Conservation Department 

notably Notropis procne, Clinostomus elongatus and Nocomts mi- 
cropogon to enter Catherine creek. 

In at least one instance a Susquehanna stream has been arti- 
ficially diverted into the Oswego drainage. A branch of Tiough- 
nioga creek was made to flow into DeRuyter reservoir by the con- 
struction of a dam. This causes its waters to flow into Limestone 
creek of the Oneida lake basin. 

(3) The Barge canal which connects the Oswego watershed di- 
rectly with the Genesee and Mohawk rivers. 

For the purpose of treating the distribution of the various 
fishes the Oswego drainage has been subdivided into smaller divis- 
ions, which are as follows: 

1. Canandaigua lake. 

2. Canandaigua lake inlets. 

3. Kueka lake. 

4. Keuka lake inlets. 

5. Seneca lake. 

- 6. Seneca lake inlets. 

7. Cayuga lake. 

8. Cayuga lake inlets. 

9. Owasco lake. 

10. Owasco lake inlets. 

11. Skaneateles lake. 

12. Skaneateles lake inlets. 

13. Otisco lake. 

14. Otisco lake inlets. 

15. Onondaga lake. 

16. Onondaga lake inlets. 

17. Oneida lake. 

18. Oneida lake inlets. 

19. Oswego river. 

20. Oswego river tributaries (exclusive of Seneca and Oneida 

river), 

21. Oneida river. 

22. Oneida river tributaries. 

23. Seneca river. 

24. Seneca river tributaries. 

25. Clyde river. 

26. Clyde river tributaries. 

This chart of fish distribution (p. 103), shows the known distri 
bution of the numerous species of fish throughout the watershed. 

Classification of Fish. — In the annotated list (page 95) 100 
species of fish representing 24 families are listed from the Oswego 
drainage. From an economic standpoint these may be divided 
into food and game fish (those commonly taken for sport or for 
use as food) and non-food, non-game fish (those not taken for these 
purposes). 

Food and Game Fish. — Tinder this heading 43 species may be 
listed. For the entire drainage area, it would be impossible to list 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 87 

these according to their exact rank in importance, partly because of 
the lack of a statistical basis upon which to consider their import- 
ance. Even if the exact number of each taken by fishermen were 
known, there might yet be some doubt as to the relative value of 
the various species. Considered from the angler's viewpoint a 
much sought game fish like a trout might be more important than 
a less desired species such as the perch, irrespective of the numbers 
taken. 

Statistics regarding the commercial fisheries of the larger lakes 
and rivers of the region are given by Cobb.* Due to the decrease in 
this type of fishing such figures cannot be applied at the present 
time. 

Since angling is now more important than commercial fishing in 
our region, the game fish may be considered the more important 
ones. The principal species are : The brook, brown, rainbow and 
lake trouts ; the small-mouthed and large-mouthed black basses ; 
the pike-perch ; the northern pike ; and chain pickerel ; the bullhead 
and spotted catfish ; the yellow perch, the rock bass, common sun- 
fish and calico bass ; the common sucker, three species of red-horse 
suckers (Moxostoma) and the eel. Other species of food and game 
fish which are of less importance, due to restricted occurrence or 
rarity are : steelhead trout, common whitefish, white bass, sheeps- 
head, yellow bullhead, blue pike, sauger, long-eared sunfish, green 
sunfish, lake sturgeon, eel-pout and smelt. A group of food fishes 
that are seldom taken by angling are : cisco, tullibee, fine-scaled 
sucker and the carp. Of the latter, however, a considerable num- 
ber are speared and used for food. The carp has great possibilities 
as a commercial fish within the Oswego watershed. 

Several species of fishes having inferior value as food are never- 
theless occasionally so used. Among these are : hog sucker, chub 
sucker, fall fish, horned dace, little pickerel and bowfin. As only 
the larger individuals of most of the species are ever used for food 
the group perhaps more properly belongs under the next subdivis- 
ion, that of non-food, non-game species. 

Non=food, Non=game Species. — Here we may list 57 species. 
This group is composed of the smaller fish such as the minnows 
(Cyprinidae) along with a few of the larger varieties which are 
not of use as food such as the gar-fishes (Lepisosteus) and in- 
cludes the following: the lampreys (2 species), long-nosed gar, 
bowfin, sawbelly, gizzard shad, nearly all members of the minnow 
family (29 species), stonecats (4 species), mud minnow, barred 
killifish, trout perch, darters (6 species), skipjack, sculpins (4 
species) and sticklebacks (3 species). 

Bait Fish. — The use of small fish as bait for larger ones such 
as pickerels and basses, is a very common practice among anglers. 
Judging by the number of persons engaged in selling live bait 

* Cobb, Jolm N. The commercial fisheries of the interior lakes and 
rivers of New York and Vermont; Kept. U. S. Com. of Fish and Fisheries 
1903 (1905). 



88 Conservation Department 

near the lakes, it is here that this style of angling- is most common. 
However along the Oswego and other rivers as well as along the 
waters of ponds and the larger creeks, live bait fishermen are 
often seen. The numbers of minnows and other small fish thus 
destroyed are doubtless great. 

The majority of these are taken from the streams for it is gen- 
erally easier to obtain larger and more suitable minnows here 
than in the lakes. Certain creeks are netted very thoroughly for 
this purpose and, due to this cause, some of these creeks are 
doubtless injured in their productivity of game fish owing to 
the consequent decrease in the food of the latter. However the 
actual harm done in this way is difficult to estimate because of 
other factors operating toward a decrease in the number of food 
fish. In the few streams not containing game fish, and not directly 
tributary to other streams containing such, the damage done by 
taking minnows may be negligible. 

The commercial bait fisherman and in many cases the angler 
taking bait for personal use only, often destroy an unnecessarily 
large number of small fish. This is mainly due to the fact that 
there is often a considerable loss from fungus disease when num- 
bers of fish are kept crowded together for several days. This is 
especially true in summer. 

Anglers prefer to use the more silvery varieties of minnows, 
although they may often use whatever they are able to obtain. 
For the black basses and pickerels large baits are used. To take 
perch, calico bass and other smaller game fish, fishermen use 
minnows of a smaller size. In general the fish used in angling 
are not those species which are of value as food or game but, un- 
fortunately, such varieties as sunfish and yellow perch are some- 
times used for northern pike and other pickerels. 

The more common bait fishes in our region are : common shiner 
(both subspecies), golden shiner, silvery minnow, blunt-nosed min- 
now, and barred killifish. Numerous other species may be 
occasionally used not excluding several food species such as the 
two just mentioned. Sawbellies and ciscoes are used, when obtain- 
able, as lake trout bait. 

Habitat Preferences. — Fish seem to have decided preferences 
in the matter of environment although some species are quite 
versatile in this respect, occurring in many types of waters. Par- 
ticular factors must be met, however, for the various species. 
Among these factors are size of stream, current, type of bottom, 
temperature, chemical and gaseous content of the water, type 
and abundance of food, shelter and spawning grounds (Greeley*). 

In the case of a particular species of fish, the requirements as 
to one condition of environment may be more rigid than that re- 
srarding: another. Brook trout seem not to be limited to any one 



* Greeley, J. R. A Biological Survey of the Genesee River System. Part 
IV. Fishes of the Genesee Region with Annotated List, N. Y. State Con- 
servation Dept. 1920 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 89 

type of bottom for they occur where the bottom is muck, gravel, 
rubble, clay and so forth. However they are limited to cold waters. 
Fan-tailed darters occur in both cold and warm waters. Yet they, 
unlike the trout, are restricted to shallow riffles where the bottom 
is hard, usually rubble. 

In the annotated list, notes are included for nearly all species 
as to the environment in which the fish has been taken. For the 
sake of clearness, the designations there used may be explained. 
Rivers: the Oswego, Seneca, Oneida and Clyde. Large streams: 
tributaries of approximately 15 feet in width such as Canandaigua 
outlet. Small streams: tributaries of less than approximately 
15 feet in width. Lakes: the major lakes of the region ranging 
in size from Oneida lake to Neatahwanta. Ponds: small bodies 
of water ranging in size from Duck lake to Mud pond (near 
McLean). 

Types of bottom are characterized as follows: Bare rock: bed 
rock. Harclpan: glacial clay. Gravel: small pebbles. Rubble: 
large pebbles and loose rocks. Sand: fine rock particles. Silt: 
coarse "soil" particles. Mud: fine "soil" particles. Muck: black 
swamp deposits formed of decayed plant remains. 

Types of currents are characterized as follows: Torrential; 
as in the swiftest "white water" riffles. Rapid; as in average 
riffles, Moderate; as in the deeper pools of a stream. Sluggish; 
as in deep, comparatively slowly moving waters such as the Oswego 
river. Stagnant; no appreciable current. 

Fish Association. — -As has been noted in the works of Forbes* 
and of other certain species of fish are often found associated to- 
gether. Doubtless the main reason for this is that the environmen- 
tal requirements are similar for certain groups. When enough data 
on these requirements are obtained, facts regarding the presence 
or absence of certain species may be useful as indicating the suit- 
ability of waters for certain others. In this respect we know that 
the sculpin (Cottus cognatus, Plate No. 7) may be regarded as an 
indicator of brook trout water. We have never taken this fish 
except in cold spring brooks where trout were present or could 
have been established. 

Although temperature is not the only factor influencing the asso- 
ciation of fish, it does play an important part and fish may be 
classed according to their temperature requirements. From the 
standpoint of fish culture, fish are often separated into warm 
water and cold water groups. The first of these groups includes 
fish such as the black basses which will thrive in water of com- 
paratively high temperature but will not do well in cold waters. 
The second grouping includes trout and other fish which will not 
live in warm waters. 

The limits between "warm water" and "cold water" fishes are 
not fixed. There is a gradual differentiation between the extremes 



* Forbes, S. A. Fresh water fish and their Ecology. 111. State Lab. Nat. 
Hist., 1914. 



90 Conservation Department 

on the one hand to those on the other. Within each group there 
are degrees of adaptations. For example brook trout are better 
adapted to very low temperatures than are brown and rainbow 
trout. At the fish hatchery at Bath, New York, where the water 
is very cold, young brook trout grow much faster than do the young 
of the other two species. 

In the Oswego watershed there are streams ranging from a 
summer maximum temperature of less than 50 degrees Fahr. to a 
summer maximum of more than 85 degrees Fahr. 

The coldest streams were found to be limited to two species of 
fish, the brook trout and the sculpin (Cottus cognatus). These 
fish were found in the headwaters of Lake Como inlet in water 
as cold as 45 degrees Fahr. 

Generally, the warmer the stream, the more species of fish 
present. This is illustrated in the case of a stream such as Fall 
creek. Certain very cold headwaters near McLean, New York, 
contain only brook trout and sculpins (Cottus coqnatus). As the 
water gradually warms, more species appear and throughout the 
shaded area of Beaver brook (a large tributary of Fall creek) 
black-nosed dace, horned dace, common suckers, and common 
shiners begin to appear along with the trout and sculpins. At the 
point where Beaver brook joins Fall creek the water, being ex- 
posed to the sun, has become too warm for trout and sculpins, but 
the minnows and suckers are very common. Below this point the 
small-mouthed black bass and pickerel are added to the fish fauna, 
the bass at least becoming more common downstream, where the 
water warms considerably. Unfortunately the maximum tem- 
peratures of this stream at various points have not been obtained. 

The warmest streams contained very many species of fish but 
were entirely avoided by the trouts, the sculpin (Cottus cognatus) 
and perhaps by certain minnows (Margariscus and Clinostomus) . 
The abundant fish fauna of a stream of this type is illustrated 
by Ganargua creek (Mud creek) near Fairville, a shallow wide 
stream which doubtless reaches a very high summer temperature. 
Here 15 species of fish were collected : small-mouthed black bass, 
rock bass, zebra darter, tesselated darter, fan-tailed darter, black- 
sided darter, green-sided darter, common shiner (Notropis cornutus 
chrysocephalus) , satin fin minnow, spot-tailed minnow, blunt- 
nosed minnow, northern pike, stonecat (Noturus), common sucker, 
red-fin sucker (M. anisurum). Yellow pike (pike-perch) are also 
known to be present here. It may be mentioned that not all 
warm water streams have as many species as this one. The fauna 
is, however, rather a typical one for the warm streams of the north- 
ern part of the drainage. 

Trout Stream Associations. — The temperature of approxi- 
mately 70 degrees Fahr. is considered as the dividing point be- 
tween "cold" and "warm" waters in regard to stocking streams 
with trout. Fishes which were found associated with brook, brown 
or rainbow trout in streams of the Oswego watershed are as fol- 
lows : Black-nosed dace, horned dace, common shiner (Notropis 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 91 

cornutus frontalis), seulpins {Coitus cognatus and less often 
Coitus bairdii bairdii) , common sucker, fan-tailed darter, pearl 
minnow (both subspecies), fallfish, red-sided dace, cut-lips min- 
now, hog sucker, brook stickleback, tesselated darter, black -nosed 
shiner, long-nosed dace, black-sided darter, and chain pickerel. 
In no one individual stream were all of these species found. 

Vermin Fishes. — Certain fish are themselves of little value as 
food and are known to eat the more useful kinds. Examples of 
this type are the gar and dogfish. These fish are usually de- 
stroyed by fishermen when they are taken, much as hawks and 
crows are often destroyed by hunters. Although a certain amount 
of control of the destructive species may be desirable, it is not wise 
to wholly condemn any species without exact knowledge. 

There is much inter-dependence as well as much conflict among 
aquatic life. We do not well understand the full role played by the 
various participant species. I have seen golden shiners in the 
stomachs of large-mouthed black bass and yet seen this same species 
of minnow eating bass eggs on a temporarily deserted nest. Many 
of the small fish will eat fish spawn yet if we were to declare 
them enemies of game fish and destroy them we would curtail 
one of their chief supplies. At the same time it is quite 
possible that an overabundance of certain of these small 
fishes might be greatly detrimental to those game fish whose 
spawn they might destroy. In such a case it is entirely possible 
that predacious forms such as the gar and dogfish might perform 
a useful function by keeping down the numbers of small ones. 

Fishes in Regard to Pollution. — Efforts were made to corre- 
late data on the occurrence of fishes with the pollution studies 
made by Messrs. Wagner, Claassen and Cutler and to this effect 
seining was done in many polluted streams, Although it was 
impossible to collect thoroughly in all contaminated waters, con- 
siderable attention was given to typical instances. 

In certain seriously polluted waters fish were found to be 
entirely lacking. This condition is illustrated by Skaneateles 
outlet from Skaneateles to Jordan. The main reason for the 
absence of fish is probably the low oxygen content of the water 
at certain times (see Mr. Wagner's report, p. 114). 

Several streams of the region, polluted to a less degree, were 
found to contain fish in considerable numbers. In these in- 
stances, however, it was interesting to note that the fish fauna 
was distinctly different from that of unpolluted streams nearby 
or even from that of the same stream in its clean parts. Canan- 
daigua outlet furnishes an illustration of such an upsetting of the 
natural fish population caused by pollution. This stream receives 
treated sewage and some manufacturing wastes from the city 
of Canandaigua. At no place was the oxygen found to be danger- 
ously low, but at a point a few miles below the city, organisms 
indicative of pollution were common, namely, tubifex worms, 
various snails and leeches. The normal clean-water types of in- 
sects and other invertebrate life were absent. Here a collection 



92 Conservation Department 

of fish was made, consisting* of only three species : German 
carp, blunt-nosed minnow and common sucker. No other varieties 
were collected or reported by persons familiar with the stream at 
this point. 

The same body of water near Phelps, 14-miles below, had com- 
pletely recovered from the pollution as judged by the clean 
character of the water and the presence of clean water insect life. 
Collecting here with a seine yielded 10 species of fish: small- 
mouthed black bass, rock bass, fallfish, hornyhead, cut-lips 
minnow, Johnny darter, fan-tailed darter, common sucker and hog- 
sucker. 

We might say that Canandaigua outlet illustrates the injury 
done by a comparatively slight pollution in upsetting the natural 
conditions in a stream. This has resulted in destroying the food 
supply of certain species of fish, as in this case, the small- 
mouthed black bass, while not seriously interfering with that of 
others, such as the common sucker. 

Minnow Tests. — The generally accepted test of the injurious 
effect of pollution is the minnow test. This consists in placing a 
number of small fishes in such container that they are in direct 
contact with the water. During the summer several experiments 
of this character were made in polluted streams, and these waters 
were also carefully studied in regard to their fish fauna. It was 
found that the minnows in the test were not usually killed by the 
contaminated water even though the entire absence of fish as 
well as the general condition of the stream clearly indicated that 
it was unfit to support fish life. 

On August 25, 1927, a minnow test was made in a seriously 
polluted stream, Skaneateles outlet near Skaneateles Junction, 
at a point where all native fishes were absent, In spite of the very 
bad pollution the minnows in this experiment were not killed but 
lived for several hours without apparent ill effects. The oxygen 
test, made by Mr. Wagner, at this time was 3.3 parts per million, 
low but evidently not low enough to kill. On a very hot day a 
short time before, the oxygen test was 1.4 parts per million un- 
doubtedly below the requirement of fishes. Had a test been made 
at this date the minnows would have lived only a short time. So 
that, if judged by the one experiment made, this stream would 
give a misleading impression. Similar tests made in other polluted 
areas (Keuka outlet and Owasco outlet) merely indicated that 
small fish could live for at least several hours in waters certainly 
unfit to maintain them, as judged by their complete absence. 

It may be concluded from these experiments that a minnow 
test does not form a wholly adequate criterion for judging the 
capability of a stream to support fish life. 

Special Problems 
The Spawning Behavior of Carp in Relation to Other 
Fish. — During their breeding season, in the spring, carp con- 
gregate in schools. The eggs are shed and fertilized, the process 
being accompanied by vigorous agitation and splashing. There 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 93 

is reason to suspect that, at this time of the year, the disturbance 
caused by carp might be destructive to the eggs of other species. 

Five days (May 8, 15, 22, 29, and June 5) were spent in study- 
ing this question. On all but one of the days of this investiga- 
tion, I was assisted by Mr. Myron Gordon. 

The areas under observation included parts of the old and new 
channels of the Seneca river (near Montezuma) and the marshes 
at the north end of Cayuga lake (especially Canoga marsh). 
Actual spawning grounds included cat-tail marshes, flooded 
bottom lands, and weed beds. The notes made may be summarized 
as follows: 

(1) Spawning is influenced, to a great extent, by temperature. 
Due to this fact, the process commences in the shallow, quickly 
warmed water as in open cat-tail marshes. As the season advanced, 
carp were seen spawning in deeper water, among weeds (Poiamo- 
geton). Carp were rarely observed to spawn where the water 
temperature was below 60 degrees F. On days of considerable 
breeding activity (May 8, 29) water temperatures where the fish 
were splashing were respectively, 68 and 65 degrees F. It was 
noted that a drop to 58 degrees F. (May 15) was accompanied by 
a virtual cessation of spawning. 

(2) Carp extended their breeding season over a considerable 
interval. During the season of 1927 they were observed to spawn 
from May 8 to June 27. Examinations of the reproductive organs 
showed that not all of the eggs of a single female ripen at the 
same time. Furthermore, individual fishes (male as well as 
female) showed a wide difference in the period at which they 
become ready to reproduce. Ripe males, females who had 
spawned, and unripe females were taken on the same date (June 
22) in the Seneca river. 

(3) Observations did not show interference of the carp with 
the eggs of other fish. Although the carp were spawning, in 
moderate numbers, near the nests of large-mouthed black bass 
and common sunfish in the Canoga marsh (May 22) they did not 
seek to molest these. The disturbances caused by their splashing, 
in the instances noted, produced only extremely local, temporary 
roiling of the water. The eggs of pickerel and pike (Esox) have 
doubtless hatched before the carp spawn. Yellow perch eggs are 
also laid earlier than those of the carp, and although perch eggs 
were taken May 15 near the Canoga marsh, they were found in 
much deeper water than that in which carp were then spawning. 

It should be stated that the weather conditions during the spring 
of 1927 were such as to prevent very great concentration of spawn- 
ing carp at any one time. This may not be the case in other 
years. 

Fishways. — At Mud Lock, near Cayuga, New York, there is a 
fishway which was erected for the purpose of allowing fish from 
the Seneca river to reach Cayuga lake. Since many sportsmen 
are of the opinion that numerous fish pass out of Cayuga lake 



94 Conservation Department 

when the canal locks at this point are operated, the fishway was 
installed to allow these to return. From all evidence secured it 
seems probable that few if any fish use this fish ladder. Many 
observers spoke of the great numbers of pike, carp, suckers and 
others, which congregate in the pool below the dam, apparently 
wishing to ascend but not knowing how to use this structure. 
Evidently it is not of a type suitable for many of the species found 
here. Doubtless it was designed after the manner of a fishway for 
salmon but does not seem adequate for most other types. If fish- 
ways are to fulfill their function in our inland waters, much time 
and thought should be given to the construction of ways suitable 
for the species concerned. 

Some Factors Contributing to the Decline of Fishes. — ■ 

Throughout the Oswego drainage complaints are often made by 
anglers that the fishing is poor. Several old residents, when inter- 
viewed, said that the fishing was not as good at the present time 
as -it was some years ago. The full causes for the scarcity of fish 
are not easy to understand but certain factors which have con- 
tributed to this scarcity may be listed : 

(1) Angling: The number of anglers has increased in recent 
years. 

(2) Pollution: This has certainly caused a scarcity in certain 
waters. 

(3) Canalization : The construction of the Barge canal resulted 
in the draining of the Montezuma marshes and other spawning and 
feeding grounds of fishes. This has changed the character of the 
Seneca and other rivers to the detriment of angling. A new 
stream bed made by dredging could not be expected to produce 
fish food in abundance. The violent agitation of the shores caused 
by canal boats must also be destructive to fish spawn. 

(4) Netting: Formerly there was much netting of fish in 
the region. Professor Embody x cites this factor as a cause for 
the scarcity of bullheads in Cayuga lake. 

(5) Natural enemies: Some losses of food fishes are caused by 
lampreys, watersnakes and fish-eating birds. However as natural 
enemies have always existed, even when fish were known to be 
abundant, they can hardly receive blame for the genera] scarcity 
now. 

(6) Unwise stocking of waters: There is a common belief that 
there has been a decrease in the native fishes of certain waters due 
to the planting of these waters with carp or other non-native 
species. Doubtless this belief is well founded. As Kendall 2 points 
out, the artificial introduction of fishes into Sunapee lake, New 
York, was followed by a decline of some of the native species. 



i Embody, G. C. A Study of the Fish Producing Waters of Tompkins 
County, New York. Conservation Commission 1922. 

2 Kendall, W. C. The Status of Fish Culture in Our Inland Public 
Waters, and the Role of Investigation in the Maintenance of Fish Resources. 
Roosevelt Wild Life Bull., Vol. 2, no. 3, March, 1924. 



m 









l> ^H 



m 



c$ 




fl 




fl 




h3 




oo 




= 


bJO 


J 


= 







£ 




e 




s 


02 
0) 






$ 


T 


o 


£ 


s 




^ 




£ 


S5 


c 


(M 


i« 








<» 




- 


a) 








5 

H3 


ti 


S 


Ph 


a 


o 


«<?=. 


h3 




r ^ 




M 




<1 




h5 






m 







© CO 








m 







bfi 


X 






o 


J 










co 




QJ 






~c 


CJ 


%. 


fl 


"£ 


• l-H 


S 






^ 




X 






!J5 


<D 








c§ 


_<o 


g 


§ 


D 






^ 


a 







O 

o 


— 


ID. 




M 




o 









3 bL 

s * 

o 









m 



3 53 



3s 

si 



O 



^ 



^ 







o 
m 

IV, * 

£~ 



si 

HH in 
P-l J=t 

P 

o 

02 




m 






9 

o § 

CO r— i 

5 S 
go 




S5 






OB S 

la 



W o 

s 

a! 
g g 

o 




$ o 



CO 







& 



"A* 



» o ' 



0*>. 



as> 



§^ 

C CD 

« o 



liHJ 










I* 

. o 



3 



of a 

p 

c 

»-3 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 95 



Annotated List of Fishes Occurring in the Oswego River 

Drainage* 

Petromyzonidae Lampreys 

1. Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus. — Lake lamprey. Rather common. Lakes 
and rivers, ascending the streams to spawn. Its distribution, habitats and 
economics are discussed in detail by Prof. S. H. Gage (see p. 158). 

2. Entosphenus appendix (DeKay). — Brook lamprey. Pare. Has been 
found in the inlets of Cayuga and Seneca lakes. 

Acipenseridae Sturgeons 

3. Acipeivser fulvescens Rafinesque. — Lake sturgeon. Rare. There are 
specimen records from Cayuga lake and from the Seneca and Cayuga canal 
near Montezuma (Reed and Wright 1916). Sturgeon sometimes ascend the 
lower part of the Oswego river according to Mr. Earl Brown of Oswego. 

Lepisosteidae Garpikes 

4. Lepisosteus 'ossevs Linnaeus. — Long-nosed gar, billnsh. Uncommon. 
Lakes and rivers. Specimens were taken in the Seneca and Oswego rivers. 
Seems to have declined in numbers along with the bowfin for it was said to 
have been very common in Cayuga lake and the Seneca river many years ago. 

Amiidae Bow fins 
5: Amia calva Linnaeus. — Bowfin, dogfish. Uncommon. Lakes and rivers. 
Occurs in the Seneca river, Cayuga. Neahtawanta and Oneida lakes and other 
large bodies of water. Formerly it was very common in Cayuga lake and 
the Seneca river but now nearly exterminated, probably due to the draining 
of the marsh areas where it spawned. It is used for food to some extent now 
though during the time of its abundance, it was generally regarded as worth- 
less. It is sometimes called ling by fishermen on the Seneca river but 
elsewhere this name is more often used for the eel-pout. 

Cltjpeidae Herrings 

6. Pomolobus pseudo-liar en gus (Wilson). — Sawbelly, alewife. Common. 
Deep lakes and rivers. Occurs in the Finger lakes. Specimens were taken 
in the Oswego river at Three Rivers point. 

7. Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur). — 'Gizzard shad. Rare. Lakes and 
rivers. A series of about 20 specimens was seined November 11, 1916 from 
Cayuga lake near Ithaca by Dr. A. A. Allen, (No. 7224 Cornell Univ. Mus.). 
Mr. Tver T. Johnson of Seneca Falls, who is employed at the canal locks at 
Mays point, says that a great number of fishes which, according to his 
description, must have been of this species, came through the canal one 
winter, a few years ago, many dying under the ice. 

Osmeridae Smelts 

8. Osmerus mordax (Mitchell). — Rare. Deep lakes. Successfully intro- 
duced into Owasco and Canandaigua lakes. Specimens were taken in both 
places by Dr. Eaton's party. 

Coregonidae Whitefishes 

9. Leucichthys artedi (LeSueur). — Cisco, smelt. Moderately common 
Deep lakes. Dr. Eaton's party collected ciscoes in all of the Finger lakes. 
Some of them, at least, are referable to this species, although it is probable 
that some others are not. 



* The nomenclature followed is in general that given by Hubbs and Greene 
(Hubbs, C. L. and Greene, C. W. Further notes on the fishes of the Great 
Lakes and tributary waters. Manuscript, 1927). For the members of. the 
family Esocidae the names used by Weed are followed (Weed, A. C. Pike, 
pickerel and muskalonge. Field Museum Nat. Hist. Zool. Leaflet 9. 1927). 



96 Conservation Department 

9-a.. Leucichthys artedi tullibee (Richardson). — Tullibee, Onondaga lake 
whitefish, Oneida lake whitefish. Rare. Lakes. Recorded from Oneida lake 
(Adams and Hankinson 1916) and formerly occurred in Onondaga lake where 
it is now extinct. 

10. Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchell). — Common whitefish. Restricted to 
the Finger lakes. Common in Canandaigua lake. 

11-a. Salmo salar Linnaeus. — Common Atlantic Salmon. Extinct. There are 
old records of the occurrence of salmon in the Oswego and Seneca rivers and 
Oneida, Cayuga and Seneca lakes. DeWitt Clinton (as quoted by Richard- 
son*) states "They pass Oswego at the entrance of this river in April, and 
are then in fine order, and spread all over the western waters in that direc- 
tion, returning to Lake Ontario in October, much reduced in size and 
fatness". 

11-b. Salmo sp. — "Landlocked salmon" of Skaneateles lakes. Said to be 
not infrequently taken in Skaneateles lake. Members of the sportsmen's 
association of that city are reported to have obtained eggs of the land- 
locked salmon from Maine and to have stocked the lake about ten years ago. 
A specimen approximately one foot in length was taken by Professor Eaton's 
party. This fish does not agree entirely with the description of the land- 
locked salmon (Salmo salar sebago) . Its determination as a steelhead trout 
is also rather doubtful. Larger specimens are desired. 

Salmonidae Salmons 

12. Salmo fario Linnaeus. — Brown trout. Common. Cool streams, large 
or small. Has been widely distributed) throughout the region by planting. 
Often occurs in association with native trout but is often the only species of 
trout in waters too warm for the latter. 

13-a. Salmo irideus Gibbons. — Rainbow trout. Moderately common. Deep 
lakes and cool streams. Although rainbows have been planted in numerous 
streams of the region the only good fishing for them now is in the vicinity 
of the Finger lakes, where they are usually taken in the spring of the year 
when they ascend the streams to spawn. Most of the large fish stay in the 
lakes except at this time. 

13-b. Salmo irideus irideus Gibbons. — Steelhead trout. Uncommon.. One 
specimen t was taken in Skaneateles lake by Prof. Eaton's party. This 
silvery species is apparently the one called "landlocked" salmon" in this 
lake. The steelhead is less common -than the rainbow (subspecies shasta) . 
Specimens, in scale count intermediate between the two^ subspecies, are some- 
times taken and are especially common in Skaneateles inlet. 

Rainbow trout have been found in the following streams: — Canandaigua 
lake drainage, Naples creek; Keuka lake drainage, Branchport inlet, Ham- 
mondsport inlet; Seneca lake drainage, Catherine creek, Wilson creek, Reeder 
creek (reported on good authority) ; Cayuga lake drainage, Cayuga inlet 
( including Fall creek and Sixmile creek ) , Cascadilla creek ( reported on good 
authority), Taghanic creek, Salmon creek; Owaseo lake drainage, Owasco inlet, 
creek at Long point (reported on good authority) ; Skaneateles lake drainage, 
Skaneateles inlet; Seneca river drainage, Kendig creek (reported on good 
authority) ; Canandaigua outlet drainage, Fall brook (near Clifton Springs) ; 
Oneida lake dramage, Fish creek (reported to occur occasionally). It should 
be understood, however, that not all of the above mentioned are good fishing 
streams for rainbows. 

14. Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum). — Lake trout. Common. Restricted 
to the deep Finger lakes. In several of these it is very important as a game 
market fish. 

15. Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell). — Brook trout. Common. Inhabits the 
coldest streams and certain cold ponds of the region. It may be found over 
a bottom of muck, mud, gravel, or rubble and is equally versatile in regard to 
current preferences provided tbe water is cold. 



* Richardson, John. Fauna Boreali-Americana or The Zoology of the 
Northern Parts of British America. Part III, The Fish. London 1836. 
t Identified by Prof. ('. L. Hubbs. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 97 

Catostomidae Suckers 

16. Catostomus commersonndi commersonnii (Lacepede). — Common sucker, 
brook sucker, black sucker. Abundant. Warm or cold waters, nearly all types 
of bottom and current. The most widespread fish of the watershed, occurring 
in all of the lakes, and nearly all ponds and streams. The commonest of the 
suckers found in trout streams. The most important member of this family as 
food, due to its abundance. 

17. Catostomus catostomus (Foster). — Fine-scaled sucker, sturgeon sucker. 
Rare. Specimens were taken in deep water of Owasco lake. 

18. Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur). — Hog sucker, stone roller sucker. 
Common. Shallow streams, warm or cold. Sometimes found in trout waters. 
Seems to prefer strong to rapid current and hard bottom. Unimportant as a 
food fish. 

19. Erimyzon sucetta oblongus (Mitchell). — Chub sucker. Common. Shal- 
low weedy areas of lakes, rivers, ponds and warm streams, where the current 
is moderate to stagnant and the bottom usually soft. Too small to be im- 
portant as food, weighing usually less than % pound. 

20. Moxostoma aureolum (LeSueur). — Red-horse sucker, red-fin sucker. Un- 
common. Adams and Hankinson (1916) cite records from Oneida lake. 
Small specimens were taken from Canandaigua outlet. 

21. Moxostoma anisurum Rafinesque. — Red-horse sucker, red-fin sucker. 
Moderately common. Rivers and large warm streams where the current is 
strong to sluggish and the bottom gravel, silt or mud. Reaches a large size, 
probably 7 to 8 pounds, and ranks among the best of the suckers as food. 

22. Moxostoma lesueurii. (Richardson). — Short-headed . red-horse, red-fin 
sucker. Moderately common. Rivers and lakes where the bottom is mud and 
silt and the current sluggish or stagnant. One of the best of the suckers for 
food. 

Cypeinidae Minnows 

23. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. — German carp. Common. Lakes, rivers and 
sluggish streams. Often found in weedy situations. Carp were seen spawn- 
ing from May 8 to June 17 at Canoga marsh. This species is not popular 
with sportsmen but has excellent possibilities in this region as a commercial 
fish. 

24. Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz). — Lake chub. Rare. Dr. Eaton's party 
took specimens from Owasco and Skaneateles lakes in the shallow waters. 

25. Nocomis biguttatus Kirtland. — Horneyhead. Common. Sluggish to 
moderate current in warm streams of the northern part of the drainage, often 
among vegetation. 

26. Nocomis micropogon (Cope). — Crested chub. Rare. A single record 
came from Catherine creek near Montour falls, July 8. Doubtless an im- 
migrant species, having entered from the Susquehanna system through an old 
canal which once connected with this drainage. 

27. Rhinidhthys atronasus (Mitchell). — Black-nosed dace. Abundant. 
Small, shallow creeks of warm or cold water. Prefers strong to rapid current 
and gravel or rubble bottom. Often found associated with brook trout. 

28. Rhinichthys cataractae (Cuvier and Valenciennes). — Long-nosed dace. 
Common. Shallow streams. Warm or cool water. A fish of the rapids, 
being found in rapid to torrential current where the bottom is rubble. 

29. Leucosomus corporalis (Mitchell). — Fallfish, silver chub. Large warm 
or cool streams, occasionally in lakes. Usually found in moderate to strong 
current and mud or gravel bottom. The largest native minnow of the region. 
Will rise to artificial fly. The flesh is bony and rather soft. In Owasco out- 
let this fish was formerly taken by anglers as "whitefish." 

30. Semotilus atromaculatus) (Mitchell). — Horned dace, chub. Abundant. 
Warm or cold streams, occasionally in lakes. Inhabits most trout streams. 
Found usually in moderate to rapid current over bottoms ranging from muck 
to rubble. 

31-a. Margariscus margarita margarita (Cope). — Pearl minnow. Rare. 
Found only near headwaters of certain streams toward the southern limit of 
the drainage. Probably has reached our watershed by means of former con- 



98 Conservation Department 

nections with the Susquehanna stream system. Found in moderate to strong 
current, mud to rubble bottom. 

31-b. Hargariscus margarita nachtriebi (Cox). — Nachtriebs minnow. 
Rather rare. Inhabits a few streams of the northern part of the watershed. 
Warm or cold waters in much the same type of current and bottom as the 
preceding. 

32. Clinostomus elongatus (Kirtland),. — .Red-sided dace. Rare. Small 
warm or cold streams. Specimens were taken in Catherine creek and in 
several streams in the northern part of the drainage. In several Oneida lake 
tributaries it was found in brook trout waters. 

33. Notropis procne (Cope). — Swallow-tailed minnow. Rare. Two specimens 
were obtained in Catherine creek near Montour falls. This fish is not known 
elsewhere from Lake Ontario drainage. It has doubtless entered Catherine 
creek by means of a former canal connection with the Susquehanna system. 

34. Notropis heterodon (Cope). — Rare. Reed and Wright (1909) record 
this species from Cayuga lake and from Beaver brook, a tributary of Fall 
creek near McLean. In Cayuga lake it is usually taken near weed beds. 

35. Notropis ano genus Forbes. — Black-chinned minnow. Recorded from the 
old canal near Montezuma by S. E. Meek (1889) and from the mouth of 
Fall creek and lower course of Sixmile creek at Ithaca (Reed and Wright 
1909). No specimens are now on record. 

36. Notropis bifrenatus Cope. — Bridled minnow, Cayuga minnow. Common. 
Lakes, ponds and warm streams. Usually taken where the bottom is mud or 
muck among aquatic plants. 

37. Notropis heterolepis Eigenmann and Eigenmann. — Black-nosed minnow 
Fairly common. Northern part of the drainage and Cayuga lake. Lakes, 
warm or cool streams, usually in sluggish current and over mud or muck 
bottom. 

38. Notropis volucellus volucellus (Cope). — Fairly common. Rivers, quite 
often in weedy situations. Taken sometimes in deep sluggish water over 
mud bottom. 

39. Notropis dor salts (Agassiz), (gilberti, Jordan and Meek). — Gilbert's 
minnow. Rare. Professor T. L. Hankinson informed me that he and Mr. 
Dence seined some small minnows identified as this species, from Oneida 
lake (1927). 

40. Notropis hudsonius (Clinton). — Spot-tailed minnow. Common. Lakes, 
rivers and large, warm streams. Stagnant, sluggish or moderate current, 
usually over a mud bottom. 

41. Notropis wJiipplii whipplii (Girard). — Satin-finned minnow. Moderately 
common. Lakes, rivers and larger, warm streams of the region. Strong to 
stagnant current, over various types of bottom. 

42. Notropis atherinoides Rafmesque. — Emerald minnow, slender minnow. 
Uncommon except in Oneida lake where it is abundant. Rivers or lakes, 
stagnant or sluggish current. 

43. Notropis rubrifrons (Cope). — Rosy-faced minnow. Common but re- 
stricted to the northern part of the drainage. Warm shallow creeks especially 
in strong to rapid current where the bottom is rubble. 

44-a. Notropis cornutus crysocephalus ( Rafinesque ) . — Common shiner, red- 
fin shiner. Very common. Found in lowland creeks and rivers of the 
northern part of the drainage. In strong to sluggish current and over bot- 
toms ranging from mud to rubble, often taken among weeds. Specimens 
intermediate between the two subspecies (this and frontalis) were often 
found. 

44-b. Notropis cornutus frontalis (Agassiz). — Common shiner, red-fin shiner. 
Abundant. Shallow streams, warm or cold, often found in trout streams. 
This form of Notropis cornutus, characterized by small scales in the dorsal 
region, is the commonest shiner of the upland creeks. It occurs in various 
situations, usually in moderate to sluggish current. 

45. Notropis umbratilis (Girard). — Blood-tailed minnow. Meek records 
a specimen (as Notropis lythrurus) "from a small stream near Montezuma 
Dry Dock," (Meek 1889). The specimen is apparently lost. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 99 

46. Exoglossum maxillingua, (LeSueur). — Cut-lips minnow. Common. Shal- 
low warm streams usually in strong to moderate current over a hard hottom. 
Males were seen building' nests of stones on June 30 in Cayuga inlet. Some 
nests contained eggs at this date. 

47. Notemigonus crysoleucqs (Mitchell). — Golden shiner. Abundant. Oc- 
curs in lakes, ponds and sluggish warm streams. Often found in weed beds. 
Seems to prefer bottom of mud or muck. 

48. Hybognathus regius Girard. — Silvery minnow. Common. Lakes, 
rivers and some of the larger streams usually over a- mud bottom. Taken in 
moderate to stagnant current. 

49. Chrosomns erythrog aster Rafinesque. — Red-bellied dace. Rare. Limited 
to several sluggish swamp streams in a few of which it was found to be the 
most common fish. 

50. Hyborhynchus notatus (Rafinesque). — Blunt-nosed minnow. Abundant. 
Lakes, ponds and warm streams usually over a mud bottom and in moderate, 
sluggish or stagnant current. 

51. Pimephales promelas promelas Rafinesque. — Fat-head minnow, black- 
ha.ifl minnow. Uncommon. Found in certain of the smaller creeks and ponds, 
especially in swamp situations where the bottom was muck and the current 
sluggish or stagnant. 

52. Cam-post om.a avomaliim (Rafinesque). — Stone roller minnow. Rare. Re- 
stricted to the western part of the drainage where it occurs in warm shallow 
creeks over a rubble, gravel or mud bottom in a strong to moderate current. 

Ameiurtdae Catfishes 

43. Tctalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). — Channel cat, spotted cat. Common 
in the rivers, Cross and Oneida lakes. Two specimens have been recorded 
from Cayuga inlet near Ithaca (Reed and Wright 1909) but it is possible that 
these were escapes from the Cornell University Fish Hatchery. The spotted 
cat is an important food ifish in parts of our drainage, and seems to be highly 
esteemed. Probably spawns rather late. Female specimens were taken from 
the Seneca river August 4 containing ripe eggs. Others taken then had 
apparently spawned. 

54. Ictalurus sp. — A large very black catfish was taken on a set line August 
4 from the Seneca river near Weedsport. It weighed 11 pounds and was 30 
inches in length. In characters it is close to Ictalurus an gu ilia but does not 
entirely agree with this species in all respects. It is probably distinct from 
Ictalurus punctatus, being much wider across the head. More specimens of 
this fish are greatly to be desired. 

55. Ameiurus nebulosus (LeSueur). — Common bullhead, hornpout. Abund- 
ant throughout the region, in lakes, ponds and warm sluggish streams. An 
important food fish. Specimens of eggs of this fish, in the Cornell collection, 
were taken June 16, 1909 from Cayuga lake. 

56. Ameiurus natalis (LeSueur). — Yellow cat, pollywog bullhead. Un- 
common. Seneca river, Cayuga and Oneida lakes and certain warm sluggish 
weedy streams of the northern part of the drainage. In certain swamp 
streams very black specimens were taken. The yellow bullhead is; a good 
food fish but much less common than the ordinary bullhead. 

57. Noturus flavus Rafinesque. — Stonecat. Rare. Only three specimens 
have been obtained from this drainage, two from Skaneateles lake. The other 
specimen 2i| inches in length was taken from: Ganargua creek near Fair- 
ville September 9, the prey of a watersnake 24 inches in length! 

58. Schilbeodes gyrinus (Mitchell). — Tadpole stonecat. Common in the 
northern part of the drainage and is also present in Cayuga lake. Found 
among weed beds usually in shallow water, where there is little or no 
current. 

59. Schilbeodes insignis (Richardson). — Margined stonecat, mad-tom. Rare. 
A specimen was taken in Keuka lake, and one was obtained in Canada creek 
(near Lee Center). The species was found to be common under stones at the 
headwaters of Tioughnioga creek (middle branch), a Susquehanna stream 
that has been diverted artificiallv into the Oswego drainage. 



100 Conservation Department 

60. Schilbeodes miurns (Jordan). — Bridled stonecat. Rare. Recorded 
from the Oneida lake drainage (Adams and Hankinson 1910). 

Umbridae Mud minnows 

01. Umbra limi (Kirtland). — Mud minnow. Common in the northern part 
of the drainage, especially in small weedy streams; not rare throughout the 
rivers and in Oneida lake. Flourishes where many other fish cannot, in the 
small stagnant pools of creeks where there is much vegetation. 

Esocidae Pickerels 

02. Esox niger LeSueur. — Chain pickerel. Common in the southern part of 
the drainage. In lakes, ponds and sluggish weedy streams. Occurs in Oneida 
lake and in the Seneca and Oswego rivers. Less important than the northern 
pike due to its smaller size and fewer numbers. Sometimes occurs in lower 
parts of trout streams. 

03. Esox lucius Linnaeus. — Pickerel, northern pike. Common in the 
lakes, rivers and some of the larger streams (Ganargua creek). Usually 
taken in weedy situations having a sluggish or stagnant current. A fish of 
importance to anglers especially in Cayuga lake and the Seneca and 
Oswego rivers. Spawns in Cayuga lake during March. 

04. Esox americanus Gmelin (vermiculatus LeSueur). — Little pickerel. Not 
uncommon, but limited to the northern part of the drainage, occurring in 
sluggish, weedy creeks and ponds and Cross lake. Unimportant as a food 
or game fish due to its small size; doubtless! those caught by anglers are 
returned with the idea that they are undersized chain pickerel or northern 
pike. 

65. Esox ohioensis Kirtland. — Chautauqua muskalonge. Otisco lake has 
been stocked with this species but there are no authentic records of its capture 
there. 

Anguillidae Eels 

00. Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur). — Eel. Moderately common throughout the 
Clyde, Seneca, Oneida and Oswego rivers and Cayuga lake. Is not greatly 
prized by most anglers but is a good food fish. According to Adams and 
Hankinson (1910) this fish was at that time rated the most important one 
in the commercial fisheries of the Oneida lake region. 

Cyprinodontidae Killifishes 

07. Fundulus diaphanus menona Jordan and Oopeland. — Barred killifish, 
grayback minnow. Common in lakes, many ponds and rivers. Taken in very 
shallow water during the warm months. Prefers sluggish to stagnant cur- 
rent and gravel, sand or mud bottom. Females ready to spawn were taken 
July 18 in Vandermark pond near Junius. 

Percopsidae Trout perdhes 

08. Percopsis omisco-maycus (Walbaum). — Trout perch. Not uncommon. 
Occurs in Cayuga and Oneida lakes, and specimens were taken in the 
Clyde river in deep water where the current was sluggish and the bottom 
muddy. 

Serranidae Sea basses 

09. Lepibema chrysops (Rafinesque) . — White bass. Not uncommon in the 
rivers and a few of the lakes. Two specimens have been taken in Cayuga lake 
and Cayuga inlet (Reed and Wright 1909) near Ithaca. Generally found in 
sluggish and rather deep water. This, though not abundant, is an excellent 
food and game fish. White bass weighing up to several pounds, are said to be 
taken at certain times, in the Clyde river at May's point. This fish is not 
at present protected by law at any season, but it may prove advisable to en- 
courage its numbers by adequate protection during the spawning season. 

Percidae Perches 
70. Perca flavescens Mitchell. — Yellow perch. Abundant. Occurs in all the 
lakes and rivers, many ponds and also in sluggish warm streams. Does not 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 101 

inhabit waters with strong current. Eggs were taken in Cayuga lake near 
Seneca Falls. 

71. Stizostedion canadense griseum (DeKay). — 'Sauger. Rare. There is a 
specimen (No. 1587) in the Cornell University collection from Cayuga lake. 
Probably occurs along the Seneca river but there are no specimen records. 

72. Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchell). — Yellow pike, wall-eyed pike, pike- 
perch. Common in certain lakes and all rivers of the region. 

73. Stizostedion sp. — Silver pike, blue pike of Lake Ontario. Not uncommon 
in the Oswego river near its mouth; apparently does not occur above the 
first dam at Oswego. As a food fish of less importance than the yellow pike, 
because of its smaller size and softer flesh. 

74. Hadropterus maculatus (Girard). — Black-sided darter. Not uncommon 
in the northern part of the drainage, in shallow, rapid streams, warm or cool, 
usually over a hard bottom. Was taken, at least once, in a brown trout 
stream. 

75. Percina caprodes zebra (Agassiz). — Log perch, zebra darter. Not un- 
common throughout the drainage and very common in Oneida lake. Inhabits 
shallow waters of lakes and large warm streams, usually in moderate to strong 
current. 

76. Boleosma nigrum olmstedi (Storer). — Tesselated darter, Johnny darter, 
abundant. Occurs in nearly all lakes and streams of the region, except in 
very cold waters. Found in various situations from rapid current among 
stones to sluggish waters with muddy bottom or among weeds. Usually found 
in shallow water. 

77. Poecilichthys escilis (Girard). — Iowa darter. Common in several ponds 
of the northern part of the drainage. Specimens were taken from Vander- 
mark pond (near Junius), Duck lake, South pond (near Constantia) and 
Mud pond ( near Marcellus ) . Apparently prefers swampy ponds with a muddy 
bottom and much vegetation. 

78. Catonotus flabellaris (Rafinesque). — Fan-tailed darter. Common. Oc- 
curs in warm or cool streams usually in rapid parts where the bottom is 
rubble. A few specimens were taken in shallow areas of the Finger lakes 
near stream mouths. 

79. Etheostoma olennioides Rafinesque. — Green-sided darter. Not uncommon. 
Inhabits several large warm streams of the northwestern part of the drainage 
occurring in rapid or strong current where the bottom is rubble. 

Centrarchidae Sunfishes 

80 Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede. — Small-mouthed black bass. Common. 
Lakes and large warm •streams, often inhabiting waters of strong current. A 
male was found guarding a nest and eggs on July 1, 1927 in Cayuga lake 
inlet near Ithaca, and at the same time bass about y 2 inch long were common. 
The young of this species are usually found under shelter of stones, etc., and 
sometimes in weed beds. 

81 Aplites salmoides (Lacepede.) — Large-mouthed black bass, Oswego bass. 
Common in shallow, weedy lakes and ponds and large sluggish streams. Does 
not occur in as strong a current as the preceding species. Males were seen 
guarding nests of eggs, May 22, in Canoga marsh on Cayuga lake. The young 
up to several inches, were frequently taken in weed beds throughout the 
summer. 

82 Apomotis oyanellus (Rafinesque). — Green sunfish. Rare. S. E. Meek 
(1889) took a few specimens near Montezuma. Hankinson and Adams (1916) 
record a specimen from the mouth of Big Bay creek in the Oneida lake 
drainage. 

83 Helioperca incisor (Cuvier and Valenciennes). — Bluegill sunfish, porgy 
sunfish. Not uncommon. Large, sluggish, warm streams, ponds and weedy 
lakes. Specimens were taken in the Seneca river, Cross, Cayuga and Neahta- 
wanta lakes and in Junius ponds. This is the largest and best of the sun- 
fishes of the region, from the anglers' viewpoint, and could well be used to 
stock small bodies of water. However, it is not at present raised in the State 
hatcheries. 

84 Xenotis megalotis (Rafinesque). — Long-eared sunfish. A few specimens 



102 Conservation Department 

were obtained in Oneida lake drainage by Professor T. L. Hankinson. The 
species probably occurs sparingly in the rivers but none are recorded. 

85 Eupomotis gibbosus (Linnaeus). — Common sunfish, pumpkinseed. Abun- 
dant throughout the drainage in ponds, lakes and sluggish streams. Occurs 
in sluggish to stagnant current over mud or muck bottom, often among weeds. 
Males were seen guarding nests, eggs and young, June 16, in Canoga marsh, 
Cayuga lake. 

86. Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque) . — Rock bass. Common throughout 
the region in lakes, rivers, ponds and warm streams. Often occurs in sluggish 
current over a mud bottom. Young are usually found in patches of weeds or 
under other shelter. 

87 Pomooeis sparoides (Lacepede). — Crappie, calico bass. Not uncommon. 
Ranges throughout the Clyde, Seneca and Oswego rivers and is sometimes 
taken in Cayuga lake. Common in Cross and Neahtawanta lakes. One of 
the important fishes of the pan-fish type, many being taken by angling. A 
fish of shallow ponds, lakes and large sluggish streams. The young are often 
found in weed beds. 

Atherinidae Silversides 

88 Labidesthes sicculus Cope. — -Brook silversides. Uncommon, Specimens 
were secured in Cayuga lake, the Seneca and Clyde rivers, usually near weed 
beds. Apparently prefers sluggish or stagnant current and mud bottoms. 

Sciaenidae Drums 

89 Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque. — Sheepshead. Uncommon. A speci- 
men was collected in the Clyde river at May's point, July 25. They are some- 
times caught by fishermen in the Barge canal, Clyde, Seneca and Oswego 
rivers, usually in sluggish waters. This is considered a good food fish in the 
region although comparatively few are taken. 

COTTIDAE SculpitlS 

90a. Cottus bairdii bairdii Girard. — Sculpin, millers thumb. Moderately 
common. Ranges throughout the southern and eastern part of the drainage, 
occurring in rocky streams and in Oneida lake. Found in cool to warm 
streams, often near the headwaters. Frequently taken in rapid current among 
stones although it is not restricted to this habitat. 

90b Cottus bairdii Icumlieni (Hoy). — Lake sculpin, millers thumb. Rare. 
Moderately common in Cayuga, Seneca, Keuka and Canandaigua lakes. It 
is not taken elsewhere in the drainage. Ranges from deep waters to rocky 
shallows in creek mouths usually not in strong current. 

91 Cottus cognatus Richardson. — Sculpin, millers thumb. Rare. Seems to 
he limited to southeastern headwaters and certain Oneida lake tributaries. 
This is a fish of cold waters and is found in brooks at the headwaters of 
trout streams, in strong or rapid current. It also occurs in the Finger 
lakes. 

Gasterosteidae Sticklebacks 

92i Eucalia inconstans (Kirtland). — Brook stickleback. Common through- 
out most of the drainage, inhabiting weedy streams, ponds and lakes in shallow 
and deep waters. Not infrequently found in trout streams. Does not seem 
to like strong current. 

93. Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus). — Nine-spined stickleback. Rare. 
Two specimens were taken in Canandaigua lake in deep water, by Dr. Eaton's 
party. 

94 Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus. — Two-spined stickleback. Common at 
the mouth of the Oswego river but has not been found above the first dam 
at Oswego. It was found in weed beds and shallow rock bottom pools where 
the current was moderate. 

Gadidae Codfishes 

95. Lota maculosa (LeSueur). — Eel-pout, lawyer, ling. Common in Canan- 
daigua lake, occasional throughout the Seneca river and in Oneida lake. Al- 
though its flesh is good there seems to be some prejudice against this fish 
and it is not popular even though it can be caught with hook and line. It is 
generally found in rather deep water but young specimens were obtained in 
a stream (Naples creek) several miles from Canandaigua lake. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



103 



H 



12 

03 rQ 

11 -2 

04 ^ 
w d 

.. o 

d '■§ 

S3 » 

5 «fl 

o '43 

03 rt 



S .2 



ii "5 



XI 



h 8 



3 



lUBllSB^g 



qsiSStqg 



a^aapopM 



3uoj|g 



pidBy 



pJI!)U3JJOX 



}poj 9JBg 



UBdpjBJJ 



9[ qqnH 



]9ABJQ 



jo ing 



pnui jo ippj^; 



spuoj 



sa^Bq 



Il^nS 



sniB9J^s aSjBq; 



SJ9AI-JJ 



sqij^ -y; oSawsQ 



••jj oSajASQ 



•squ; -jj BpiauQ 



-jj BpiauQ 



•squ^ -y; Boauag 



}J B09U9g 



•squ^ y apA^Q 



•H ap^IO 



•squ^ 'q; BpiailQ 



'J BpiaUQ 



•squ^ -fj BSBpuouQ 



•rj BgBpuOUQ 



•squ^ -q oosi^o 



q o3stio 



'SqiJI q S9[9^B9UB^g 



-r J S9JD^9UB>[g 



•squ; q O0SBM.Q 



■rj OOSBAVQ 



•squ^ -rj BgnABQ 



'q bSoAbq 



•squ^ -r i Boauag 



•'J B99U9g 



•squ^ -q B5fn9}j 



' r I ^ n3 3 



"SqU!J - 7 BnStBpiIBUBJ 



-r I BtlSlBpiIBUBQ 



X : 



:M 



XX 



y^ y^i r\ r^ r* <* <i /^\ 



XXX 



XX^X, 



XX, :XXX 



XXXXXXXXXXX 



X : 



XX 



XX 



XX 



XX 



XX 



XjCG 



XX 



XX 



XX 



XX 



XX 



:XXX 



xxxx 



XXX 



XXX 



X 



X \XXXXXXXXX^XXXXXXXXXXX 



™x 



™x 



X ;XXXXX 



:XX 



XX :X 



XXX X 



X :XX 



XX 



XX 



X :XXXXX 



^x 



XX :X 



XX '.XX '.XX '. 



XX 



XX 



rS '. rS fS rS rS 



X : :X 



X : 



XX 



:X 



XXX 



xx -.xxxx 



:X :X 



XX :XX 



:X :XXX 



XX '.X 



:X 



XX : 



XXXX :X : 



XX '.XX 



'.XX '.XX 



XX '.XX 



:XX :X 



XX :XX 



&&XXXX :X 



XX :XX 



jaquinu ^si/j 



HNM-*U5 0NMffl»0' 



III" 



a O 



XX :XX 



XXX :X 



xxx :x 



KOeNMOOH 



iiilfiiiiiiiii li|i 



cs i: cs o o rf.2 a d p o^£ ii sl3 J. o.S 



104 



Conservation Department 





■"3 




o 




S3 





c 


"■? 


ea 


TS 


o 


3 






bi 


= 


S3 


O 


S3 
p5 




r^ 


1 


a 




02 


Q 


^ 


H 


03 


a 


II 




CO 


w 




r- 








|> 


+= 




x 


O 


O) 


■c 


II 


w 


W 



x 


2 





od 


■<- 


D 


u> 


~ 


a 


Ki 






a 




H 


t- 


w 








q 


o 




-r 


HI 


o 


02 


Td 



ft, p 



1-a 

S3 +3 
<u ^ 

Jg 

CD w 

a S3 

02 O 



CT3 



o o> 



^UBIlSBIg 



:XXX!X1 



o 


qsiSSrqg 


i XX :X : : :X!X 


: :X : : :XXX :XXX :X : 


:XXX 


a^BJapop^ 




: : :XXX :XX 


: :X : : :XX : :XX :XXX 


:XXX 


SuoJ^g 




: : :x :XXXX 


: :X :::::: : M : :XMX! 


:X 




pidBy 




'. '. '. '. '.XXXX 




: :X :X : : 




IBI^U9JJ0X 




: : : : : :.X 












s 
o 

CM H 
^ O 
PJh n 

o 


qaoj aJBg 




: : : : :XX 


:X! 






: :X : : 




uBdpjBjj 




: : : : :XX 


:X 






: :M : : 




9 iqq n H 




: ; ;}*j : xxxx 


: :X! :::::: : 


: :XIX1X 


:X 




J3ABJQ 




: : :X :XXXX 


: :« :::::: : 


X X X XX 


:X 




pUBS JO ^Jlg 


| XX :X :XXXX 


: :!*! :X :XXX :XXX 


:XM 


:XXX 


pmn jo ijorij^ 


\ XX '.X '. '.XX 


'.X '.X '.XXX '.XXX 


:MX 


: :XX 


si 

fa 

o 


spuoj 




:X : : : : : :X 


:::::: :X : : : : : 


: : :XX : 


saqBq 


XXX '.XXXX 


'. '. '. '. rS ! rS rS ! ! rS rS rS 


:rt : 


:XXX 


suiBaj^s nnrag 




: : : : :XX :X 


: :X : : :XX : : : : : 


: :><! 


:XX : 


sureaj^s a§JBq 




:X '.XXXXXX 


: :XX : :XX : :XX :XXX 


:XXX 


sjaAty; 


> 


IX :X : : : 




; ; ; ; ; :XXX \XXXXX \ 


:XXX 


1 

z 

<! 

K 
Q 

fa 
O 
CO 
O 

to 

5 

IB 
CO 


•SqiJ} •'JJ 039MSQ 




:X : : :X :> 


<x 


: : : : : :X : : : : : : 


:XX 


:X 




"JJ oSsmso 




K ■::.:■: : 




: : : :X :X :XXX 


:X : 


:X 


X 


•squ^ qq Bpiaug 




: : :X :> 


<x 


: : : : :X : : : : 


:XX 


:X 




qq BpiailQ 




X : : : : : 




:.:■:: :M :M .XXX 


:X : 


:X 


X 


•squ; qq Boauag 




; : h ;^^XM 


: :^X : : :X : : 


!M XI X X 




qq Boauag 


■/ 


X! :X! : : : : : 


! ! '. r^ rN rN ! n n /I r^ n ! 


:X 


x 


•squ; qq apX[Q 




; X) ; X X X X 


nn ! !rN 1 i^SrN inrNrl 


:X 




"H 8 P^10 




X :::::: : 


: : :X :X :XXXXX : 


X 


•squj -q BpiauQ 




rS ! rS ! i^S rN r*S rS r^ 


XX : : : :X : : m : :> 


< :X 


:XXX 


•qBpiauo 




M :::::: : 


; ; ; ; ;X ; ;&XXX 


: : : : :XX 


•squ^ -q BSBpuouo 




X! : : :XXXX 






: :X 


:X :X 


•q BSBpUOUf) 




X : : : : : 








'.:■.■. :X : 


•squ; q oost^Q 




: : :XX 


:X 






: :X 


:X : 


■q oosi^r) 




X : : : 


:x 






: : : : :XX 


•sqiJj "q saja^BaiiBqg 




; ; ;o-!>^ ; 


:XX 






: :X : : 




•q s i|,i'ji»>:in>{>! 




:X : : :X 


:X 






: :M : : 




•squ} - q ODB.ASQ 




: : : :XX 


:X 


■ -CQ •• 


: :M 


:X 


CQ 


•q OJ8B14Q 1 




XX : :XX 


:X 


:::::::: :X : : 


: :X 


:XXX 


•sqia^ -q bSiiabq 




X : : :XX 


:XX 


:::::::: ^X!" 2 ^ 


< :X 


:XX^ 


•q BSaABj 


X 


r'N '. ', P*N ^N P*N ^S 


: :X :XX : :XXX 


:*X 


: :XX 


•squq - q Boauag 




X ; : ^><xix!XX! 


:XX : : : : : '.^X : 


: :X 


:X : : 


•q Baauag | 




X ; ; i^xl^y, ; 


:::::::: :MX : 


: :X 


: :XX 


"squ} -q Bqna^j 




X : : :X* 


:X 


:::::::: : m M : 


: :X 


:X : : 


•q Bqna $j 




X : : : : : 




: : :X :X : : :XXX 


: :X 


: :X : 


■Sqii^ q BtlSlBpiIBUBQ | 




: : : :X>< 


X : 


; Ol ■■ 


: :X : : : : 


•q BFlcSlBpUBUBQ 




rS . . r^ r^ rN rN 


: : : : :X : : :X : : 


: :X 


: :XX 


jaqumu ^si r j 


CM 
CM 


N(MCMiM(MNNrop: 


_Q c3_0 

rn M CO ■* iO T K CO -. S ^ ?M M -t -t if5 'X) K CO 

cococococococcrooO'#-*'*Tj>Tti-*i-#^-*-* 



XX 



XXX :XX :XXX 



cs'S 

S a 

a a 



2^^ 
m O h3 






b'J'j; 



el-s-gs fcg 



S'S'i-i'S »" a 



S = S 



g .■ S 2 ^ g S 

> > s g g S)C-§^ g.a § o- 
«"S »s ^c st3 °-^ rt 'a 

■5"^ ? c j="o a a^'S-'S'S. g., f'S-'r §<£ fc^ g gaac >. 

>>co,L i co a) , ^ooo°P^oi-^'_2iScom;cuj-. 

o£J5"oSS-;c;c S'^ c^: £ -s £ o o o o 3 '5^: 

13 o m ^1 ^ k Ph pl, « ^; ^; z o pq ^; a mm m Ph go^o OS 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



105 



XXX 




X 




xxxxx 




r*1 PS rN ?< 




xxxxx 




XX 




XXXX 




XX 




X 




X!X!X!XtfXXXXX 




X 


XXX :XXXX 


:X : 


xxxx 


-.xxxxx 


X 


XXX 


: :XX 


X 


rS r\ KS rN rS '. 


:X 


Xrt 


xxxx 




XX 








XXX 










X 


X 


XXX 


'.XXX 






XX 






X 


XX 


X : 




X 


X 












X 




























XXX 


XXX 


















X 


X 
























X 


X 




























XX : 


XX : 


















X 






















































































































































XX 






X 


























X : 




























































































X 


X 








X 


X 




























XXX 


XXX 


















XXX 










X 


X 








X 


















X 




X 


X 


XXX 


xxxx 






XX 






xxxx 








xxxx 


XX 


X 






XXX 


xxxxx 


X 


xxxx. 




XX 


X 


xxxxxx 


:X 




X 


XXX 


xxxx 


X 




xxxx 


xxxxx 


X 


xxxx 




XX 


X 


XXXXX : 


:X 


XX 


X :X 




X : 






X :X : 


:X : :X 




: :X!X! 




:X 


X 


X : : : : : 


:X 






:X : 


X 


f*$ rN rN r*N rN 


xxxx 


xxxxx 


X 


'. X X X X 


XX 


X 


MXXXrtXXXXX 


X 


XXX 




XX :XX 


XX : : 






X :X 


X 


:X 




XX : : :X 


XX 








XXX : 


xxxxx 


X X X X 


. :X : :X 


xxxxx 


xxxx 




XXX : :X 


:X 








x& 


XXX '. 


X 




xxxx 


xxxxx 


X :XXX 




XX 


X 


XXXXX 




:X 


Xtf 




X 






XX 


X 




XX :X 




:X 




:X 


X 


:X 


X 


XXX : 






:X 






X 




X 


X 




X 






XX 


XX 


XX 


XX! 


XX 






XX 






XXXX 






:X 


X : 




X 






X 




X 




X 


X : 


:X 


:X 






:X 






:X 






XX : : 






:X 








X 




X 


X 




X 






XX 


XX 


XX 


X 




XX 






XX 






XXXX 


X 


:X 








XX 




X 




X 




X 


XX 


:X 


:X 






:X 


X 


XXtfX 


XXX : 






XX 








XX 


xxxx 


X 




xxxx 


XX 


XX 


X 




XX 




XX 


X 


XXXXtf 




:X 




Ph 


X XX X '. 


X 


XX 




xxxx 




:X 


X 


^^^^rSrSpN^S 


X 


XX : : : 




:X 








X : 


X 


X 




X 






:X 


xxxxx 


X 


XXX : : 


XX 






rN rS ^ rN rN 




:X 








XX 




X 




XXtf : 


XX 


:X : :X 


« 


X :X :X 


XXtf 




XX : : 


X 


XX 








X : 


X 


X 




X! 




X 


XX 


xxxxx 


X 




XXX : 


XX 




tfXXXX 


X 


:X 




X 


XXX 






























X 








XXXX 


rt : 














X 


:X 








X 




w 
















X : 






X 




X 
















:X 






X 


















w 




X 
























X 




















X 






:X 


















X 










X 








X 














X 


m 


X 




X 
















XX 






XX 




















X 






















X 










X 










X 
























X 










X 








X 


X 










X 






X 




X 
















X 








:X 










X 










X 








X 














X 










X 










X 


X 










XX 










X 










X 








X 




X 




X 


X 




XX 




X 


X 




XX 


X 


XP^ 








XX 










:X 






XXX 






X 




X 






X 








X 






XX 


X 


XX 






XX 






X 


XX 








X : 


rt 


XX 


X 




X 


XX 


xxx&xxx 




XX 




XX 


X 


XXXXtf 


XXX 




ss 




XX 






X 












X 




: : : :X 






:X 


X 


:X 






XX 
















X 








X 










X 


X 




xxx&x 


rt 




XX; 






XX 






XX 








XXX 








X 


X 




X 












X 










X 








:X 






:X 






X : 
















X 






X 






X 


X 


X 






X 




X 








XX 






XX 






XX 








X :X 








X 


X 




X 










X 










X 








:X 




























X 






X 








X 


X 




XXX 


X 


X! 




XX 






X : 






XX 








xxxx 


X 





2 s 



js'S-S'S- 



§ ^ 5 g 8 * 

-t^> QJ C O 



3 2So 






hT3 ? © 






13 ~ a o 2 a'cf- 



Bga •'S.S"2c3 <u ^^"2233 tn >-e 

3^ 3 ci-Q » S fl " d ™" - fi a °- a "^" 






'£•'3.2 



- r~* aj 



- - OK^O^mHiwSSo^SlSh^^M^fflfflNH^O^Offl JotfOMM JJ*m«£hw 



i t 9 «> 



i 3 g 



5 o o ' 



<u"3"3 3 o s 



106 



Conservation Department 



« d o3 

^ h o 



<L> 



" o vw 

Si 2 

fac 

o a 

to 

o 



^|IS pUB piIBg 
















us 




USUSOOOO 

Hl-ICC^H 


•o 

• US 








c 

IT 








3 
■ <M 


S^U9Ul8l3JJ ^UBJJ 






"o 

•CM 




















• o 

•US 




• o 

•CO 




















suaaaS 

-9!\iq pUB U99Jr) 


















o o 

CM CO 




■O 


•OOO 

i-h rH CO 


• us o 


00 US US 

US CO 






SmO'JBIQ 
















OO o 




o 


oooo 

US US i-H US 


US 




us us 




O 


SIBUIUIB •OStJAJ 














«-< 




US 




^ 






















;°° 


US 


WA 




o us »c 

O CM i—l 














































BOsnjjojY 
























O 

•* 






























s^pasui 3uiXy "osij^ 






USO oo o 

1*1 CM O CM CO 






















o o o o 

CO CO O0 CO 






US US 


sbajb} oi^nbB 'osijY 








o 




t^ 












US 








us us 














9i?dnd 

pUB -AJB{ 92piJ\[ 






NO 
<M 


us us US o oooooo 

i— ( (M CO CM rH OO US CO CM i— I 








US O CM US 
rt CM CO 


O O CO 
00 i*i 


a^dnd 

pUB -AJBI A"{JSippi?Q 






CO us 


US US 










o 












US 














sqdui^u AgA^jY 






CM O 

CM 


o 

US 












o> 












o 

CM 










o • 
eo • 


qsg^BJQ 


o 
o 


































o 

US 
















■epodiqduiy 






eo 






^ 












US 


























Bpodosj 
























































■epoouj^so 


















































^ 


CM 


^podadoQ 
















USO o 
i-lCO i-H 




us us 
















US 


t^us ; 


■BjaoopBjQ 
















us us us us us us us 
i— 1 CM i-H 


















O US O us 
CO^Hrt-* 


B ! 3n ffl!a 
















Ous O 
CM ^H 




O 




























pauimexa aaquin^ 


rtrHN» 1-IOO rHXN CO •* CO CO 00 O US CO CO CO 00 CO^OINNM'O 
CM i-i i-l CO CM CO t-l i-l i-l i-l i-l i-l i-i 


q^U9[ 9§BJ8Ay 


-Hl^lOrtCNiOrtCNlCM'NCOiO'-H 


rHl)<iHIN'HrtNrH(Nci(NNCOrtrtiH 


NAME 


i 

o 
c3 

I 


CO 

o 

1 

: 

■p 
i-5 


o 

5 

a 
_p 
t 

a 

§ 
b 

OJ 

a 

o 


3 

1 

X* 


| 

o 


©' 
J 
o 

a 
1 


1 


o 

o 
r 

a 

o 

1 


SI 

c 
- 

z 

o 

Cy 

3 

CO 

§ 
g 
1 


1 

w 

c 

c 

42 

o 

08 

cu 

S 

OO 

O 

N 

>, 

a 


i 

I 
g 


5 

CO 

'£ 

c« 
| 
Z 

M 
O 


00 

h 

'5 
j 

I 


o 

5 

o 

9 
c 

'E 

> 


1 

e 

c3 

ca 

S 

o 

1 
1 


t 

c 

4= 
b 

i 


E 
o 

D 
c 

"3 
H 

cu 

1 


3 

C 
3 

oo 

o 

G 

>■ 

43 
C 


3 

1 

o 

1 

8 


.2 

o 
o 

S3 

I 

8 

c 

S 


0E 

f 

4= 

c 

i 


1 

J 

'% 

E 
5 

CO 

o 

a 

O 


2 
si 

£ 

CO 

1 

w 


1 

CD 

c 
> 

CO 

C 

o 

b 

J 
O 


CO 

H 

"S 

(3 
£ 

4^ 

2 

a 
o 

o 


a 
.5 

1 

e 

4= 

is 

'S 
c 

c 
SB 


pi 

_2 

"3 
o 
3 
p 

og 

J3 

3 
> 

CO 

'ft 

C 

c 
S5 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 107 



• 10 -co • o 



W9 • ■© ■* 00 ■ >0 



O O CO 



mco ■ co 



oiooKjm 



»o r- mts 



OOOiO ^h U5HJ 



CO ~ CI 00 O0 CO^H 



"CO ONNN CO (NO COTfOO^t^OOCS 



NrtrtrHWrtP5N(NNN»WW I MOMO«»NN«nNKO«HNNHrtXNNH(i) 



£'§ 31:2 



>.= 



is c 



.2.22.2.2 

aaaa 
o o o o 



2§o 



•Hi* 

e«.2.o 3 

53 <» m £ 



3 2Sg'* 

x .212 3 2 

i © eg la o< a 



B Jl 



a 9 

"all 



£a 



|il| III 

8 o S"2 3 3 3 
2 o c _o *j -^ -u 

-u"o "es 3."o O "o 



QJ2.S 

_£>3 1 
«- e4 eS-.2 



108 Conservation Department 



V. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE OSWEGO 
WATERSHED 

By Frederick E. Wagner, 

Fellow, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 

In this, the second survey of a watershed area taken as a whole, 
the chemical policy has been necessarily adjusted to meet the 
requirements of varied conditions. 

The waters about which particular interest centered may be 
classified into three groups, lakes, springs, and streams, included 
in the last named are those rivers which have entirely or in part 
been incorporated into the State barge canal system. In regard to 
the first class, it was desired to determine variation in gaseous and 
related characteristics between the surface and lower depths of the 
more important lakes, and to study possible changes in these dur- 
ing the summer season. The importance of the springs lies in their 
possibilities as sources of cold clear water adaptable for those fish 
species demanding 1 such conditions. 

As in the first survey, of paramount importance in stream studies 
was the investigation of pollutional factors, and determination of 
their importance both in regard to intensity and length of stream 
affected. 

Types of Pollution. — The industries with which the Oswego 
watershed abounds, especially that section containing the outlets 
of the smaller lakes east of Cayuga continuing down to Oswego on 
Lake Ontario, and which supply the greatest pollution problems, 
are the woolen and paper industries. These are pressed closely in 
prominence by pollution from municipal sewage. Canning fac- 
tories dot the landscape at sundry places, but in general the 
summer of 1927 was a slack one for canneries, and numerous cases 
must be classed as potential sources of pollution which under other 
circumstances might have been found more serious. 

It might be well at this point to call attention to an erroneous 
impression entertained by certain cannery officials. Several have 
advised that at considerable expense they have installed screening 
devices with the understanding that such would completely solve 
their waste disposal problems, and that the effluents therefrom 
might safely be passed directly into a convenient stream. The 
fallacy of such a conclusion is not obscure. Screening out the 
coarse material such as faulty peas, beans, cherry stones, etc. 
greatly improves the condition of the wastes for which disposal is 
sought. But what of that material which passes through the finest 
of screens, (they are not always fine) and which varies in size of 
particles from true solutions up to more or less finely divided solid 
pieces ? Obviously that material in a fine state of division is in the 
most favorable condition for ready decomposition, with consequent 
threat to the aquatic life upon w r hich it may be thrust, so the 



Dissolved Oxygen - % of Sat. 
?S /CO (2£_ 




110 Conservation Department 

screening while a big" aid is not sufficient in itself to render a waste 
effluent harmless. 

Milk product factories and condensaries were relatively un- 
important from the standpoint of numbers, but in at least one 
case, to be discussed later, the pollution made up in severity for 
the absence of a greater number of instances. Other sources of 
pollution encountered were gas and tar works, varnish and enamel- 
ware factories, insulator works, Solvay works, rope, shade, shoe, 
carpet and button factories, typewriter works, foundries, machine 
shops and feed mills. 

Methods Employed and Effects of Pollution. — For a dis- 
cussion of the effects of pollution the reader is referred to "A 
Biological Survey of the Genesee River System," supplemental to 
sixteenth annual Conservation report, 1926. Analytical methods 
employed were substantially the same, being those outlined in 
"Standard Methods of Water Analysis," 6th edition, 1925, Ameri- 
can Public Health Association. The values for dissolved oxygen 
listed in the accompanying tables and represented graphically in 
several instances have been calculated to percentage of saturation 
based upon Whipple's values, and the barometric pressures of the 
regions have been taken into consideration. The heavy horizontal 
lines across the graphs represent 100 per cent saturation. The 
values for carbon dioxide refer to free carbon dioxide in all cases 
unless otherwise indicated. 

It is noteworthy that waters which have assimilated quantities 
of organic and nitrogenous matter and have consequently become 
abundantly supplied with plant food often support luxurious 
oxygen producing growths, and give values for dissolved oxygen 
far in excess of those required for 100 per cent saturation, which 
figures, as pointed out in the past, refer to water in equilibrium 
with the atmosphere, about one-fifth of which is oxygen. Excellent 
examples of such are offered by Canandaigua outlet as shown by 
the tabulated data in Series I, and by Owasco outlet, data of 
Series I and Fig. 2. 

The Canals. — The State barge canal system forces itself so fre- 
quently upon the attention of an investigator that some considera- 
tion had to be given it, though a study of such an extensive system 
offers a weighty problem in itself. Hence where closely linked up 
with other waters studied the canals have been to some extent in- 
cluded in the investigation. 

The effect of wash from passing boats in keeping the water roiled 
and turbid can only be referred to in passing, as can the consider- 
able quantities of oil which escape or are discharged at times upon 
the waters. 

A fairly continuous canal section is that starting with Seneca 
lake as a westerly terminus and extending eastward and northward 
for a stream length of about ninety miles to Lake Ontario at 
Oswego, joined en route by the Cayuga lake section from the south, 
the Clyde river section from the west, and Oneida river section 



so 



Dissolved Oxygen - % of Sat. 

75 /OQ~ IZ5 




112 Conservation Department 

from the east. At accessible points the canal water was sampled, 
and since an average depth of ten to fourteen feet was found to 
exist, samples were taken just below the surface and at the bottom. 
Results are listed in the tabulation of Series I ; and Fig. 1 repre- 
sents a profile of the dissolved oxygen content. For the prepara- 
tion of this, values found at the bottom and surface were averaged. 
These figures have been plotted and connected directly with 
straight lines, no attempt having been made to smooth the curves. 
The excellent condition of the clear, plant containing water leav- 
ing Seneca lake is shown, and effects of Waterloo and Seneca Falls 
upon the first few miles of its course evident. Proceeding further 
the inpouring of Skaneateles outlet with its load of unassimilated 
material is marked, and grossly polluted Onondaga outlet clearly 
indicated. To contributions of sewage, paper and woolen mill 
wastes from Phoenix and Fulton must be attributed the continued 
depression of the profile as it is traced to its end at the lake. 

Stream Studies. — The greater part of the story is recorded in 
Series I of the tabulated data, and at this point any discussion 
must necessarily be of a supplementary nature and supplied in 
the hope that it will enable the reader to picture more easily and 
clearly conditions as found at the time of investigation. 

Owasco outlet is a large rapidly flowing stream, dropping 
approximately three hundred and twenty -five feet in its seventeen 
and one-half mile passage to the Seneca river. It has been highly 
industrialized by the city of Auburn through which it flows, no 
less than nine dams taking advantage of its one hundred and fifty 
foot drop through the city. Sewage from about two-thirds of the 
population enters the stream in a raw state. In spite of this the 
dissolved oxygen content was found reduced only to a minimum 
of 76 per cent where conditions were at their worst.* The oxygen 
supply was found to have recovered rapidly, and the stream but a 
short distance from the city was filled with an exuberant growth 
of water plants, thriving on the abundance of food, and contribut- 
ing in well known manner to the reoxygenation of the stream. 
(Fig. 2). This pollution like all other cases varies in intensity, 
and in addition, the flow of water is not constant, being controlled 
at a State dam to meet industrial demand. Effects of dyes and 
other substances possibry directly poisonous to fish were not 
studied. 

Wood creek is deserving of special mention because it has the 
questionable distinction of being the worst case of pollution ever 
encountered. This comparatively small stream receives the raw 
sewage from the city of Rome, which converts it into a veritable 
open sewer, absolutely foul, with blackened unsightly shores, and 
uninhabitable to fish life for miles. The first spot analyzed below 
sewage entrance, nearly one and one-half miles below in fact, 
showed an oxygen content of one-half of one part per million. At 



* See minnow tests on Owasco outlet, p. 92. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



113 



the point where the stream enters the barge canal, about nine miles 
below the entrance of pollution, the dissolved oxygen had recovered 
only to the extent of sixty-six per cent of saturation, though the 
creek's volume had been augmented by such sizable streams as 
Canada and Stony creeks. Fig. 3 represents an attempt to portray 



Fig. 3 



PROFILE SHOWING EFFECT OF ROME SEWAGE 
UPON WOOD GREEK 




Distance in Miles 



the situation graphically. The broken line bridges that section 
between the two solid parts and represents the probable change 
through that part of the stream where no samples were taken. 
This creek flows through a relatively level section of country east 
of Oneida lake, and has not the opportunity for aeration afforded 
by the rapid and tumultuous flow of many streams farther west, 



114 



Conservation Department 



and the importance of which has been remarked in the Genesee 
report. 

Skaneateles outlet occupies a well deserved second place among 
the worst cases, offering as it does the severest example of indus- 
trial pollution. This stream was passed over rather briefly, having 
been already intensively studied at an earlier date. 1 This 
summer's work has indicated that conditions have grown worse 
since the earlier investigation; heavier consumption of lake water 
by Syracuse may be partly responsible. Where conditions were 
at their worst the oxygen was reduced to seventeen per cent of 



Fig. 4 




T -— a 

Distance in Miles 

from Skaneateles Lake 



saturation, and below Jordan, about two miles from the confluence 
of the stream with the canalized Seneca river, the oxygen had 
recovered only to seventy-two per cent of saturation. (Fig. 4) 



1 Unpublished report of Emmeline Moore to Conservation Commission. 
Nov. 28, 1921. 



Biological Survey — - Oswego Watershed 115 

This is the more pertinent when the character of the stream flow 
is taken into consideration. The total difference in elevation 
between the lake and river is about four hundred and seventy-five 
feet, over a stream length of about thirteen miles, and the flow 
from Elbridge to Jordan tumultuous. The contrast between the 
inlet and outlet of Skaneateles lake is extreme. One would travel 
far to find a more beautiful stream than the inlet, clear, riffly, and 
abounding with trout. The outlet, which under more favorable 
circumstances might make an equally fine appearance, now presents 
pools clogged with filthy, gas evolving sludge, and varying in color 
from beet red to gray and black. 

The last stream of particular note is Pott's creek, which flows 
southward to the canalized Oneida river, a few miles to the east 
of Fulton. This stream is an example of the brown or so-called 
"peaty" water, colored by the vegetation through which it flows. 
The contour of the land as in the case of Wood creek is conducive 
to sluggish flow. At Pennellville a milk products factory was found 
to be discharging its wastes into the stream, and for a considerable 
distance the dissolved oxygen content found to be almost negligible, 
about six per cent of saturation as compared with ninety-six per 
cent above the town. At entrance to the river the oxygen had 
risen to a value of eighty-three per cent. 

Pollution to Virgil creek at Dryden, and to Fall creek at Mc- 
Lean must be classed as potential only, since inappreciable at the 
time of investigation. 

Injury to Owasco inlet at Groton was felt to be greater than the 
data Avould indicate, since high water at the time of investigation 
doubtless conduced to a better than normal appearance. 

Cayuga inlet, spring fed and rapid throughout the fourteen 
miles prior to reaching Ithaca was found un-noteworthy, but in 
the deeper and quieter portions through Ithaca the effect of sew- 
age was very apparent, though fish life of a tolerant nature prob- 
ably not endangered. 

A great volume of water passes swiftly through Keuka outlet, 
and the stream has been highly industrialized throughout its upper 
length. At least six dams take advantage of some portion of the 
stream's two hundred and sixty-five foot drop to Seneca lake. 
Pollution enters from Perm Yan in the shape of sewage and can- 
nery wastes, and from paper mills a few miles below the town, but 
the volume of water is so great and opportunity for aeration so 
satisfactory that at no point was it found in very bad condition. 
The several reed bordered mill ponds act as settling basins for 
solid material carried in suspension. Effects of entering pollu- 
tion directly poisonous to fish life is problematical.* 

The outflow from Canandaigua lake leaves by two channels, 
which unite after travelling separately a couple of miles. One 
contains by far the greater volume of water and receives the effluent 
from a partial sewage disposal plant, gas works and varnish fac- 



* See page 92 for minnow test; page 62 on Keuka outlet; page 119 on 
chemical condition. 



116 Conservation Department 

tory. These waters are in poor condition for about a quarter mile 
below their confluence, though richly supplied with aquatic plants 
and not devoid of such fish as sucker and carp. Farther on the 
stream continues to improve, and aided by oxygen forming plants 
attains an oxygen content far beyond its normal saturation limit. 

Great brook, tributary No. 43 of Ganargua, was found badly pol- 
luted by wastes from insulator works and cannery at Victor. 

Naples creek, the scene of serious cannery pollution in past years 
was found free of such when visited on two separate occasions. 
Wastes in the cannery ditch were found highly putrescent, but 
there had been this season insufficient volume to reach the stream. 

West river was found to be in very poor condition as the result 
of cannery wastes at Rushville. 

Burrell creek has received attention in the past because of pol- 
lution from kraut wastes at Halls Corners. This stream con- 
sisted only of isolated pools when investigated during the sum- 
mer. Analysis during the fall cabbage season showed oxygen 
content of only 1.6 per cent of saturation, though the stream flow 
was slight. 1 It would appear that the greatest cause for concern 
here lies in the possibility of heavy accumulation of decomposable 
waste being swept by rains or flood waters into valuable fishing 
waters below, where especially during the spawning season serious 
consequences might result. 

Ninemile creek (Otisco outlet) serves woolen and paper factories, 
which at time of investigation were operating at but a fraction of 
capacity, and though pollution was very evident it was not of 
alarming proportions. Free carbon dioxide in appreciable quan- 
tities further indicated that the possibilities for far more serious 
conditions are imminent. 

Chittenango creek was found polluted by cheese factory wastes 
at Nelson. Appearances indicated that the effect of such were far 
more serious at times, when the plant was operated more nearly 
to its capacity, and good fishing possibilities seriously endangered. 
Effect of sewage from Cazenovia was appreciable, but the volume of 
water sufficient to assimilate such without serious result. Condi- 
tions apparent below Chittenango Falls, a few miles downstream, 
indicate that the stream has been enriched in a not very appealing 
manner. 

Dairy wastes entering Sconondoa creek at Vernon were found 
to have been rendered partially inactive by factory disposal efforts. 
Myriads of small fish just above the sewage entrance indicated that 
here they had found a source of sustenance. 

Oneida creek carries off the effluent from Oneida 's partial sewage 
disposal plant. Oxygen content was reduced about 30 per cent. 
Wastes from gas works were found to have coated the bed of the 
stream with tarry sludge. 

Spring Studies. — Numerous springs are found at various points 
throughout the Oswego watershed, and certain ones of prominence 

i Observations by N, L, Cutler, See table of pollution studies, p. 138. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 117 

were investigated. The manner in which springs occur is regu- 
lated by geological structure, so that as a result there exist many 
varieties. Some issue in greater or lesser volume from several 
spots indicating that the downward seepage of surface water has 
been interrupted by some impervious stratum, and the flow de- 
flected in accordance with the dip or inclination of such. These 
springs have been referred to in the tables as surface springs, An 
important fact in connection with these is that the water seeping 
through the upper soils and sub-soils has opportunity for correcting 
any great deficiency in oxygen, which of course is necessary if 
the issuing waters are to be suitable directly for fish life. 

Contrasted to these are the deeper seated springs whose issue 
depends upon the alternations of permeable and impermeable 
strata, and which may be the outlets of underground streams hav- 
ing in some cases fairly defined channels. Geological fault fissures 
or joints afford facilities often-times for the escape of such waters, 
especially where they bring steeply inclined porous strata against 
impervious ones. The important fact about these is that the water 
is rushed to the surface, and its condition depends upon the chemi- 
cal changes which its constituents have undergone, and the nature 
of the strata such as limestone with whi^h it has come in contact 
since it fell as rain at some time and place. Hence as in the case 
of the Price spring, 1 such waters may be practically devoid of 
oxygen and highly charged with carbon dioxide, under which con- 
ditions fish could not exist. 

Lake Studies. 2 — Chemical characteristics of the more important 
lakes of the watershed were studied. Results are tabulated in Series 
III. No remarkable seasonal change w r as found, and at those sta- 
tions where periodic examinations were made, determinations at 
one period did not differ greatly from those at another. 

It is interesting to note that at the comparatively shallow depth 
of nineteen meters Otisco lake was found to be only about 3 per 
cent saturated with dissolved oxygen. 

i See p. 120. 

2 Data supplied by W. L. Tressler, S. S. Britten, and R. Vingee. 



118 



Conservation Department 



1— 1 


o 


m 




d) 


J/J 


4> 


3 

<5 


w 






H 




OLi 



83.2 n 2 

So* ft^ 

6^3 a s 






S-rG 

a 






OOOO 



hhlON lO lO 
00000000 0000 



coco 

00 00 



OO I 



i-h rH co CO CO fH os |> coco 
00 00 00 00 00 00 l> t^ t^t-i 



a a a a c a 



00 00 



CO >-G Tt* iO i-0 •* 
©COOO CSG5 



iC c ^o 

Tfl IO t— t- 



icco 
oooo 



CNOSCDlO COOS 



CD Q) CD CD CD CD 

g g g g c g 

3333 3 3 

•— 3 >— S 1— Sl— a l-sl-3 



eg o3 

«4H O 



3 &CD CD 

r^ « 3 



.3 0<*-"« 

xPmoo 

oo 

rHLO 



* OS O 
5 G «£" 
."-3 S bJCl- 



-2 £33 S « 

ass-is 



> CD CD - )» 
-^OG 

I CC 03 \3 ^ • 



CD CD 

3 3 
3 3 

H5H3 



OS OS OS OS O". OS t> CO lOlO 



iOC0»O00©iOCOiO 



I (>• CO O CN iO "O CO 



CDCDCDCDCDCDCDCD 
GSS3SGG3 
33333333 

>-5^>-5»T-5^l-;>-, 



y. 



— -- - 

03 .J CD 



1^' 



i. ■ 



il 






1=3 a„ 

or,P-l ■" 



CD CD 

XX 



3 M 



I -2 g J 

a^aa 

03 o * o3 
CDp^ CD CD 



CD CD m 

■SS?gg 

be » 3 3 
3ffl o o 
!» I m * 

A ).b a 

U 3 O O 
X 



O CD 



sj 



_^>0: 



CD CD CD CD CD CD 



3 3 
O O 

03 03 



aaa 

o o o 



aaaaaa 

© "2 <N 00 CO 

t> os <n co ^ 



33 bJ3_i _Q 
O oS U 

= a | a* 

$£ 03 O+i 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



119 



CO <C 'O 



rHrH .-|,-, r H 50r-l!-lr-l 

cxjooodoooot^oooooooo 



cchn 

NCON 



1-1 C-l <M T-l 

ocaooooo 



r-iO»OOOCT>"*<OClCO 



ooo 

lO -* CO 



r-l-^tNrt O 



>ococo 

COcO'O 



oioboot^oooooooioooo 



OCNO 



03 -^ >H Tt* 



03 (N t- CO 00 "O t> 

-* >o t> a o> t> o 



HON 



iCOMOOiCN'OCOOC 
cOr^OOOiOt^OOOOSOi 



OCOtH 



lOIN'O 
>G0 t^ "O 



O X XX'C/jOrf >d 



t^cOO<N<M>Ot^rHt><0 



fflCCOOMOXSC 



CD cu 0> 
3 3 fi 



iCiOOOGOQOiOiOiOOOiO 



>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 



ci -o -o -o CI CJ ?) ~) "N 



>>>>;>>>>>>>>>>>:>> 



g_co^co, 






co 



:«2 

0) B 



0C<— \ IJS^"" 1 CO 



§ 1 &'§ 

|<332, 

.2 £-* 

03 o 



J- 03 03 
o3 3 3 



£°£Z*£ 



"T _i ~i 



TT woo 



<J ° "^ <^ iO < 



£|b§ 

^ o3£,o 
CD c3 3 +J 

eSSW 



c72 0hh£ 



>,o^ 
T3 ° 









J3 c -q B > 

CO r-l OS >c 1-3 



'43 3 

3.2 



. & 
-I 

CD O 



3S 



3 03 
• 3 M 



-£ co >> 
^ O 

"S^: OS'S 

•si 1 1 

^.SS J. S 3 

, SS|'> 



5.S3 






.'. ft-i 

eco : 



2fcfc.Q . 



£5 



iQ ^ 



3 cci 

- mO 

BO). 

2 > £ 

-2 "eoDQ 

^2.S<N 3 



, Ot3-3 

t^ ->J -li +J 



120 



Conservation Department 



-—■ o 

a ° 



u 



o-o« 5 



O^ 



>> JPn-a £ S o3 

-C g>.g c 3 C 

5 SJ3 -3-S 

o3 o 






O H 
£ H 

E-i ^ 



2 



O ^ CO CO CO 00 00 H«iOH03 I 

00 QO 00 00 00 00 00 ocoooooot^ 



c c a c c fl 



HONN 00 t~t> 

oo i>r~i> i~~t-- t> 



i— i CD CD iC 05 
GCNNNN 



C cD(NC<i OMH 



CO l> CD CO CD O 00 



CO iO I- 05 ■* 00 <M 

1> 00 O 05 GO i-< CO 



i-l ■* <N iH 00 

O5rHC0 t>x 



iO CO O 00 00 lO CO tH00C\|<MiO 



HtJI^CDOJ 



t^iOIXM OOTfKM 
03 1> ■* iO t> CD l> 



oooo ooo 



CD CO CD CD O O CD 



co co co co co co co o c- o. o. o. 



>>>>>>>-.>>>>;>> 



33333 



^S 



?• 



£02 
MCQ 

all 

o 



DO fc» P- £ -P " 

1°^ 2* 

<3 lO tO <N < 



I § g 



■43 co w^-e 

" ^3£? 



§=•1511 

8 "-n q -p £ 
hJ oi CD <! co 



^ Q 



Cflfl 



|3-2.||^3-2.23 



o o-?} a M o O ft 



SI 



• • -H cS-O. o m-H c3,D 



oo 2 

c s ■ 



cDtH^hcDcD 
<MCN(N(N(M 



CO I> >C CO CD 



O iO iO CD CN 



LO iO iO >0 iO 



33333 



Og 
•a ^ 



>>e8 '« 
S'g.J 

l' S s 

43 fc, O 






a 2 c3 ° 



£Ph £00,;^ 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 121 

HHHHHHHOiNNaiSOiaffiOlHOIMHHHHHfqNINO) HHOOHHOOOO0)0)C0 00 

O0O0O0O0O0O0O01>t~r^l>t>l>t~-l^t^O0O0O0O0O0O0O0O0O0t-O0t> O0O0000O0000O0t>0000t-.t~-.t>N- 



B fl C fl fi S S j • • ■ J J j • • C C S fl fi fl fl C 



S^S'OSO 



b a s b 3 s 3 ;«■•■••_; 



<N"3C0Tj*rHOT|HOSCSO5-^00CC'MCD(MO'O'-lG0eCOTt<»O»Ol>iO^ 

©©0©OOOOtXO<©l>COl>t^f~I>OOOC5t^OOOOaOOOOOCOC5CO 



oco«OTH050ot>cc»ceceooiooco 
oor^i>t^i>i>r^i>t^t^i> ;£>©<£> 



NiOOiONOOOOOOCCO-fOOiOCXOOCO«i3iOX»CO 00 'O t> <M © © -+ '-C ?0 © t- © 00 00 



(Ni-HM'-lCD(N«DTj<cD00<N00'-iTjH'*iO(N(M-*O^HOl>l>(NTj4^>ts. NNHNtOsOMO)' 



I tH .-I tH (N <N 



>>>>>j>>>)>i>i>>>>>>>>>i>>>>>>>>y}bflb£bJ0bflbflbj0y)bJ!)bfibCbO 

33 s33333"33333333 355333355555 



)H S I- S l- S l- S l-5I- S l- B l- S h-,H,I-J> 



,^^^<<<<<<<l-<^^<;-<<<^ 



bD b£) bO b£ y bl bl bi bl bC bC bJD be bC 



3 O 



WT3 

v -' 3 
. o 



03 rv aj 
05 J? . 

OT3 2 



o. 



a I 



o3 -K 
>«3 

h1 w 



3^' 

d as 






a^ +^ a« a=3 a£ fto aS ao a^> ajs-S u Q,3 

05^atfo5ga5bflO5£a5^a5-^a5-- :: <a505Sa£>-S5E 

c£t» 3 O G 3 3 3 • ojif^^ «> 
^ b.««^ B ^ ^ ,_, _,< B<m B H 3io-2CMQa^^oCQ 



-3 

"53 

£0£ 



IS 



1-1 Hi 



,| r S'g||I|^|'J 

45 g is bjo£.5£-E£-g 

^ g « |<Mtn^^©^ 

- O <J H <J 



HN 
Mi > 
03 g 

-a ,2 



3 
-I 



<J CQ 



-*-3'<M-3<N<5 tJ< 
* <K < 






122 



Conservation Department 



N l> t> t> X l> 



ON I ^^^r4r4 

Xt- I XXXXX 



COHHO-HHNHOOaOiOO 

xx'x'xx'xi>xi>t^t-t^i>x 



3 w 

OT3 






OOiOiOiOO 
CO C0iM(M CM CO 



"S 5 73 ft© 2 



05 X 



a 
a .2 



CM t~CDCDC5b- I 

t> co a> oi 05 o I 



CM 00 CO CO >o -* 

CD iC 00 X X 00 



i-H O co co oi 

00 00 00 X 00 



OOCONNH^tOtDN^HOWt- 
OOOOOOfflNNCONtOtCNNNN 



H* 



NCOtX^Ot^ 



CO O O iO "-O 



iO iO iO »ra CO O © CO it >o © o >o >o 



u I 



O H C- * "f * 



(M 01 O) Ol CO O} I 



COXtDiON 



LOiciot^^H^T^aicoco^^coco 



01 01 01 O) CM CN I 
CM CM CN CM CM tN 

ci bi bi bb bi M 
3 3 3 3 3 3 



l>t> I ooooo 

i-li-l CM O) 04 0)0) 



bt b£ 

3 3 



bC bC bJC bD bC 
3 3 3 3 3 



NNNOOMOCOOMOOOOOifflOlO) 
CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM 

333"333'333333'33 






bc-r <£,«-<. 
^oo' 

OH 2 



c3l>,B 
° ■• S o 

SSfflJ" 



I ti 0>T3 l-c cu 

3 Z,<-~ a cf-~ 
£PQcmOOcm 



*2 

.acq 
|o 



o • ,— ' 
-3 tn cu a 



3 bfi 



cm £ cj.^ 



2 > 

S _^ co C3-3 

isas-g™ 

"T^rt 2 ^ g 
a q, u o B (b 

£3 . bJD bC 



O rt 






CM co OCOj^ ^ 

"laa^B's 

a « § 2 S^ 

-a -^ -li a. P-t? 



•3 

B 

<u o 

§23 g 

-p 2_£ 
•3 B 1 "^ 
B *.J •- 

q ftSs 

3 2^ 3 



.2 3 c« 

;7J^1 



S^^ 



CO +3 >J ' 



o s3 «,d cu.23 t «'a3-rt 2—' 
° O cj 3 s cj;2^ 3^ o3 B 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



123 



7-1 CO CO CO CO <M 00502 005 

00 20 CO 00 00 CO 00 l> I> t^ l> t- 



OCOOOO 



COCO 

cooo 



HlONOH 

oo co t^ oo oo 



r3 'ooios 
c.<n. • • a 

OOO 



ooooooxxooi>t> 



^■O'ooooo 

<N CM cN <N <N 



00OOOC0O 



NMNCCX 

go i> rococo co 



00 -*cO 
Oi G3 Ci 



rHOO 

ooo 



oo 



ira co ^f o o I 
o-*cor^o 



OCOOcOTH^XrO 
1>00 00X00GC1>X 



X -f T}< lO TjH Tf< 



O >C iCC'CC 



oooo 
o t^oo 



ooiooooco 



OiQOCOCDOOOO 



x re re >e re re 



*# >". <t -o ie -o 



<m i> ■<*< oo co I 

i>l>cOCOcD 



CO O CO iH O CM tH ■* 



>> bi bi bi bi bi 

303000 



CO 00 00 CO CO CO 



bO bO bC bl bt if 

3 s 3 3 3 j;, 



bl bC b£ 





bD bC 

o 

^<4 



00000 



bi bi) bi bb bi 



bUbObObObObCbCbC 



Ss, j : >> u 

• O £ O-ta.S 

•? £"£-£ £ a 

<» O n ° o O O 

t-n 8 > S 8 
«ioa $ >o a 



SJ3 

03 CO 



o,cn 

^ 0^ 



K. > O 

> o > 






.£.£• 



O fe ft'a „3ft 
1 > cu K »o a cu 

tEco <!ffl<! 



5 .ss=J 

I S3 O . CO 



co lohw 



8.2 

-id ■-* (-" 
X* 5, 

J. o 

Ms 

•W O 
CGCOCN 



cu o 



.'. a o 






-2 c s 

co £3 oo 

fa 

CP O' 

>) _ CO 



> c "S3 

8 I ft - 

> a > I- 
•Si's 

S 00 



£v3 

^ 6 

Q-*s 03 

^ o3Q 

o3« 



.3 a .B03- 1 
±r? _5> bo 03 a 

-§ a « o 



CD 03J2 .-X 

:3 fe-0 ca • 

g> =3 •- 



bC ^< c^ 
3 OOl O 






o o w 



I .2§cs* 

.Sim 



03 c3 _ 

5brg 






124 



Conservation Department 



§ o 

o 

T! 



CO g 






a ® -, c 

Ot3 S 



">. ~ :£ PC'S 

js g a " 3 e 

5 g^ • o3ti 

S3 O 



<N CD "O CO >0 OS r X> iO -^ "O CO 



oooo 



O H 






si 



5 »2 





o 



SOOOOOiOOOOO 
^^I^COiM'0cDi>i01> 



r-i 30 C3 <N r-l I --H 

OOt-OGOOO I 00 



COCOr-lT* 

GO GO 00 t> 



<<^«1<1 



^ 



<i3'3 
ra S 

£ GO > -p >0 

02 © i-3 <! .© 



©OCOtjhcOiMCOCOOOtFM 
Co"iOiOrHCO©'cOCO<M©TiH 



OOiOOiOOOCOiOOMiO 



ItDTtlHCO-t' 






bjO bO bjD bjO b£ be bD bO bD bD bO 



'3 a> 



-p ' <B - 



! £~ii 



i m P"S O3,o3 

>o2 fc-S £^ 



02 J-j o3 ^ 3 _£> 
I.2fe02 >£ 



aaas 

... S3 

o3 03 at 

^ © tH t|H en 



r< 03 03 c3 03 



03 >-P 



£ £ £ c 

iH OO O o3 

© H 'a 'aS 13 13^ 

-O c3 "J^X^Xi lJ1 „ 

aMfiflflftSo 
"tT es « « « 2-S 

.2.0 0.2.2.29^ 
bflW bD b£ b£ a O 
_3 ^ > J2 J2 j3 -p ^ 
02 <! 1-3 02 02 02 <! 



HOHNO 

©00 00C500 



CO CO 00 iO© 
iO O i-O GO GO 






03 .0 



8.S.S 

go a 
IS* 



^ Bo 

02C0rH 



2 3 2 ^ °> 
<!<!<do2 02 



bD 03 03 <B 



CDrR 03 03 

a^ 

o3"o< 



s > ^ 

D O 03 

J C 03 

43 £ fe 

^ N !> 

■? 03 O 



'OgO 



+= 033 

a 1 5 

^a*l 

I Jo? 

a^03 

03 o t» 

o-QJ o 
02 <! 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



125 



_- . i i i-i —i o oo oo oo ^ I 

.. i r - i oooooooor-ool 



oo oo t- eo t^ t- t- 



nmhxoo cd <m 

1> t> t- CO CO b- t> 



T^OOO 
G o6cDCO 



SSOONiOiO 
CO 00tH 



OOOON OO 

• • • t-i oq 

eq >-o oo co o 



i-OMNHHO'O I <M 00 CN CO CO 00 ^ 

00 00 CO O O O 00 OOiHOCJOOOO 



GO t^ 1> t^ GO GO 00 



00 CN I 00ONO 

OO OOG0O 



O00CD t^ 



O CD *C O i-i t> CO 

OlOOOlNOO 



HHO>00000) 

OOOOHNiO 



lO CD O CO iO 
OCDIOOO 



m lO 00 00 "5 CO t> 



00 O CO 00 O iO 00 



l>O00iOiO OO 



00 CN CO CN O CO tH 



a a a a 
a; a) cp <v 

xxxx 



CO CO CD CO CO CO CO 



a aa a a a a 

a) d a) a) tu o 
X X X X X X X 



1> 1> t^ t> » t^ 1> 



aaaaj aa 

X X X X X X X 



aaaaa a a 

O D D 0J © CD CD 
X X X XX XX 






ts-£ ri a <S s 
C sj m 3!f H 
oQ a ^jg** 

8 1 ° <° b. ^ 

T§>ol^ 

g_3 o3,Q .+3 

-t? O O O <o 






o — 

gl'S 

2 H <d 

'*-' CO 'C 

. te o o 
-* 5 -S 

CD CO ^h_0 

cd . s3t3 
° d/o cct 



2§ 

°x 

c3 0) 



-sa. 



° S <d Ch 

el PI 

O g CD Oj-j 

-^ £ co a^ 






OH 



Ph " ° 



£ jS > £ » 

o 0.2 o fe 



!0"S 



H^ 



|8§2S 

WcN^cNcD 



S-2.S 3 

x HJ 



ease.-- 

CD-^OCO S 
O r-5 CN td o 



U K5 

COQ CD 

£ I * 






13 s s '-S 5 

c=3 o ^o 
A o a^ q. 



>§82^ 

JcOrH^r-H 



126 



Conservation Department 







>C 


CO 'O id t> 


o; 


rH 


CO 


l> 


CO 




-t re 








t^ 


t- t> t- 1> 


t^oo 


1> 


l> 


r> 


t^ t^ t> 


t^ 


w 


















a 




















o 


ioco«: 


ord 


IC 


c 


c 


ooc 


o 


s_5> „ d 






• p 












0-73 _£ o 


co 


OCOQOiC 




cc 


cc 


CT 


CDOOH 




-P"S b cu^J 




CM rH 










Hf 


CO 


£.2£ a: S 


















O^ W S 


















- £ A d -2 


t^ 


i-o io >o >t: 


t^>«~. 


■^ 


CC 


CO 


^hiooc 


OS 


_rj 5P d . 3 d 


os 


^H^T^Tf 


rHCO 




cc 


CM 


co co co 


CM 




<M<M!M<M 


I-H r- 






CM 


CMOIO 


CM 


Met) 
oran 

alkali 
p. p 
calci 

carbo 




























1 








1 1 


CD 


OS >C OS CT 


t^co 


o~ 


cc 


C 


iQ CO t> 


O 




CO 


•CO'QCC 


coo- 


1> 


CM 




OS CO CM 










O 
















8t o| 


















Q 


^ d 




















cd ^3 






























'" 






to X 


a h S 


CO 


rH OS CO CM 


Or 








00 CDC 




Q° 


l> 


OMCCb 


OSO 


o 


co 


C 


co cocc 


o 




h 4^"J 




















<a a:d 




















Ph g 






















o 


OOOC 


cocc 


c 


c 


OC 


o ^oc 


t^ 


O a 


_^ - 


os 


OS O CM CO 


oOtT 


oc 


CT 


OC 


C1HC 


o 


d 


















is 


03 

o 








































CM 


NOCD't 


oscc 


Tt 


CM 


OC 


(MiO -D- 


co 


S g 


Sh' 


co 


ooomic 


CO0C 


CC 


OC 


1> 


CDNr- 


rH 


o3 


r^ 


rHiOiOiC 


Tt*lC 


Tt 


■^ 


Tt 


D'O'C 


>o 


Eh * 


f=H 




















,_, 


CM CM CM CM 


COCO 


o 


CC 


IC 


t)h rti rj 


CO 


05 


CI 


CM (N CM CM 


CM CM 


CM 




CM 






"c3 


0) 

d 


as 0) 4 

d d d c 


CD & 

d p 


£ 


> 


s > 


i bi bi bj 
2 2 2 
<« 


bi 

d 




d 

1-5 


2 2 2? 

r-jh-^H,— 


d d 

r-3 r- : 




£ 


£ 




_4 


d • 














1 












"c 


tH • 




























d : 


























o3 


-S^ 


























d 


<| o 




















d 




>i 


3Jf 




d 

03 














d 

X3 


£ 


d 




CD 

o 














d 


O 


o 


b C 




-»; 












MH 






S » 




s 


^a 












o 


H 


CM 


C C7Q 






p 












^4 


o 


£ 


11^ 

13 




o 

CD 


b 
> 
C 
"c 


• 










o 
d 


02 


rd" 


1° 




^T 


' E 








4. 

C 


1 


Q 
Q 


d 

o3 


+= r- ' 




O 
O 

Jq 


a 

cr 








c- 


CD 
43 


£ 


CO 


-§"■1 




CD 


^ 


t 
a 

9 


bO 




^ 


ft 


<5 


4 
t 


J s 




r* 

03 
CD c 




s 
PC 


1 C 

, d 
| _o 

s 

1 ^ 




C 
4 


4 

-3 


O 




ll 


a 




,h 


| 


cr 

C 


gl 


1 

_d 

a 


H - 
O 

o 


o3 
0) 
^3 


eg 4 as £ 

ft.e d^ 


T3.£ 
o3 t- 

CD C 




> 

! c 


1 i 


Si 


* 


05 Crri C 
TJ OD g C 
1 £ ° & 


-^ a. 

03^ 

CO + " 

m d 


lj 


- 
cc 

> 


i i 

1 1 


1 ^ 

d 


13 o- 


2 
o 
U 




d 

•c 

ft 

CO 
CD 
4 


1 o > o 
g>TJ5T3 


.5 fc* 

t- o 
ftTJ 

03 


^d 


CO 

CD 

« 


.2 
1 

bi 


1 5 

'2 

1 oi 


O , AJ H 

1 "S3 S^ 

d-^-5^ 


o 




o3 


OJ Oi O 


« 


c 


■2 


M 




d 


oO n O 


^ 


1 


1 c 


c 


1 -g<iz^ 

I ft 


o 






«2 


Ph-<^ 


rH 


cc 


O 


DC 


1 02 


1 a: 


1 w 






>< 





Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



127 



^ 



000000500000 



00OO001>OOOOO 






iOlOiNO'OCOOCOOO 

aoooowooHH 















t>--lTtHCO00COfOt^00t^ 
OlffiOOOOtOHOOlN© 



H <! 
£ . 

© ft 



> • 



.H 
i> . 

<< a 



a -; a — ; 

V-. 3 33 0)3 s 

CQ 1-5 03 i-5 



iH ^H 1-1 Ol rH 



I Ci CJ H C3 ^- ( t^ O O O 



^ I OOCOONMNHN 
00005000000 



*3 



d -; d 

03 3 3 * » 3 33! 



128 



Conservation Department 



r a § 



0> ^ "m 
CO Hi W 





a 
o 

« 

1 a 

1 > 

< 


"c3 


N^CXtC: >C "O O t^ 00 






cocO'-H'-iNOOicqTti>C3 




OlffiOOOOOOOOO 

1 




O 


OJ 


1 t>CD-*CDTt<i0OTtHi-ic0'0 


fc 


a 
ft 
d 


TtiOMfflN'O'nnaHK: 


o 

o 


00001>OO00OOCCOO 


c 

H 
5 

o 

03 
OB 

Q 


Q 


o^ooooooo^o 

CN'-'CNCNfNCNMCNcM'-lCO 

d" ft d ft d 

3^3-3 = 333 <D 3 

t-sCOHi OQHi 


3 

X 


CO 

a? 


iCcOt^OOCNOOMOO'HCM 
OOOOOOOffiOJOCS 




a 

d 


OOO'- 1 '-!'-!'- 1 '- 1 '- 1 '- 1 '-' 




Q 


CiOCOOOOCOCOOOO 
3j2* a 3, 3= =3 a 

l-S< 1-5 1-5 <q 






• ft 


©i0O"#C000^HOl>Oi0 




t^iO'*c0"O;o:t>cDiO'O 




o 


ft 
g 


NOCflHONtOiONO 


O 

02 

H 
a 
« 
O 

a 
Q 
| 


Ht^tOtOtOcCOiQifliCiO 




ooooooooooo 

CM CM CM CM<N<McN<MtN<N<N 

d 


a 


1-5 


|3 

% 

Ph 

S 
H 

H 


W 

3 


a 

a 

Eh 


COi-HGCuOOOr-liOCMOCO 


Oicioooot^.cout"-ia5t^i> 


"eS 
Q 


OiNCN't'Tf-^T^Ttt-*-*-* 

<jq r -|,-| I -H,-l,H.-lrHT-(.-<l-( 
jj_ ft 




32 

it 

3 








o 
















■':::::: a 
< 




oioomomoiflooo 

•-H i-i CM (N C3 CO ■* u ^ O 



a 

Q 

o 

Q 

fc 

o 
pq 

« 

o 

a 
a 
K 


> 


a 
d 


1 >C OS iO -tf O O 

1 CM l> iO ■* ^H CM O © -H CM CM 


o 


g 1 ooooceoco^ioioioio 

d i* 


i 

03 1 . 

r 


W 

2 
3 


g 1 JiOOOOOOiOiOOO 

. 1 £ 

ft. 


1 OOOOOOOOOCMO 
<U 1 CMCMCMOICMCOCOCOCC'-HCM 

2 1 d »d 

| H <ll-5 


! 

H 
gfq 

< < 

a < 
o o 
fc . 

< % 

» 

ft 

a 


.a 
> . 

<jft 

p. 


OOOOOOOOOOO 


o 

h3 


a 
a 

d 


^| ^H ,-H ^H ^| c^j ^ o-l CM CM CM 

OOOOOOOOOOO 


"ff3 

Q 




o 
w 


a 
p. 


t-Ot^OOOOOOl^OOt^l^OO 

OOOOOOOOOOO 


"cS 
Q 


Jun. 20 
Jul. 13 
Jun. 20 
Jul. 13 

13 
Jun. 20 
" 20 
Jul. 13 
Jun. 20 
Jul. 13 

13 


« 

H 

g 
w 

Eh 
Cm 
H 
Q 




























































ft 

a 

<3 






OiOOiOO'00"5000 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



129 





H 




H 




«} 


^T 


£ 


OJ 


O 




^ 




H 


-4-> 

o 

3 


m 

Q 


• — ' 


w 


1 


a 


1 


h 


►— 1 


fe 




u 


rn 


ff> 


<a 


*J 


<v 




CO 


hJ 



I" 4> 

< ° 

r7 CD 

O 05 



rooicsooHOOH^ 



H^ioHoooocoioo 

COCCOIOOOSMOO 



I >■& 



13 3 3 3 CD 



m 




fi 


CT> Oi I> CO CD r-l CO t> lO 00 


ft 
ft 


aoc!u;HHHHHf) 



H» CO H,- 



OcDiM-+'*b-eCi'-<-t<l> 
h- t^ b- iQ 00 CT. CO b- CO »0 



OOt^lNt^CS'-ieOGiOOiM 
OOOOOOCNCT. t^CO>OiOiO 



§1 



<N(NO->#©00iOcO00<N 
OOiCiOOcD'-iOb-CCCO 



b- 1> b- t- © Ci © © b- t- 



— ; ft S? 
•-sec <! 




130 



Conservation Department 



rt 


£ 




-p 


Z 




o 






o 

1 


w 




H-! 


O 






02 




Cl 


M 




qj 


<! 




fH 


^ 




<v 






W 


1 






02 


<D 




w 


O 




o? 


^ 




h 


CO 




i-l 






< 


CO 




'A 


03 




< 


JS 




>A 






< 


a 




U 


o 




§ 


CO 




w 


<S 




W 


h 




U 


(-1 

o 
o 

<D 

w 

Eg 
o 



a 



o 

Q 

> 
►J 

O 

CO 
CO 

Q 


O 

K 
H 


£ 


<£>C5t^coooi--co;o-#'-ico 


a 


■^'-iGOcNOCMOO-^TfCvjcn 


ooao^HOHHHH 


O 
i-5 


is 


T^iCfOt^Tf'CGO'-lOOTtiO 

000500000505000500000) 


2 
d 
a 


I>O5C0C01>C5COO500>Ot-I 


oooojooocjoooh 


CD 

is 
Q 


CDCD"*COCO«30«0<0-^-^ 

rHi-HCN !-t CM TH i-< CM CM 
1-5 HsQQ Hs<!l-S Hj 


M 

2 
3 




iOi-iOOCM-'tfeOc0050cO<£> 
000)000050005® 


a 
d 


cr>000005rHC<3C0O'O'-l'-H 


©OOOHHHNHNN 


CP 

Q 


OTfcOOOOtD^OOO 
CM --l >-< CM CM >-H <M CM 


O 

CO 

H 
H 
« 
O 
H 

Q 

1 

w 
a 
a 

B 
< 
M 
H 
ft 

a 

w 
H 


> 

< 


a 

0) 


OCOl>ThOOI>'-lCOl>'-liO 


COiO^CNOJ0000l>COc©iO 


o 

1-1 


ft 

a 

CD 

Eh 


i-HO00l>t*-CM'-<00c©r-<a5 


CNi-IO100I>t>CO>OL0>O-<*f 

T— 1 7—1 


Q 


"*^^Tt<-#cr>oco<r>cD<o 

CM CM <M CM <M 

a &_ 


a 

o 

3 


ft 

a 

CI) 

H 


•># O "O 05 05 •* >— l-*t>i-H0O 


C50000cO.-li-li-<C500GOiO 


is 
Q 


tOSOOOOOOOOO 
CM <M CM CM CM CM CM CM 

» - 1 - - 

C72~ " <T 




X! 

2-1 

5 


























X! 




::::::::; :<j 




COCOOiOOflOOM 

7-n-tcNCNeoec-^icio 





.a 


MOOONOHSHSNiO 
O0»iOHHiO^K3t»00» 




1 1 1 1 


H 
Q 

O 


S 


a 
a 


COCOCO'-lTtHCM^^C^CNCN 

1111 ^^ 


O 

pq 

K 
< 




OOOOOOOO'*'*^ 
<NCN<NCMCM<N<M<MCM<MCN 

» a 
j. ...... ^« , 


H 
« 


a 

o 
W 


a 
a 


p^OONCOOCOO^ 






P 


CMCNCNCMCM tHi-HiH 

3-533 <L>3 3 33 3 

t-9 CQ »-s 




.a 

> . 

<j a 


OiO)O)0000t^t^CO00CX)00 
00505)050i0050500)C5 


I 

H 

j « 

< < 

J . 

< o 


o 


a 
a 
p. 


lOiOiOlNOCft'OHHCOCO-HH 

05ca5C5CT>050000CX)0iO05 


CU 

Is 


(MCNCNCMCNCNCMCMCNCNCN 

a 




a 
2' 

3 


a 


ooooooooooo 


JM ft 

a 
eh 
a 






0) 

Q 


ooooooooooo 

CM CN Ol (M CM CN CM CN CN C^J CM 

si 

<! 






























































Eh 








W 






^ 
fc 










W 




Q 


























'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.-ft 




oiooflOfJO'SOon 

i-H'-HCMCMCCCO^'OCO 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



13.1 





7* 




2 








s 




o 




O 




1 




W 




B 




c/; 




K 




w 




H 




«! 


—. 


£ 


- 


O 


~ 








o 


o 


*-" 


H 


1 


X 


1 


H 


?— 1 
M 


O 




to 


03 


w 


IH 




CO 


i-l 



1 

H 
O 
<! 
K 
H 


CO 

« 


OCM lOt- »CTt< 

co oo oo oo oo i> 


a 


O CO CO 00 t^ 00 
t> t~- t- t> l> CD 




a. 






CO 


OSt^cO-^CM O 
iO CO t>- 00 00 CO 




• 




p 


COOS 00 iCCM "5 


6 


d 
d 


iQ >0 CO t> l> »0 






<^ 



H 

d 

d! 



M 
3- 



OOhhOO 

oo oo oo oo oo b- 



<-l i-l i-l CM rH 

SUSP -d 



t» iO rH O OS CO 



CM <-i 00 X X O 



m o 'O m c-i ' 



32 3 3 = 3 

o 

:::::« 

i-l CO CO C5 O) »o 



H 
Q 

M 
O 

Q 

!zi 

o 
m 
« 

o 

a 
a 

M 

h 


< 


a 

d 
d 


IC O OS lH Tt< O 

i-i CM r-J CN CM* CO 




i 

o 


a 

d 

a 


lO CM CO OS 

r2 ohh'h 




q 


co co co co co co 




w 
2 
3 


a 

a 


oooo-*-^ 

CM CO CO CO CO *# 




03 

cs 

Q 


Sep. 7 

Jun. 29 

" 29 

" 29 

" 29 

Sep. 7 




I 

<! < 
« U 

< O 

j . 

g 
H 


.a 

> ■ 

<^ a 
a 


lOioomcoco 
coiocoodoo 

r-l i-l i-l r-( CM CM 




s 


a 

& 


t>l> CT) CM CO 03 




03 
Q 


Jun. 29 
Jul. 13 
Aug. 10 
Jul. 13 
13 
Jul. 27 




w 
2 
a 


a 

ft 
ft 


GOcOt>COCOt^ 

O CM CO CO O i-i 
t— < CM CM CM CO CO 




03 
Q 


Aug. 24 

" 24 

" 24 

" 24 

Sep. 7 

Aug. 24 




W 
PS 

H 

H 
H 

g 

w 

H 
Ph 

a 
Q 






1 

3 ;;;;;; 





132 



Conservation Department 



Series III— (Concluded) 
Chemical Analyses — Lakes of the Oswego Watershed 









Dissolved 












Tempera- 


oxygen 


Methyl 


Free 
carbon 
dioxide 






Depth 


ture 




orange 










REMARKS 


in 

meters 


of water, 
degrees 


Parts 


Per cent 

of 
satura- 
tion 


alkalinity 
p. p. m. 


pH 






Cent. 


per 

million 


calc. carb. 


p. p. m. 




Keuka lake 


1 


21.3 


9.3 


107 






8.4 


July 7. 


15 


16.0 


9.9 


102 




1.2 


7.9 




30 


9.2 


10.7 


95 




2.1 


7.7 




55 


6.5 


10.5 


87 




3.5 


7.6 




1 


20.4 


8.4 


95 


123 


— .44 


8.3 


July 28. 


10 


20.2 


8.9 


100 


122 


— .97 


8.3 




20 


12.4 


10.0 


96 


126 


1.6 


8.2 




30 


8.0 


10.0 


86 


125 


3.5 


7.9 




62 


5.2 


8.8 


71 


133 


1.7 


7.9 


Owasco lake 


1 


21.8 


9.1 


105 


105 


—2.9 


8.4 


August 4. 


15 


14.9 


8.9 


90 


114 


.94 


8.1 




50 


7.8 


8.3 


72 


107 


2.8 


7.8 




1 


19.8 


8.9 


99 


102 


3.7 


7 6 


August 9. 


20 


15.7 


10.4 


107 


98 


—1.1 


8.4 




78 


6.0 


9.0 


74 


54 


1.1 


7.9 




1 
10 


21.4 
21.0 


8.8 
8.1 


101 

92 


118 
120 


—2.2 
—1.8 


8.4 


August 11. 


8.4 




14 


15.2 


5.1 


52 


132 


2.9 


7.8 




19 


13.1 


0.3 


2.9 


140 


8.0 


7.6 




1 


16.9 


9.3 


97 


118 


0.84 


8.3 


1 mile S. of Lodi landing. 


20 


11.1 


8.5 


78 


106 


0,73 


8.0 


July 15. 


70 


5.0 


8.8 


70 


108 


0.94 


8.0 




100 


4.4 


11.3 


88 


111 


0.53 


8.0 




182 


4.0 


9.2 


72 


109 


0.53 


8.0 


As above, September 9 . . . . 


1 


19.0 


4.7 


51 


98 


—2.1 


8.4 




27 


11.4 


6.8 


63 


105 


0.41 


8.0 




70 


4.8 


7.8 


61 


109 


0.63 


8.0 




110 


4.2 


6.5 


51 


108 


0.84 


7.9 




180 


4.1 


7.5 


58 


110 


1.6 


7.7 


Cavuga lake 





19.5 


9.6 


105 


106 


—1.7 


8.5 


(off Frontenac point) 


5 


19.1 


9.7 


105 


102 


—1.8 


8.4 


August 10. 


10 


19.1 


9.3 


100 


99 


—1.2 


8.4 




15 


18.5 


8.9 


95 


101 


—1.2 


8.4 




18 


17.8 














20 


14.9 


10.2 


102 


103 


— .44 


8.3 




23 


12.7 














25 


10.3 


10.2 


91 


104 


1.0 


8.2 




30 


8.9 


11.0 


95 


105 


1.0 


8.0 




40 


6.3 


10.7 


87 


104 


1.4 


8.0 




50 


5.7 


11.0 


89 


106 


1.3 


8.0 




75 


5.0 


12.3 


97 


104 


1.3 


.8.0 




100 


4.6 


10.0 


78 


105 


1.3 


8.0 




120 


4.5 


10.1 


78 


104 


1.7 


8.0 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 133 



VI. BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF POLLUTED WATERS IN 
THE OSWEGO WATERSHED 

By P. W. Ci.aassen, 

Professor of Biology, Cornell University 

and 

N. L. Cutler, 

Biologist and Sanitarian, N. Y. State Conservation Department 

The object of this investigation was to determine the types of 
pollution present in the Oswego watershed ; the exact location or 
source of each case of pollution ; a study of the plants and animals 
which are found in polluted water and a study of the extent of 
pollution present with a view of determining what effect the var- 
ious types of wastes have upon fish and other fresh water organ- 
isms which normally inhabit clean waters. 

Unlike the conditions which exist in the Genesee river system 
where the pollution centers are almost uniformly distributed over 
the entire watershed we find that in the Oswego watershed the head 
waters are remarkably free from pollution. Here the pollution 
areas are largely restricted to the industrial centers and the larger 
cities and villages along the outlets of the Finger lakes and along 
the streams below the lakes. 

Economic changes during the last ten years have brought about 
these conditions, for we find in the headwaters of the Oswego 
watershed a great number of old creameries and milk plants 
which have ceased to operate. Most of these plants were located in 
small fresh water streams and constituted one of the chief sources 
of pollution to the small fishing streams. The milk from these com- 
munities is now largely hauled by trucks to the cities where it is 
bottled or turned into various manufactured products. This, to- 
gether with a natural increase in the size of cities and villages and 
the establishment of more industrial plants, has increased the 
pollution problem in these centralized areas. The only redeeming 
feature which can here be mentioned is the fact that these indus- 
trial centers are nearly all located on large streams or lakes where 
the large volume of water is able to absorb much of the polluting 
substances. 

The types of pollution found in the Oswego watershed may be 
grouped as follows: domestic sewage, paper mill wastes, woolen 
mill wastes, milk wastes, cannery wastes, oil, sulphur and various 
industrial wastes. 

Sewage. — Sewage forms one of the chief sources of pollution 
in this watershed. The effect of the entrance of raw sewage into a 
stream is to produce first what is known as a * * zone of recent pollu- 
tion. ' ' Here the dissolved oxygen supply of the stream is lowered 
perhaps 20-50 per cent and fresh water organisms, such as green 
algae, mayfly and stoneny nymphs give way to more tolerant, and 
even pollutional forms, such as blue-green algae (Oscillatoria), 
sewage fungus (Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix) and sludge worms 



134 Conservation Department 

(Tubifex). The water is turbid and practically devoid of fish life. 
The lower end of this zone merges into the second, "the septic 
zone." The establishment of this zone is hastened in the quiet still 
waters of ponds. The dissolved oxygen may practically disappear. 
The stream bed is blackened with sludge and foul-smelling gases 
rise up through the murky water. Green plants are absent. The 
larvae of the sewage fly and the rat-tail maggot may be found here. 
The third zone is the "zone of recovery." Green plants such as 
Potamogetons and eel-grass reappear, thriving on the excessive 
amounts of organic matter and giving off oxygen to the water. 
The fresh water organisms find conditions once more to their lik- 
ing and fish life may thrive again. 

Twelve streams, not including the canalized Seneca river, re- 
ceive sewage pollution of a serious nature at one or more points 
throughout their course. Most of these, in addition, receive in- 
dustrial wastes of various kinds. 

Two outstanding examples of the flagrant misuse of streams in 
this watershed are shown by the cities of Rome and Auburn which 
turn Wood creek and Owasco outlet respectively into what arc 
virtually open sewers. 

The condition of Wood creek is very aptly summarized by Mr. 
Wagner in the introduction to his chemical studies of this survey 
and need not be further discussed here. It might, however, be 
pointed out that the "zone of recent pollution" and the "septic 
zone" coincide in this case. Biologically, it offers little, even the 
ordinary, visible foul water organisms finding conditions untenable 
for some distance. 

The population of Auburn, according to the 1925 census is 35,- 
677, of these over 25,000 are not connected with either of the 2 
small sewage disposal plants. Their sewage enters the Owasco out- 
let in a raw state through 25 sewer outfalls distributed through the 
heart of the city, causing what might be characterized as a "zone 
of recent pollution." Even under conditions of normal flow, 73.8- 
93.5 cu. ft. per sec* on week days, the stream is turbid and loaded 
with the effluent from the sewer outfalls. How much more inten- 
sified are they then on Sundays and at night, when, due to the 
water regulation at the State dam, the flow may be as low as 19- 
36 cu. ft. per sec. ! *. 

By means of the many dams and because of the swiftly flowing 
nature of the stream the dissolved oxygen is being constantly re- 
plenished as it is being used by the decomposing organic matter 
and, as will be seen by reference to the chemical report, the oxygen 
never gets lower than 76.0 per cent saturation. Thus a "septic 
zone" does not get time to become established. Nevertheless many 
desirable kinds of fish cannot possibly live in a stream that serves 
as an open sewer, whether it becomes septic or not, and that is 
just what we find — a few members of the very tolerant species, 
such as bullheads, here and there until we get well down into the 



* Rep. on Sewage Conditions at Auburn, N. Y., by Theodore Horton, Apr, 
25, 1917, (letter on file in City Engineer's Office, Auburn, N. Y.). 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 135 

"zone of recovery" below Throopsville. One further case of 
stream contamination caused by Auburn sewage is the pollution of 
Coldspring brook (North brook) for 4% miles by the partially 
treated effluent of the sewage disposal plant located there. Thus 
Auburn sewage pollutes approximately 21% miles of the stream, 
the greater part of which would be suitable for fishing streams. 

The city of Canandaigua is responsible for the pollution of 
Canandaigua outlet for some considerable distance as may be seen 
by reference to the appended tables. No small part of this is due 
to the partially untreated effluent from the sewage disposal plant. 

It seems regrettable that where provision is made for the dis- 
posal of sewage and the rendering innocuous of the effluent, that 
often those facilities are not utilized to their utmost. Instead, 
either through ignorance or carelessness, partially treated effluents 
are allowed to run into, and grossly pollute, desirable fishing 
streams. 

Because of the fact that many polluting substances, other than 
domestic sewage are mixed with sewage it is difficult to state just 
how many miles of streams are thus polluted but approxi- 
mately 41 miles are directly affected by sewage pollution, of which 
32 would be fishing streams. 

Milk Pollution. — It is rather surprising that in so large an area 
as that covered by the Oswego watershed there should be such a 
small amount of milk pollution. Apparently not more than a total 
of 17 miles of streams have become polluted from milk wastes. 
Most of the milk plants have adopted means whereby the by- 
products are utilized or else treated before they are allowed to 
enter fresh water streams. There is however one case of pollution 
which is so extremely bad that it deserves mention here. The milk 
plant at Pennellville, which manufactures casein, sugar and albu- 
men, empties its wastes untreated into Potts creek and pollutes the 
stream to the extent of killing all fish and fresh water life. The 
entire stream for a distance of about 4 miles has become unsightly 
and foul and presents a distinct nuisance. Blood worms, sludge 
worms and tolerant snails are the only animal forms present and 
blue-greens, tolerant Potamogetons, and sewage fungus the only 
plants. This stream, if free from pollution, would support fish 
life. 

Paper Mill and Woolen Mill Wastes. — These factories are 
centered largely along the outlets of Keuka lake, Otisco lake, 
Skaneateles lake and along the Seneca river. The wastes from 
these plants consist largely of waste fibers, dyes and the various 
glues and chemicals used in the process of manufacture. The dyes 
apparently do not produce any very deleterious effects upon fish 
life but due to the fact that a small amount of dye stuff will color 
a large volume of water there is a popular belief that this is very 
harmful to fish life. Our observations indicate that the dye itself 
does not materially affect the stream except when it is introduced 
in very large quantities. 



136 Conservation Department 

The wastes from paper mills however do considerable harm to 
fresh water life and along Keuka outlet and Skaneateles outlet 
they have very decidedly harmed fish life. These wastes encourage 
a rich growth of blue-green algae (Oscillatoria and Phormidium) 
and the development of sewage fungus and sludge worms all of 
which are indicators of polluted waters. 

Skaneateles outlet has been badly polluted for many years and 
received an extensive biological and chemical investigation in 1921. * 
Consequently but a brief survey was made on this occasion. 
Biologically the condition of the stream had not improved but 
apparently has steadily grown worse in that time. Referring in 
part to the above mentioned report: The stream may be divided 
into 3 zones. First the "zone of initial pollution," caused by the 
sewage from the town of Skaneateles. Second the "zone of oxygen 
sag." where the presence of 2 paper mills and 2 woolen mills con- 
tribute a great deal of waste material. The stream in this section 
is brown and turbid with its great accumulation of debris. Third 
the ' ' lower section ' ' — the zone of recovery. 

Together with other types of pollution the paper mills and 
woolen mills pollute approximately 33 miles. 

Oil Pollution. — Oil undoubtedly has a very deleterious influence 
on fish life. By reference to the chemical data for the oil pollution 
in Great brook it will be seen that oil causes a certain drop in the 
amount of dissolved oxygen. Fresh water food organisms such as 
caddisfly, stonefly and mayfly nymphs are suffocated by the heavy 
coating of oil that settles to the bottom and covers the stones, etc. 
The eventual result is to cause desirable fish species to migrate to 
a more favorable environment. 

Industrial plants of various kinds, such as gas plants, machine- 
shops, automobile garages, etc., are guilty of this form of stream 
contamination. Witness the black oily drains from garages along 
SixmiJe creek through Ithaca or along Owasco outlet through the 
city of Auburn. One further aggravating feature of this type of 
pollution is that the waste is usually "dumped" at one time, thus 
bringing about an extremely high concentration of impurities. 

Oil in combination with other wastes pollutes about 12 miles of 
stream. 

Cannery Wastes. — Cannery wastes, being high in organic con- 
tents, constitute a very serious menace to fish life when allowed to 
enter fresh water streams in large quantities. Although there are 
many canneries in this watershed there were but two cases of seri- 
ous stream pollution. This is in part due to the slack canning 
season. The cannery at Rushville pollutes West river and that at 
Victor pollutes Great brook. Both of these plants have screening 
devices, but as pointed out by Mr. Wagner in his chemical report, 
these are never, in themselves, sufficiently adequate. 



* State of New York, Conservation Department, Stream Pollution Studies 
No. 2, Pollution of Skaneateles Outlet by Sewage and Industrial Wastes. 
Unpublished report by Emmeline Moore. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 137 

Sulphur Pollution. — Tributary 44 of Canandaigua outlet at 
Clifton Springs shows a unique form of pollution caused by the 
sulphur springs in the vicinity. This, together with a certain 
amount of sanitary wastes causes the stream bed to be absolutely 
covered with a thick mat of sewage fungus intermingled with ex- 
cessive growths of pollution algae of the blue-green type. It 
would be hard to conceive of a more luxuriant growth of these foul 
water plants. They produce a most unsightly and unsanitary con- 
dition. Normally this would be a feeder for Canandaigua outlet. 

Conclusion. — Certain forms of fresh water plant and animal 
life are constantly associated with a favorable environment for fish 
life. This is readily understood when one considers that their 
living conditions must be the same as those that favor fish life, 
i. e., fresh, clean, well-aerated water. When we find instead an 
association of foul water plants and animals, i. e., certain blue- 
green algae, sludge worms, etc., we know that fish cannot thrive 
under the conditions found there. 

The more outstanding cases of pollution in this watershed are the 
ones that have been discussed in the preceding pages. For a com- 
plete survey covering all cases of actual or potential pollution the 
reader is referred to the tabulation. Particular attention should 
be given to "effect on stream and fish life" in the table below. It 
must be emphasized, in this regard, that to get an accurate picture 
of the effect of pollution from any one source, or sources, upon a 
stream, both the tables and graphs for the biological and chemical 
data should be studied in conjunction with one another. 

A total of 108 miles of stream were found to be polluted. Of 
this total 60 would be suitable for fishing streams. 

It is a significant fact that the outlets of the five Finger lakes, 
Canandaigua, Keuka, Owasco, Skaneateles and Otisco are all seri- 
ously polluted, totalling about 45 miles of polluted stream. Of this 
amount 20 would be suitable for the propagation of fish were there 
no contamination present. The reader is referred to page 92 of 
Mr. Greeley's report for a discussion of the fish life in these outlets. 



138 



Conservation Department 



Tabulation of Pollution Studies in the Oswego Watershed 













Miles 


TYPE OF 
POLLUTION 


Quadrangle 


Township 
or post 
office 


Stream 


Effect on stream and 
fish life 


of 
stream 

af 
fected 




Ithaca 


Ithaca 


Cascadilla 
creek 


Moderate, tolerant fish 
present 


V2 






Sewage 


Ithaca 


Ithaca 


Cayuga inlet . 


High C0 2 — a few tol- 
erant fish present 


1 


Sewage 


Penn Yan . . 


Penn Yan . . 


Keuka lake 
outlet 


Slight, large volume of 
water 






Auburn .... 


Auburn .... 


Coldspring 
brook 


Kills fresh water forms 
above Price spring 


4^ 








Skaneateles. 


Skaneateles . 


Skaneateles 
outlet 


Kills all fresh water forms 


1 














Slight 


1 








Cowaselon 












creek 






Sewage 


Oriskany . . . 


Rome 


Wood creek. . 


Stream absolutely foul . . 


9 




Fulton 

Kasoag 


Fulton 

Camden. . . . 


Oswego river 

West Branch 

Fish creek 


Raw sewage evident .... 


1 














Clyde 

Canandaigua 


Lyons 

Canandaigua 








Sewage and indus- 


Canandaigua 


Fresh water forms rare. 


2 


trial waste 






outlet 


a few tolerant fish 
present 
Fresh water forms absent 




Sewage and indus- 


Phelps 


Shortsville . . 


Canandaigua 


5K 


trial waste 






outlet 






Sewage and indus- 


Auburn .... 


Auburn .... 


Owasco out- 


Kills most fish and fresh 


12 H 


trial waste 






let 


water life 




Sewage and indus- 


Oneida 


Oneida 


Oneida creek 


Badly polluted, no fresh 


12 


trial waste 








water life for 3-4 miles 




Industrial waste . . 


Syracuse. . . 


Syracuse. . . 


Onondaga 
outlet 


Slight, many fresh water 
forms present 






Oneida 


Sherrill 


Mud creek.. . 


Potential 




Industrial waste . . 


Fulton 


Fulton 


Oswego river 


Slight, large volume 
water 




Paper mill waste. . 


Ithaca 


Ithaca 


Fall creek . . . 


Large stream, slight 
effect 




Paper mill waste. . 


Penn Yan . . 


Penn Yan . . 


Keuka lake 
outlet 


Discolors water, raises 
temperature, no fish 
life 


6 


Paper mill waste. . 


Syracuse. . . 


Fayetteville 


Limestone 
creek 


Most fresh water forms 
absent 


Yi 


Paper and woolen 


Skaneateles . 


Willow Glen 


Skaneateles 


Extremely bad, no fresh 


12 


mills 




to Skan- 
eateles Falls 


outlet 


water forms present 




Paper and woolen 


Skaneateles . 


Marcellus 


Ninemile 


Stream in poor condition, 


11 


mills 




and Mar- 
cellusFalls 


creek 


very little fish food 




Paper and woolen 


Baldwins- 


Phoenix. . . . 


Seneca river. 


Large volume saves 


3 


mills 


ville 






greater damage to fish 




Kraut factory .... 


Phelps 


Gorham .... 


Flint creek, 
Trib. 40, 
Canandaigua 


Reduces O2, CO2 present, 
spoils fishing stream 


2 


Kraut factory .... 


Phelps 


Phelps 


Flint creek, 
Trib. 40, 
Canandaigua 


Kills fresh water forms 
to some extent 


m 


Kraut factory .... 


Phelps 


Hall 


Burrell creek, 
(Wilson) 

Great brook,. 
Trib. 43, 


Stream goes dry 






Canandaigua 


Victor 


Low O2, high CO2, fresh 
water forms absent 


v/ 2 












Ganargua 








Oneida 

Oneida 


Stacy Basin . 
Vernon 


Drum creek.. 
Trib. 5, 
Stony cr. 


















Sulphur and sani- 


Phelps 


Clifton 


Trib. 40, 


Badly polluted, normally 


2 


tary wastes 




Springs 


Canandaigua 


a " feeder stream " 




Carbon bisulphide 


Penn Yan . . 


Penn Yan . . 


Keuka lake 
outlet 


Potential, not operating 
during summer 




Milk 


Dryden .... 
Geneva. . . . 


Dryden .... 
McDougall . 


Virgil creek. . 
Trib. 8, 
Kendig cr. 


Potential 




Milk 


Small stream 


2 








Milk 


Auburn .... 
Moravia 


Union 

Springs 
Locke 


Cayuga lake . 

Owasco 
outlet 


Potential 




Milk 


Slight, fresh water forms 
present 









Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 139 

Tabulation op Pollution Studies in the Oswego Watershed — Concluded 



TYPE OF 
POLLUTION 



Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk 

Milk and cheese . . 
Milk and cheese . . 

Milk and cheese . . 
Milk and cheese . . 

Milk and butter . . 
Milk and casein, 

etc. 
Pea cannery 

Pea cannery 

Pea cannery 

Pea cannery 

Oil, garage 

Oil, garage 

Oil, garage 

Oil, insulator works 

Oil 



Quadrangle 



Moravia 

Moravia 

Skaneateles, 

Clyde 

Weedsport . . 



Weedsport . . 
Cazenovia. . 

Morrisville. . 
Morrisville.. 
Oneida 

Oneida 

Oneida 

Kasoag 

Taberg 

Taberg 

Taberg 

Clyde 

Weedsport.. 

Syracuse . . . 
Cazenovia . . 

Weedsport. . 
Fulton 

Naples 

Phelps 

Penn Yan . . 

Palmyra 

Ithaca 

Auburn .... 
Syracuse. . . 

Canandaigua 

Geneva .... 



Township 
or post 
office 



Groton 

McLean. . . . 

Amber 

South Butler 
Meridian. . . 

Conquest . . . 
Delphi 

Peterboro.. . 
Munnsville. 
Oneida 
Community 
Oneida 

Castle 
Vernon 

Williams- 
town 

Thomson 
Corners 
Blossvale. . . 

Lee Center. 

Savannah.. . 

Cato 

Cicero 

Nelson 

Port Byron. 
Pennellville . 

Naples creek 

Rushville . . 

Penn Yan . 

Alloway. . . 

Ithaca .... 
Auburn . . . 
Cicero 

Victor 

Seneca Fall 



Stream 



Owasco 

outlet 
Fall creek . . . 
Otisco lake.. . 
Butler creek . 
Trib. 12, 

Muskrat 

creek 
Trib. 2 of 

M. S. 7 
Trib. 34, 

Limestone 

creek 
Oneida creek 
Oneida creek 
Oneida creek 

Mud creek. . . 

Trib. 5, 

Stony cr. 
Pond, West 

Branch, 

Fish cr. 
Trib. 7, Cobb 

brook 
Trib. 17, 

Fish creek 
Canada creek 

Trib. 1, 

Crusoe cr. 
Trib. 12, 

Muskrat 

creek 
Mud creek. . . 
Chittenango . 

Owasco outlet 
Potts creek. . 

Naples creek. 

West river. . . 

Keuka lake 

outlet 
Canandaigua 

outlet 
Sixmile creek 
Owasco outlet 
Mud creek. . . 

Great brook. . 

Seneca river. 



Effect on stream and 
fish life 



Oxygen reduced, normal 
fish food lacking 

Potential 

Potential 

Potential 

Lost in swamp 



Bad, volume small, goes 

dry 
Potential 



Potential. 

Slight 

Potential. 

Potential. 

Potential. 



Pond easily absorbs waste 
at present 

Potential 



Potential. 



Potential, clears up 

ditch 
Potential, clears before 

reaching Crusoe creek 
Stream volume small. . . 



Potential 

Fish and other fresh 

water life killed 

Slight 

Extremely bad, kills all 

fresh water life 
Potential, insufficient 

waste to reach stream 
Low Oo, high CO2, fresh 

water forms absent 
Little effect on large vol 

ume of water 
Reduces oxygen, also 

available fish food 
Fresh water forms killed 
Fresh water forms killed 
Prevents development of 

fish food 
Reduces O2, kills fresh 

water forms 
Eliminates some fish food, 

lowers O2 



Miles 

of 
stream 

af 
fected 



General indicators of above: 

Organic wastes, such as sewage, milk, cheese, kraut factory wastes, canning 
factory wastes: Black foul-smelling sludge, sludge worms (Tubifex), fungi, 
blue-green algae (Oscillatoria, etc.), blood worms (Chironomus) . 
Inorganic wastes. 

Machine shops, garages, etc. — Oil on surface and bottom, Melosira 

(Diatom), blue-green algae. 
Paper mill. — Yellow incrustations on stones, fibres, blue-green algae, 

fungi. 
Woolen mill. — Dyes, alkalies, acids (acetic), etc., scrubbings. 



140 Conservation Department 



VII. PLANKTON STUDIES OF CAYUGA, SENECA AND 
ONEIDA LAKES 

By W. C. Mukxscher, 

Assistant Professor of Botany, Cornell University 

In a biological survey of a body of water for the purpose of 
determining the factors and conditions which contribute to the 
production of fish, the source of fish food is of prime importance. 
In this connection the plankton organisms, those small free- 
swimming or suspended organisms occurring in the water, furnish, 
directly or indirectly, one of the chief sources of food for fish and 
other animals that are eaten by the fish. 1 

The following members of the survey staff assisted in this undertaking: 
Dr. Gertrude E. Douglas, Albany State Teachers' College, Mr. Paul R. Burk- 
holder, Cornell University, Mr. Willis L. Tressler, University of Wisconsin, 
Mr. Sidney Britten, Syracuse University, Mr. F. E. Wagner, Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute. This work was greatly facilitated through the co-opera- 
tion of Cornell University: the Department of Botany made available a lab- 
oratory which served as general headquarters from June 15 to September 15, 
1927; the Laboratory of Plant Physiology granted the use of equipment and 
apparatus necessary for certain chemical work and gravimetric determinations 
of plankton ; the Department of Zoology granted the use of the University boat 
house on Cayuga lake for the storage of boats and other equipment. 

The most important lakes of the Oswego watershed are the 
Finger lakes and Oneida lake. The limnological studies reported 
by Birge and Juday, 2 , 3 already furnished a general preliminary 
survey of the plankton life of the Finger lakes though not of 
Oneida lake. 

The amount of time and the facilities available for plankton 
studies precluded the possibility of making very extended studies 
on all the lakes in the Oswego river watershed. It seemed that, 
under the circumstances, the most worth while results could be 
obtained by concentrating the plankton work on a few lakes. 
Plankton studies were therefore conducted on three lakes ; Cayuga 
and Seneca, the largest of the deep lakes and Oneida, the only 
large shallow lake in the Oswego watershed. 

The aim of this study was to make available more information 
concerning the abundance, vertical and horizontal distribution, 
and periodicity of the various kinds of plankton organisms in 
each lake. An attempt was also made to gain some idea of the 
condition of the environment under which the plankton organisms 
occur by measuring some of the factors such as temperature, 
transparency, dissolved gases, and reaction of the water. 

By limiting the work to three lakes it was possible to make the 
observations and take samples approximately every two weeks in 
Oneida and Cayuga lakes, and once a month in Seneca lake, from 



i For discussion of the larger vegetation sec Appendix XII. 

2 Birge, E. A., and Judav, C. A. linnologica] study of the Finger L.\kes 
of New York. U. S. Bull, of the Bur. of Fisheries. 32: 525-009. 1912. 

:: — Further limnological observations on the Finger lakes of New 

York. Ibid. 37: 211-252. 1919-20. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 141 

June to September, 1927. In Cayuga and Seneca lakes samples 
were taken at two stations, 1 one near the south end and one to- 
wards the north end at the following' depths: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 
30, 35, 40, 50 meters and bottom. In Oneida lake samples were 
taken in only one station 2 at three meter intervals from the surface 
to the bottom, 15 meter depth. 

The following determinations were made at each of the five 
stations : 

1. Temperature of the water. 

2. Transparency of the water. 

3. Dissolved oxygen. 

4. Free carbon dioxide. 

5. Total alkalinity of the Avater. 

6. Quantitative determinations of the various kinds of plankton 
organisms. 

7. Total dry matter, organic matter and ash in the lake water. 

Temperature of the Water. — A series of temperature readings 3 
was taken each time when plankton samples were taken or when 
water samples were taken for gas determination. 

The records taken over a period of about six months in Cayuga 
lake show a rise in the surface temperature from 3.18° 4 Centigrade 
on April 16 to 19.3° C. on August 26. The temperature at the 
50 meter depth rose from 3.15° C. on April 16 to 7.9° C. on Sep- 
tember 14. Near the surface and at the lower depths the decrease 
in temperature per meter increase in depth was but slight. When 
a definite thermocline occurred (during August and September) 
the most rapid drop in temperature was not always at the same 
depth, although usually this occurred between the 20 and 25 
meter depths. 

The temperature at the surface of Seneca lake increased from 
about 12.0° C. to 20.1° C. between June 24 and September 7. 



1 The locations of the stations: 

Cayuga lake. "South station"— near the middle of the lake two miles from 
the south end. "North station"=about one-half mile off the east shore just 
south of Stony point about 15 miles from the north end. 

fleneca lake. "South station"=about one-sixth mile off east shore south of 
Hector falls, two miles from the south end. "North station"=about one mile 
off the east shore opposite the mouth of Reeder creek, six miles from the north 
end. 

The samples could not be taken in exactly the same spot each time, but 
all of the samples were taken within a radius of about 100 meters of a com- 
mon point represented by the "station." This is why the depth of the bottom 
varied from about 50 to 80 meters. 

2 Oneidu lake. "Station"=:approxiniately one mile off the north shore op- 
posite the village of Cleveland. Depth, approximately 15 meters. 

3 All temperatures recorded in the tallies of chemical analysis, Series 111, 
p. 128 were taken with a Negretti-Zambra deep sea thermometer and re- 
corded without correction for variations due to difference in the temperature 
of the mercury column. In the few cases where we made these corrections we 
found the difference to be very small, usually less than 0.1 of a degree. 

* To change degrees Centrigrade to degrees Fahrenheit multiply bv 9/5 and 
then add 32} eg. (3,18x9/5) +32^37.7 (degrees Fahr.). 



142 



Conservation Department 



At the. 50 meter depth the increase in temperature between June 
and September was less than 3° C. In Seneca lake, as in Cayuga 
lake, the decrease in temperature with increase in depth was very 
slight near the top and the bottom of the lake. The most rapid 
drop in temperature occurred between the 20 and 25 meter, or 
between the 15 and 25 meter depths. 

Temperature records show that the water of Oneida lake be- 
comes relatively warm rather early in the summer. The lake is 
too shallow to show any vertical stratification. At no time was the 
bottom temperature more than 4° C. colder than at the surface; 
in four out of six series of readings the bottom temperature was 
only about 0.5° C. lower than at the surface. Cayuga and Seneca, 
both deep lakes, are similar in that they warm up very slowly 
and show a considerable drop in temperature between the upper 
and lower water. On the other hand Oneida lake, which is very 
shallow, warms up much earlier in the summer. 

Transparency of the water. — The transparency of the water 
was determined in each lake each time when plankton samples 
were taken. A Secchi disc having a diameter of twenty centi- 
meters was used for this purpose. The observations were made 
at noon or as near noon as possible. The depth was determined 
at which the disc disappeared when lowered in the water and also 
when it reappeared when raised. The figures in Table 1 repre- 
sent the averages of these two values recorded in meters. While 
it must be admitted that this is a crude method for measuring 
the transparency of the water, the results obtained thereby are 
sufficient to make possible a rough comparison of the transparency 
of the water in the three lakes. As shown in the table the water 
of Seneca lake is much clearer than that of Oneida lake and some- 
what more so than that of Cayuga lake. 



Table 1. 



Transparency of the Water of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida 
Lakes (1927). 



Cayuga lake — south 




Cayuga lake — north 




Date 


Trans- 
parency 
in meters 


Date 


Trans- 
parency 
in meters 




4.5 
5.5 

7 
7 
5 
4 
4 


June 21 . . 




5.5 


June 30 


July 9 


7 


July 13 


July 25 


7 


July 29 


Aug. 17 


5 


Aug. 12 


Aug. 31 


4 


Aug. 26 . 


Sept. 12 


3 


Sept. 14 












Seneca lake — south 




Seneca lake — north 




June 24 . . . 




1 

9.5 
11 


June 22 


7 


July 16 . . . 





July 17 


8 


Aug. 20 . . . 


Aug. 19 


12 


Sept. 8... 


Sept. 7 


10 










Oneida lake 








June 29 


2.9 

3 

4.1 

4 1 




Juln 12 




July 26 




Aug. 23 . . 











Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 143 

Water Analyses. — Determinations were made of the amount of 
dissolved oxygen and free carbon dioxide, the total alkalinity and 
the reaction of the water each time when plankton samples were 
obtained. The water samples for all these determinations were 
obtained with a closing water sampler of one liter capacity. 

In general, the results of the analyses* for the four months, 
June to September, indicate that in Cayuga and Seneca lakes there 
was no free carbon dioxide in the upper 20-25 meters of water 
after the last of June. Below this depth about 1-2 parts per 
million of free carbon dioxide were found in the water during 
the early part of the summer, but late in August and September 
this was reduced to about 0.5 p. p.m. Oneida lake showed a greater 
variation in free carbon dioxide in the water between the surface 
and the bottom, increasing gradually from 1.5 to 3.7 p. p.m. on 
June 29, from 1.3 to 2.7 p.p.m. on August 10, and from 2 to 4.4 
p. p.m. on September 7. On July 13 there was no free carbon diox- 
ide in the upper 3 meters of water, but it increased from 0.3 to 1.9 
p.p.m. between 6 and 15 meters. 

The dissolved oxygen in the water of Cayuga and Seneca lakes 
varied between 6.8 and 12.2 parts per million, the variation in 
Seneca lake being slightly less than in Cayuga lake. In general, 
the dissolved oxygen was somewhat less from the surface to about 
20-25 meters than between the 25 meter depth and the bottom. 
The dissolved oxygen in Oneida lake was lower, in most cases 
between 6.5 and 8 p.p.m. However, on September 7 the oxygen 
between and 3 meters was as low as 5.3 to 5.9 p.p.m. 

The total alkalinity of the water varied from 100 to 107 p.p.m. 
in Cayuga lake, the water being somewhat less alkaline in the 
latter part of the summer. No striking or constant difference in 
alkalinity of the water was noted at the various depths or between 
the two stations. In Seneca lake the alkalinity ranged between 
84.3 and 100 p.p.m. ; the lowest was found in June at the south 
station. Determinations of the water of Oneida lake indicated 
that the total alkalinity gradually increased between June and 
September. On June 29 the alkalinity gradually increased from 
9.7 to 15.6 p.p.m. between the surface and bottom, on September 
7 from 17.8 to about 30 p.p.m. between the surface and bottom. 

Quantitative Determinations of Plankton Organisms. — In 

Cayuga lake, samples of net plankton and nannoplankton were 
taken at the north and south stations approximately every two 
weeks between June 15 and September 15, 1927 ; in Seneca lake 
samples were taken at the north and south stations once a month 
from June to September ; in Oneida lake, at intervals of two weeks 
between June 28 and September 6. From these data the accom- 
panying charts (1-8) were prepared. 

Charts 1-5 give a summary of the abundance, and vertical and 
seasonal distributions of the Crustacea, rotifera, protozoa, algae 
and diatoms obtained in the net plankton of Cayuga, Seneca and 

* See tables of chemical analysis, Series 111, p. 128. 



144 



Conservation Department 





CUUGA 


SENECA 


ONE IDA 


Mft 




*■ 




a 


3 




3! 

3 


i- 


?! 


t» 


o 


a. 




to 


o 


to 


1 i - 


3 




am 

\ 


CD 






<n 


Cj 


If 


DtP/t 








«C 


^ 




"7 




-> 


t 


<* 








■*: 




-> 


~3 


1 


•J-i 


l)t«f 


"5 


-3 


3 


<* 


^c 




u . 










































Ui HM 




















































U ■ 


























































IK 

a 
to 










■ 










• » 


















l 




-7 


s: 










































tH" 




























































































? Stt 






o 


.. 


# , 




, # 






.. 








t 




















■_ 




H d_ 












































t 












CVJ 










































CO 














o 










































n 
















• • 












• • 






























• • 












r 
























































o 










































t 






































































<\l 


, 








































CO 
























































£: 














-3- 










































n 














g 


t 


















## 




• • 


















en 














S* 


■ 
























































; 








































*T 
















: 








































!r> 




















































































































































































SOUTH STATION 


NORTH STATION 


SOUTH STATION 


NORTH STATION 







Chart 1. Crustacea in net plankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida 
Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 
1 space = 25; . = less than 1; ..=1-10; depth = meters. 
Genera observed: 

Cladocera; daphnia, Leptodora, Bosmina -CS, Polyphemus 

dosida -SO, Cerodaphnia -C, Sida -0. 

Copepoda; Cyclops, Diaptomus, Nauplii. 



lakes. 



-CS, Pseu- 





CA V UCA 


SENECA 


ONEIDA 


DAT I 

\ 


o 

Z 
-3 


3; 


3- 


•3: 


tvj 

3 


Q. 

1X1 


2? 

"3 




=3 




O 

t-3 


CO 


1 

"3 


to 


Q 

=3 




~i 


CO 

2> 

~3 




£ 


DATE 

DEPTH 


3 
-3 


-3 


-a 


| 


"J 




E 




• • 












•• 








• • 


















3 








m* 






o 

c 

o 
o 












»» 






























5: 


• • 






-J 








• 




*• 




• 


5: 


♦ • 


• « 








• • 


o 

m 

o 


• • 










• 








• • 




« • 




• 










• 


• 


03 






•• 








5 

o 

o 












• • 










• 


• • 












»• 




• » 


• • 


• » 


Z 
o 
<o 

o 


: 
















• 










• 




• 










?: 




• • 






» « 






SOUTH STATION 


NORTH STATION 


SOUTH STATION 


NOffTH STATION 











Chart 2. Rotifera in net plankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 
Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 
1 space = 15 ; • = less than 1 ; • • = 1-10. 

Genera observed: Anurea, polyarthra, Asplanchna, Notholca, Triarthra, 
Pleosoma, Conochilus -SC, Synchaeta -C 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 145 

Oneida lakes; charts 6-8 show the same data for the protozoa, 
algae and diatoms in the nannoplankton. The genera of which 
representatives were found are listed under the explanation o£ 
the chart showing the distribution of the group to which they 
belong. Thus the letters C, S. or following a genus indicate 
that it was observed in Cayuga, Seneca or Oneida lake respec- 
tively. Genera not followed by any letter were observed in all 
three lakes. The value assigned to the vertical rectangles in the 
figures varies from 150 to 50,000 depending upon the group of 
organisms. Each rectangle is provided with a scale of ten equal 
spaces in the lower left rectangle. The value of one of these spaces, 
which varies in the different figures, is indicated in the legend. 
In chart 5, the data for Oneida lake are not to the same scale as 
the others, and must be multiplied by ten for comparison with 
Cayuga and Seneca lakes. The various plankton organisms were 
determined to the genus whenever possible. The number of indi- 
viduals, or colonies in the case of some of the Cyanophyceae, 
diatoms, etc., of each genus identified were computed for each 
sample. 

The results of the plankton studies conducted during the sum- 
mer of 1927 and shown graphically in the charts indicate that 
Cayuga and Seneca lakes were relatively poor in plankton or- 
ganisms. Oneida lake was very rich in plankton organisms at all 
depths during the entire period covered by the observations. 

Methods: Samples of net plankton were obtained by drawing a closing net 
of number 20 silk bolting cloth with bucket, through a vertical distance of 
5 or 10 meters of water. These samples were placed in vials or small bottles 
and enough 95 per cent alcohol was added to make approximately a 70 per 
cent solution. Later these samples were made up to a, uniform volume of 20 cc . 
For making counts of the smaller organisms, such as algae, diatoms and pro- 
tozoa, one cc. of the sample was transferred with a volumetric pipette to a 
>Sedgwick-Kafter cell. The counts were made by enumerating under a com- 
pound microscope, the organisms present in ten squares taken at random 
from the cell. For the enumeration of the larger organisms, such as Crustacea 
and rotifers, a two cc. portion of the sample was placed in a Watch glass and 
all the organisms therein counted. The results were reduced to the number 
of organisms per liter of water. For this purpose the net was considered 
80 per cent efficient, that is, it was assumed that it strained the organisms 
from 80 per cent of the water through which it was drawn. A check on the 
efficiency of the net was made by determining the organisms in a sample 
obtained by straining a known volume of water and also in a similar sample 
obtained by drawing the net slowly through a certain vertical distance of 
water. The results were approximately equal, indicating that the efficiency 
of the net approximates 80 per cent. 

The samples of nannoplankton were obtained by taking water samples at 
various depths with a water sampler. The water was strained through the 
plankton net and one liter samples were centrifuged with a "Foerst number 
14 centrifuge" and reduced to a small volume which was placed in a vial and 
enough distilled water and formaldehyde added to make 10 cc. of suspension 
in 4 per cent formalin. In a few cases when the water samples could not be 
centrifuged on the same day that they were collected, liter quantities of water 
were measured and enough formalin added to preserve them for a day or two 
when the whole sample was centrifuged and made up in the usual manner. 
The enumerations of nannoplankton were also reduced to the number of or- 
ganisms per liter of lake water. 



146 



Conservation Department 





C A Y (J C A 


SE^fCA 


ONEIDA 


DFPrh 


1 


-3 









a. 

CO 


*3 


cr. 

>- 
=3 


3 

-3 


rs 


O 


a. 


e 

^ 
■> 


i 
3 




a. 

CO 


-3 


TO 




CA 


DEPft 


00 


-> 


3 

j 


CD 

=5 




to 


J 


• 


•• 






























• 


• • 
















< 
o 

o 


• 




J 


• 












• • 




• 






• 








to 









2: 













• • 


• 


• 


• « 


• • 


• * 




• 




• 


•• 


• • 


• 


• 


•• 


• 


j: 

ID 

n 


• • 


a* 


































•• 


• 




• 


• 


• 


i 


• 


• • 







10 






























• 


• 






• a 


• 




• 















E 




• 










• 


• 




• 








• 


• 










£ 




• • 


• a 






•• 




socr/y STATION 


NORTH STATION 


500 TH STATION 


NORTH STATION 











Chart 3. Protozoa in net plankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 
Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 
1 space = 1000; . = less than 100; . . = 100-500. 

Genera observed: Ceratium, Dinobryon, Vorticella, Difflugia, Mallomonas 
-CO. 





CAYUGA 


SE N ECA 


ONEIDA 


bun 

\ 

DfPTH 





3 


=> 


3 


S 
«£ 


u 




v- 

3 




a 


O 


N 
ft. 


1 


3> 





a. 


-a 


CD 

3 


CO 


a. 
to 


me 

\ 

DfPTH 


as 


^ 


-1 




=1 


^ 


3 






























• » 












Or 









































• • 




a 








s: 














s: 


M 






























• • 


«a 








a 


s: 




• • 

























a a 




a. 


















• a 




a 


5: 











































»* 


• » 




• • 




« 




s: 

















: 












• • 






• 




• 






* 












2 
















SOUTH STATION 


NORTH STATION 


SOUTH STATION 


NORTH STATION 





Chart 6. Protozoa in nannoplankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 
Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 
1 space = 5000; . = less than 100; ..=100-1000. 

Forms observed: Difflugia, Dinobryon, Peridineae -CS, unidentified 
forms. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 147 

Genera of Plankton Organisms in Net Plankton and Nanno- 

plankton 
Cayuga Lake. — The great bulk of the organisms occurred in the 
upper 10 to 15 meters of water. Except for diatoms, the organisms 
occurring below 15 meters were relatively scarce. There was a 
striking similarity in the plankton life in the north and south sta- 
tions. All of the dominant genera were about equally well repre- 
sented in both localities. Most of the plankton organisms, except 
diatoms, were found in greatest numbers during July and August. 

Net plankton. Cladocera. — Bosmina was the only common mem- 
ber of this group. It occurred in greatest numbers between 0-10 
meters during July and August. Polyphemus was found near the 
surface in both stations during the middle of August. Cerodaphnia 
was found only once, 0-5 meters, at the north station. Traces of 
Daphnia and Leptodom were found in a few samples from each 
station. 

Copepoda. — Diaptomus and Cyclops were observed each time 
samples were taken but at no time did they become abundant 
except in the upper samples taken in September. Nauplii were 
fairly abundant in all samples taken between 0-30 meters. 

Rotifera. — Pleosoma was the most common rotifer. It was not 
found in June. It became most abundant between 0-15 meters 
during July and August. Conochilus especially during July and 
Anura&a throughout the season were abundant at the north sta- 
tion but much less common at the south station. Polyarthra, 
Asplanchna, Notholca and Triarthra were frequently found at 
various depths at both stations. Synchaeta was found (39 per 
per liter, 5-10 meters, and fewer at greater depths) at the south 
station on June 30, but not seen later. At the north station it 
appeared in only one sample, July 9. 

Protozoa. — Ceratium was practically absent in June but showed 
a steady increase until the latter part of August after which it 
began to decrease. It was most common between 0-15 meters, 
only traces being found below this depth. Ceratium was much 
more common at the south station than at the north station. Only 
traces of Dinobryon were found before July. It increased very 
rapidly until the middle of August and two weeks later it had 
disappeared entirely. Dinooryon was very much more abundant 
at the south station than at the north station. Only small num- 
bers of Vorticella, mostly attached to colonies of Anabaena, and 
Difflugia were observed, mostly between 0-15 meters and in the 
latter part of the season. Mallomonas was found only at the 
north station, 0-10 meters, on August 17. 

Phytoplankton. Cyanophyceae. — Anabaena was found in both 
station from the latter part of July to the end of August, between 
the 7-10 meter depth. Traces of Microcystis were found at the' 
south station in 0-5 meter depth. 

Chlorophyceae. — Small numbers of Pediastrum and Staurds- 
trum occurred in two samples from near the surface at the north 
station. Aside from a few undetermined unicellular green algae 
these were the only Chlorophyceae found. 



148 Conservation Department 

Heterokontae. — Botryococcus appeared in traees near the sur- 
face at the south station on August 26. This plant was not seen 
in any other locality on the lake during the entire summer. In 
1921 Botryococcus formed a very conspicuous "bloom" on the 
surface along- the east shore of Cayuga lake. 

Bacillariae. — The great bulk of the phytoplankton consisted of 
diatoms represented by three genera, Asterionella, Fragilaria, and 
Tabellaria. All three of these diatoms were most abundant in the 
upper 5-10 meters and relatively scarce below the 25 meter depth. 
Asterionella was most abundant in the spring and early summer 
and decreased in numbers so that by September it occurred only 
in traces. In plankton samples taken at the south station in early 
spring, Asterionella was the most dominant form observed. The 
following figures, from the 0-5 meter depth, give an indication of 
the rapid decline of Asterionella in numbers per liter of water: 
April 16, 3,765; May 14, 1,913; June 16, 987; June 30, 339; July 
14, 216. This indicates the necessity of extending the observations 
over a considerable period of time in order to obtain some idea of 
the importance of any one form occurring in the plankton. 
Fragilaria was relatively rare early in the season when Asterionella 
was most " abundant, but became very abundant in August and 
early September. Tabellaria occurred at all times. It showed 
some decline but no striking change in numbers in the period 
during which samples were taken. 

Nannoplankton. Cyanophyceae. — The most common blue-green 
algae in the nannoplankton was Coelosphaerium rather abundant 
during August. Oscillatoria appeared at both stations early in 
the season, but was not seen after the middle of July. Qloeocapsa 
and Aphanocapsa appeared rather irregularly. Merismopedia was 
found in only two samples from near the surface at the south 
station. 

Chlorophyceae. — No members of this group at any time formed 
any dominant part of the nannoplankton. Scenedesmus seemed 
to appear most frequently. It was found between 0-20 meters. 
Characium, Crucigenia, Cosmarium, Bictyosphaermm, Eudorina, 
Gloeotaenium, Lagerheimia, Oocystis, Pediastrum, Quadrigula, 
Sphaerocystis, Staurastrum, Tetraedon and Volvox were found 
one or more times but never appeared very abundantly. 

Bacillariae. — The most abundant diatom was a small Cyclotella 
which was present in nearly all samples. It was abundant from 
the surface to the 50 meter depth. Synedra appeared at all depths. 
It was more abundant early in the season than later. Melosira 
appeared at all depths early in the season but later was more 
common in the lower samples. Stephanodiscus appeared in only 
two samples at the north station. In addition to the above 
diatoms, fragments of Asterionella, Fragilaria and Tdbellaria were 
often found in the nannoplankton in considerable numbers. 

Protozoa. — Small numbers of Difflugia were found in several 
samples from various depths. Fragments of Binobryon colonies 
small enough to pass through the net were very numerous during 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



149 





C A Y U C A 


SENECA 


ONEIDA 


[W 






















G 








o 






«0 






fMTF 












\ 




i- 


b 


=> 




o_ 




=> 


^ 


=> 


a. 


-z. 


> 


- 




^ 


C3 


^ 




\ 


2 


2) 


^ S 


3 


a 


%PTH 






~5 


<K 






"3 


-s 




«t: 


T 
































V, 










































:" 








































































































a m 






































































































CO 




• • 


• • 






• • 






tt 




• 


• 






• • 








• • 


• « 


■ m 




^ 




C 










































t 




o 










































\ J 
























































































<• 








• • 








£ 










































r 














o 
















































































































Q 










































to 


















• 


• 








« 




• 












• * 


•• 








• 
















e 


































• 








r 




o 
























































1-3 










































O) 














O 
























































oj 




• 




• 




« 


• 
















• « 


• 






• 


• 














K 










































r 






o 
























































sj- 










































~ 














o 






























• 








• 




<^ 








" 






5 










































5- 














o 










































£ 














o 










































<\j 














■*■ 










































~~ 
















SOUTH STAT/ N 


NOffTH STATION 


SOUTH STATION 


MMT/7 STATION 





Chart 4. Algae in net plankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 
Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 
1 space = 1000; . = less than 100; . . =100-500. 
Genera observed: 

Cyanophyceae; Anabaena, Microcystis, Gloeotrichia -0. 
Chlorophyceae; Staurastrum, Pediastrum -OC, Actinastrum -SO, 
tyosphaerium -SO. 



Die- 





CAYUGA 


SENECA 


ONEIDA 


Ml 


n 


t- 


S 


<y 


ID 


to 


<\j 


CT) 


£ 


^ 


o 


<VI 


3j 


m 


a 




"J 


00 




r „ 


MTf 


33 


"j 


m 


03 


(-] 


'-0 


\ 






3 


« 


3 


a. 


2 


5 


b 


H 


g 


Q- 


z 


5 




S? 




y 


a. 


\ 


5 


i 




=> 


nj 


fc 


\Jtrih 






"3 














t 






-j 








"3 




<a; 




DtPI/ 


-> 


^ 


"3 






CO 


Lj 




























































































































































































































































1 - 












.» 




• 


,. 


.« 








>• 


.. 


. 


.. 






_JH - 








*• 








































































L_l r 












O 












































- 






















.. 


. , 




bb^H 












s: 

















































































■H r 












t\J 


































B '-o 










































. 














?; 
















































o 






































* 










n 


. 




. 


. 


.. 




















.,,. 








°" 










Z 










































r 










o 




















































t 


. 




. 




. 
























, 


, , 






- 










£ 










































r 










o 










































^ 












- • 






• • 






















• • 


, . 




• 


• 


„ 
















SOUTH STATION 


NO/fTM STAT,' OAf 


SOUTH STATION 


NORTH STATVA, 













Chart. 7. Algae in nannoplankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 

Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 

1 space = 20,000; . = less than 1000; . . = 1000 2000. 

Genera observed: 
Cyanophyceae; Aphanocapsa, Coelosphaerium, Microcystis, Merismo- 
pedia -CS, Gloeocapsa -CS, Gloeothece -S, Chroococcus 0. 
Chlorophyceae; Characium, Cosmariuiri, Crucigenia, Dictyosphaerium 
-OC, Eudorina, Gloeotaenium -CS, Oocystis, Pandorina -O, Pediastrum 
-CS, Quadrigula, Scenedesmus, Sphaerocystis -0, Staurastrum -CS, 
Tetraedon -CS. 



150 Conservation Department 

July. One of the Peridineae was common, especially near the 
surface during the latter part of the season. The figures for 
Protozoa probably are very incomplete. The more delicate forms 
were probably lost when the samples had to be preserved for later 
examination. 

Observations show that Seneca lake, like Cayuga lake, was 
relatively poor in plankton organisms. The samples taken in 
June contained very few organisms except AsterioneUa. 

Seneca Lake. — Observations show that Seneca lake, like Cayuga 
lake, was relatively poor in plankton organisms. The samples 
taken in June contained very few organisms except AsterioneUa. 

Net plankton. Cladocera. — These organisms were never abund- 
ant in Seneca lake. At the south station Pseudosida, Daphnia and 
Bosmina occurred in very small numbers at various depths in 
August and September but were absent in June and July. At 
the north station a few Bosmina and Daphnia were found in July 
and August and traces of Leptodora and Polyphemus were found 
in 'the latter part of the season. 

Copepoda. — Diaptomus and Cyclops were found in nearly all 
samples but appeared in largest numbers during July and August 
in the upper 15 meters. Nanplii were fairly abundant at all times 
in the upper 15 meters. 

Kotifera. — No rotifers were found in the June samples and 
only small numbers appeared later. Anuraea and Polyarthra 
were found in small numbers at various depths at both stations. 
Asplanchna appeared in traces near the surface. Conochilus and 
Notholea were found at the north station on July 18. Triarthra 
was found once, 40-50 meters, at the south station July 16, and 
Pleosoma was found in three samples, 0-10 meters at the south 
station September 6. 

Protozoa. — Ceratium was absent in June, appeared only in 
traces in July, and became rather abundant between 0-15 meters 
during August, Dinooryon was found much more irregularly 
than in Cayuga lake. Small numbers of Vorticella, attached to 
Anaoaena, and Difflugia were found near the surface in the latter 
part of the season. 

Phytoplankton. Cyanophyceae. — Anabaena appeared near the 
surface at the north station on August 20 and between 0-20 meters 
at both stations on September 6, but at no time was it very 
common. Microcystis appeared in all but the deepest samples on 
August 20, but only traces were left by September. 

Chlorophyceae. — Members of this group were very rare. Only 
a few traces of Actinastrum, Sphaerocystis and Staurastrum were 
found. 

Bacillariae. — The most common diatom was AsterioneUa which 
was most abundant near the surface early in the season. Fragilaria 
was found in the latter part of the season. Tabellaria was found 
in traces in only a few samples from near the surface. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 151 

Nannoplankton. Cyanophyceae. — Gloeothece and Gompho- 
sphaeria were the two most abundant blue-green algae in Seneca 
lake. They were both found in large numbers, especially between 
0-25 meters, during August and September. Microcystis was fairly 
common at the north station in August but occurred in only a few 
samples at the south station. Gloeocapsa, Aphanocapsa and Meris- 
mopedia were found in only a few samples at the north station, 
but the latter two were found in large numbers at the south 
station. 

Chlorophyceae. — Scenedesmus and Oocystis were the most 
abundant green algae. Scenedesmus occurred only in traces in 
June but during the other three months it was rather common. 
Oocystis occurred in July and August. Other genera observed in 
some of the samples were Characmm, Coelastrum, Crucigenia, 
Gloetaenium, Pediastrnm, Quadrigula, Elactothrix, Cosmarium, 
Closterium, Eudorina, Staurastrum and Tetraedon. The last six 
of these genera were found in only one station. 

Oneida Lake. — The waters of Oneida lake were very rich in 
plankton organisms during the entire period covered by the ob- 
servations. 

Net plankton. Cladocera. — Daphnia was the most common 
genus, occurring in greatest abundance from 0-3 meter depth, in 
late June and September. Traces of Leptodora were found each 
time, at 9-12 meters. Sida and Pseudosida were found in small 
numbers on July 26 and later. 

Copepoda. — Diaptomus, most abundant from 0-3 meters, and 
Cyclops, less common but more or less uniformly distributed be- 
tween 0-6 meters, together with Nauplii were the only Copepoda 
observed. There seemed to be a striking decline in the number of 
Copepoda duing July. 

Kotifera. — Polyarthra was found in nearly every sample al- 
though it was most abundant near the surface in June and again 
in late August. Early in the season Anuraea occurred only near 
the surface but later it was found at all depths, reaching its greatest 
abundance on August 22. Notholca and Pleosoma were found 
several times at various depths. Triarthra was found only once, 
August 9, at 12-15 meters, and Asplanchna occurred from 0-12 
meters on Sept. 6. 

Protozoa. — Ceratium was absent on June 28, appeared in traces 
on July 12, and reached a maximum abundance, nearly 6000 per 
liter, on August 23. By September 6, it had decreased in numbers. 
It occurred at all depths later in the season but it was most abund- 
ant between 0-6 meters. Dinooryon, which was very abundant 
from 0-6 meters and less so in deeper water, showed a consistent 
increase in numbers up to early August and then began to decline. 
Mallomonas, found at all depths, was most abundant during late 
July and August. Vorticella, mostly attached to colonies of Ana- 
oaena, occurred near the surface early in the season, and during 
late July and early August also appeared at the 3-9 meter depth. 
Difflugia was found throughout the season, but, except for small 
traces, only near the surface. 



152 



Conservation Department 





CAYUGA 


SEA/EC/1 


ONEIDA 


\ 


o 

Z 


* 


> 


o 


■M 


to 


% 

S 


i~ 


t\l 


a 




s 


5 










E 


v, 




WTi 

\ 


ki 




X "^ 

3 S 


to 


a. 


'■;.", 




















[_ 'T 






i 
















JU7H 




~s 








Uj 






































'ii 












































































































































































































C7 


• • 












.. 




.. 


.. 






K 






























r 










o 






























b 










O 


















•• 




, # 




, 


Q 


,. 








t 


































S~ 










o 












































M 


































i 










Q 








• • 






g^HH »• 
















to 


• 


• • 






j: 










































5: 










to 










































01 










o 






















































. 










, 


• 


. 








• « 




, 


. 


• 




• 


• • 


, 


<o 


• 


.. 






y 




















































o 










































«• 










f" 










































ty 










o 




















































to 


• 


• 


• 


• 




• 


• 


• » 




,, 


» * 














• 


• • 


, 


o) 


, 


• • 


•• 1 




E 








































































































o 










































> 
































































- • 


• 










• 
































• • 










SOUTH STAT/O/V 


NORTH STATION 


SOUW STKTIOH 


NORTH STAT/ OH 







Chart 5. Diatoms in net plankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 
Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 
1 space = 500; . = less than 100; . . =100-200. 
Scale for Oneida lake: 

1 space = 5000; . = less than 1000; . . = 1000-2000. 
Genera observed: Asterionella, Fragilaria, Tabellaria, Stephanodiscus - 



0. 





C A Y U C A 


S ENECA 


ONEIDA 


JMTE 
DEPTH 


o 

1 

-> 


3 


>- 


t; 


m> to 


1 

"3 


-5 


~5 




Q «J 

•o |"~ 

O Uj 


" S § 

^ i; <* 
5 3 a 
-^ -3 t: 


k 
ft. 

Uj 


^ <a ^ 
^ -< S? 

* ^ £ 

1 1 $ 


lO 


DATE 

Ofprn 


CO 

1 


~3 


<\J 

"3 


o> 


H uj 


"3 






l 1 




■'I 




Uj 
O 

■a: 

Cfc 

:=> 

CO 












o 1 H^ML_ BMLnl 


II 




5: 

to 










g ■ H 


P 




^ 






PI 


§■ "■■■ 

H ■ 


■"■■^Pl 




—t 


05 














s: 


!■■■ 


PIH 






















P^TT" 


if/) 


r ION 


SOUTH STAT 


ON 1 


\10RTH ST/ 


HON 


s: 


; 













Chart 8. Diatoms in nannoplankton of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 
Scale (number of organisms per liter of water). 
1 space = 5000. 

Genera observed: Cyclotella, Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Synedra -CS, 
Asterionella, Fragilaria, Tabellaria. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 153 

Phytoplankton. Cyanophyceae. — The blue-green algae were well 
represented in the net plankton by two common genera Anabaena 
and Microcystis. Anabaena was found at all times and was especi- 
ally abundant from 0-6 meters deep. It reached its greatest num- 
bers during July and August. Three species, Anabaena circinalis, 
A. flos-aquae, and A. Lemmermanni were observed but no attempt 
was made to count the species separately. Microcystis was found at 
all depths every time samples were taken; it seemed to be most 
abundant, however, at or near the surface. Traces of Gloeotrichia 
were found near the surface in August, and Oscillatoria was found 
only once, near the surface, on July 12. 

Chlorophyceae. — Members of the green algae at no time formed 
any dominant part of the phytoplankton. Staurastrum was the 
most abundant genus ; in addition very small numbers of Actina- 
strum, Dictyosphaerium and Pediastrum were found. 

Bacillariae. — Diatoms formed the greater part of the phyto- 
plankton at all depths, especially during August and September. 
Asterionella and Stephanodiscus were present at all times, the 
former being the most common. It reached it maximum numbers in 
August and then declined. Fragilaria and Tab ell aria were practi- 
cally absent in June and early July but during August formed the 
predominating organisms of the plankton. Melosira occurred 
only sparingly in the net plankton during the latter part of the 
season. 

Nannoplankton. Cyanophyceae. — Microcystis was found in 
every sample, becoming very abundant at all depths during July 
and, after a decline, increasing again in September. Coclosphaer- 
ium was found in large numbers (about 1000 to 6000 per liter) 
in nearly all samples. No constant variation was noted due to 
depth or season. Aphanocapsa and Chroococcus were found in 
smaller numbers in seA T eral samples taken at various depths and at 
different times. 

Chlorophyceae. — Eudorina Oocystis and Characium were the 
most common green algae found. These were found mostly in the 
earlier samples, being practically absent from the later samples. 
Other genera which were found only occasionally or in small num- 
bers include Dictyosphaerium, Cosmarinm, Crucigenia, Pandor- 
ina, Quadrigula, Sphaerocystis and Scenedesmus. 

Bacillariae. — Cyclotella was the only diatom found in the 
nannoplankton that was not found in the net' plankton. It ap- 
peared at all depths in the earlier samples. The figures given for 
Asterionella, Fragilaria, Tabellaria and Melosira are probably too 
high because the counts represent not whole colonies but frag- 
ments of colonies which were broken during the process of centri- 
fuging. These samples were strained through the plankton net 
after centrifuging. 

Since the nannoplankton samples could not be examined at the 
time they were taken, it was necessary to preserve them. ■ It is 
probable that some of the more delicate organisms, especially 
smaller protozoa, may have been destroyed beyond recognition and 
were therefore not observed when the counts were made. 



154 



Conservation Department 



Estimation of Quantities of Dry Matter, Organic Matter and 
Ash in the Lake Water x 

In order to make possible a more direct comparison of the plank- 
ton quantities than can be drawn from the numerical data ob- 
tained, samples of lake water were collected from two to four times 
at each plankton station and from these samples the total dry 
matter, organic matter and ash residue were estimated for the 
water of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes (Chart 9). 




Seneca 



Oneida. 



Cayuga. 

Chart 9. Showing weights of dry matter and organic matter, estimated in 
pounds contained in an acre of water to a depth of 10 meters (32.8 
feet), in Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. 



Method: The water samples were taken in duplicate from five 
depths ranging from the surface to 50 meters for each station in 
Cayuga and Seneca lakes and from the surface to 15 meters in 
Oneida lake. From each sample of water one liter was measured 
in a volumetric flask. This liter sample was then reduced to about 
5 cc. with a Foerst centrifuge number 14, on the same day that it 
was collected or else formalin was added to preserve it until the 
next day when it could be centrifuged. This reduced volume was 
carefully transferred to a porcelain crucible and dried to constant 
weight in a Freas oven at a temperature of 98° C. for 24 hours, 
cooled in a dessicator, weighed, and then the dried residue ashed 
in an electric muffle furnace. The crucibles were heated to a dull 



i The analytical work upon which these estimations are based was done by 
Mr. P. R. Burkholder in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Cornell Uni- 
versity. The water samples from Oneida lake were transferred to the Cornell 
laboratory where they were dried and ashed. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 155 

red heat for 20 minutes and then kept at a cherry red heat for 45 
minutes. 

It is obvious that this method gives but a rough approximation 
of the actual weights of dry matter, organic matter and ash in the 
water of each lake. The data are based upon the solid matter 
(living organisms, remains of organisms and suspended inorganic 
particles) that were removed by the centrifuge. Some of the very 
fine particles as well as inorganic matter and salts in solution, 
would not be removed from the water by the centrifuge so that the 
figures for dry weight represent the weight of all solid particles 
that were so removed. The weight of organic matter represents 
materials lost upon ignition after the water was removed. The ash 
represents the residue after the dry matter was ignited. One 
source of error is the small quantities of water samples employed. 
However, duplicate samples were analyzed in most cases, and these 
usually checked closely. The final data in chart 9 represents the 
averages of analyses of 16 or 24 separate samples of water from 
each lake and illustrates graphically the differences in the three 
lakes in quantities of dry matter and organic matter. 

The data in Table 2 from which chart 9 is derived show that the 
organic matter in Cayuga and Seneca lakes in general is greatest 
between the surface and 20 meter depths and in Oneida lake be- 
tween the surface and 3 meter depths, The total dry weights show 
no striking or consistent differences with vertical distribution in 
any of the three lakes. This is apparently due to the relatively 
greater ash content in the deeper water. In Cayuga and Seneca 
lakes the water samples taken in late June and July contain a 
rather uniformly lower amount of organic matter and usually also 
less dry matter than the water samples taken later in the season 
(August). One of the factors responsible for the increase in or- 
ganic matter appears to be the rise in the temperature, especially 
in the surface water of these deep lakes. Oneida lake, which is 
shallow, warms up much earlier in the summer, shows but very 
little difference in temperature between the surface and the bottom 
water.* No striking seasonal variation in organic matter was ob- 
tained between June and August. 

The weights of dry matter and organic matter were computed 
for each lake by taking the average of the weights obtained from 
duplicate samples, taken at two depths, surface and ten meters, at 
two different times at two different stations located near the north 
and the south end of Cayuga and Seneca lakes. The values for 
Oneida lake were derived by taking the average weights for dupli- 
cate samples taken at five depths, surface to 12 meters, taken four 
different times. The weights of organic matter and dry matter 
were computed in pounds per acre of lake water for the upper 10 
meters in order to allow a direct comparison of the three lakes. 
Chart 9 shows that Cayuga and Seneca lakes are relatively low in 
organic matter, 107 pounds and 124 pounds per acre respectively, 



See tables of chemical analyses, Series 111, p. 128. 



156 



Conservation Department 



Q 

* i 

o 



o £ 



fc-a 



OIO) 0) —i Oi 0( 



<N co oi re co CO 



oi oi o( oi oq oq 



H^i-(HH> 



iO0<MOq Tt< 



"fO-ttO-J 



. CO tOO> C<1 "O 



3.-I.-IOO 




C0"#Ci.-ltO 
r-i^HOr-HO 



t-I tDHCl ^ 

<N <N cq i-h i-i 



. 2^oooo 

>,2 



NNC 04 CO 



io o i-i t- OS 

OOHHO 



oqoqoqo5oq 



CICIOIHHH 



01 01 Ol 0)010} 



-t< CO CO CO CO CO 






0105 05 
--HOO 



-tf "O TjH Tt< CO Tt« 



j CO tO O Ol iO 



looocooooq 

--H ^ H O ^H 



oi o oi cm 'O 



<N <N 05 Ol tJH 



Ol CO <M Ol CO 



>>3 




CM04 0} 



Ol O CO O 00 

,-Ir-irHr-id 



cq oq oi oq <n 



oooo 

|rHO)-P'0 



i 'Xi CO CO 00 

ioooo 



i-Hr-li-lOO 



^ i-l 00 iC (N 



CO <M CO <N O} 



g^oooo 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 157 

and also in dry matter, 211 pounds and 221 pounds per acre re- 
spectively. Oneida lake, on the other hand, contains much more 
organic matter, 190 pounds per acre, and dry matter, 411 pounds 
per acre. Such an increase in the organic matter in Oneida lake 
when compared with Cayuga and Seneca lakes represents a large 
increase in plankton organisms, as has been shown by their numeri- 
cal counts made in the three lakes. Undoubtedly some of the in- 
crease in organic weight also represents the remains of decomposed 
plankton organisms, rooted aquatic plants, and particles of organic 
material carried into the lake by streams. The weight determina- 
tions, as well as the numerical counts of the plankton organisms, 
indicate that the water of Oneida lake is capable of supplying, 
directly or indirectly, a much greater amount of food for fish than 
either Cayuga or Seneca lake. 



158 Conservation Department 



VIII. THE LAMPREYS OF NEW YORK STATE— LIFE 
HISTORY AND ECONOMICS 

By Simon Henry Gage, B. S. 

Professor of Histology and Embryology, Emeritus, Cornell University 

Part I. Life History of Lampreys : 
Character and distribution of lampreys. 
Coloration and distinction of sexes. 
The three or four kinds of lampreys in New York. 
Nest-building and egg-laying. 
Number of eggs laid by the different forms. 
Death of lampreys after spawning. 
Persistence of the notochord. 

Development of the eggs and duration of larval life, transformation and 
buccal glands. 

Brook lampreys not parasitic. 

Summary of the life history of lampreys. 

Part II. Economics of Lampreys: 
General on economics of lampreys. 
Economics of larval lampreys. 
Economics of the brook lamprey. 
Economics of the sea lamprey. 
Economics of the lake lamprey. 
Experiments on the predatory habits of lampreys. 
Amount of damage done to food-fish by lampreys. 
Ridding a lake of lampreys. 
Summary of the economics of lampreys. 

Life History of Lampreys 

Character and Distribution of Lampreys.— The lampreys or 
lamprey eels are aquatic animals having an elongated rounded 
body with a tail fin and two dorsal fins, but no pectoral or ventral 
paired fins like ordinary fishes. They have seven gills on each 
side, each gill having a separate opening. In the adult stage they 
have a disc-like, sucking mouth with numerous horny teeth. They 
have no bones, but simply cartilage and connective tissue for a 
skeleton; and are among the lowest of the vertebrate animals. 
They are found in the temperate regions of both hemispheres, but 
more abundantly in the northern with its greater amount of land 
and more numerous, fresh water streams. 

Like the frogs and toads the lampreys have a young or larval 
stage which is very unlike the adult, indeed so unlike their parents 
that only since 1856 have scientific men known that they were the 
young of the free-swimming lampreys. 

A young frog or toad is called a tadpole or pollywog, or some- 
times the classical name is used and it is called gyrinus. So with 
the lampreys, their young are called mud-lamprey or sand-lamprey, 
and frequently in scientific writing the Greek name ammocoetes is 
used. It is true that the larval lamprey does not look so different 
from its parents as does the frog or toad tadpole, still the difference 
in structure and habits of life are fully as great. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 159 

All lampreys lay their eggs in fresh water streams, and the young 
grow up in the mud banks along those streams. Some of the 
adults, like the brook lamprey, live all of their life in the streams 
where they were born; others like the lake lamprey, spend their 
adult life in fresh-water lakes; but the sea lamprey, as its name 
indicates, spends its adult life in the ocean. When fully mature, 
however, it returns to the fresh-water streams to lay its eggs for 
a new generation. 

Distinction of the Sexes, and Coloration in Lampreys. — In 

the active, predatory life the coloration is in shades of gray. 
Where the pigment cells are numerous there are black spots, and 
where fewer, deeper or lighter gray. The fishermen call them 
spotted lampreys. Sometimes the pigmentation in the dorsal half 
of the animal is almost uniform, then they appear black or blue- 
black, or dark brownish. The brook lampreys are more inclined 
to the browns than the deep blacks. 

During the breeding season the coloration may be black and 
gray as in the predatory period, or with the lake and the sea 
lamprey the epithelium may be filled with a golden lipochrome. 
Then the gold and black give the animal a very striking, and 
beautiful appearance. Sometimes it is the male that is brilliantly 
colored and sometimes the female, and sometimes both are almost 
equally favored by the gorgeous mating costume. This is well 
shown in the pair of lake lampreys (Plates 1 and 2). The speci- 
mens for these plates were found in a nest near the entrance of 
Enfield creek into the main inlet of Cayuga lake, May 31, 1927. 
The distance up the valley from the lake is about seven kilometers 
(4 miles). 

During the free-swimming, predatory life of the lampreys the two 
sexes are so nearly alike that they cannot be distinguished except 
by dissection, and even then, except near the breeding season, it is 
difficult with the naked eye because the gonads appear so much 
alike. That is, to the naked eye the eggs and the sperm-cysts are 
nearly of the same size, and give the gonads the same general 
appearance. A microscopic examination, however, shows with the 

Acknowledgements : For information like that in the following report, help 
must be gleaned from many sources: fishermen, naturalists, much personal 
observation, books and periodicals. In the text I have noted special pieces of 
help, but would like here to express my thanks to some not there men- 
tioned: To Dr. J. B. Sumner, biochemist, for assistance with the antieoagu- 
lating secretion of the buccal glands; to Dr. and Mrs. W. A. Clemens, Pacific 
Biological Station, for supplying me with the buccal secretion of the Pacific 
lamprey, Entosphenus, and for abundant material of both adults and young; 
to Dr. Vera Mather, University of Oregon for the adults and young of the 
large Entosphenus of the Willamette river valley; to Dr. B. F. Kingsbury, 
to Marguerite and Ernest Kingsbury for help in securing lampreys from 
Cayuga and Seneca lakes; to F. W. S. Scudder for lampreys from the Con- 
necticut river valley; to Dr. J. C. C. Loman of Amsterdam for adult and larval 
brook lampreys from Holland; to Drs. P. Okkelberg and C. L. Hubb.s of the 
University of Michigan for brook lampreys from that region; and finally to 
my sister, Dr. Mary Gage Day, for aid with the buccal gland secretion, and 
for critical reading of the manuscript. 



LIFE HISTORY or LAMPREYS 



LAKE LAMPREY BROOK LAMPREY 

ORAL ARMATURE ORAL ARMATURE 



LARVAL LAMPREY 
ORAL SIEVE 



\ 








155 MM. 



154 MM. 



ADULT LAKE 550 MM. ADULT BROOK 

YOUNG LAKE 153 MM. LAMPREY WITH LARVAL LAMPREY 

RIPE OVA IN BURROW 



YOUNG LAKE LAMPREYS 
ATTACKING A FISH 




PAIR of LAMPREYS 
BUILDING A NEST 




LAMPREY NESTS 
in STREAM 



WW- 



Fig. 1. — Mouth of lake (1), brook (2) and larval (3) lamprey. Habits and 
life of adult (4, 5, 7) and larval lampreys (6, 8). 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 161 

greatest clearness the difference between the single ova and the 
multitude of young sperms in the sperm-cyst. 

There is one structural feature that distinguishes the male in all 
forms during the breeding season. It is the greater length of the 
genito-urinary tube in the male. With the brook lamprey this is 
very striking (Fig. 2), though not so marked in the sea and lake 
lamprey. In the female there is a fin-like fold developed between 
the genito-urinary opening and the caudal fin in all the forms, and 
with the brook lamprey from Cayuga lake inlet, at least, there is 
an oedema in the second dorsal fin which makes its cephalic edge 
very thick. Sometimes, especially rather late in the spawning 
time, this oedema is often suffused with blood, making a brilliant 
scarlet spot in the fin shown by the dark shading in the dorsal fin 
(Fig. 2, No. 3). 

With the lake and the sea lamprey there is a very striking growth 
in the male during the spawning season. This is a rope-like ridge 
along the back between the head and the first dorsal fin. It is also 
found in the sea lampreys on the spawning beds, but it may be 
lacking earlier when they are going up the river, as was shown by 
specimens the first of the season that were going up the fishway at 
Lawrence, Mass, Those at the end of the season had a well marked 
ridge when they reached the fishway. 

Kinds of Lampreys in New York. — In the waters of New York 
State there are three, possibly four, kinds of lampreys: 

The large sea lamprey, which during the spawning season 
is found in the rivers and tributary streams connected directly 
with the ocean. 

The lake lamprey, about half as long as the sea lamprey. 
It is found in some of the larger lakes during the entire year, and 
in the streams entering: those lakes during the spawning time 
(Plates 1, 2 and Fig. 1)\ 

The brook lamprey, less than half as long as the lake 
lamprey. It is found during its entire life in the brooks, never in 
the lakes (Figs. 1, 2). 

The silvery lamprey (Ichthyomyzon) about three-fourths the 
size of the lake lamphrey, is reported as present in Lake Erie. 
The writer has made no personal observations on this lamprey. 

Up to the present the different lampreys have been found in the 
following waters of the State : 

(A) The large sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). (1) In the 
Susquehanna river. Personal knowledge, and abundant informa- 
tion given by friends, naturalists and fishermen. 

(2) The Delaware river and its branches. Adults furnished by 
D. F. Hoy, Registrar of Cornell University ; larvae supplied by 
A. S. Hazzard and information given by J. R. Greeley. 

(3) The Hudson river* and its branches. Information given by 
a resident of the Hudson river valley some years ago. 



* DeKay, J. E. Zoology of New York, or the New York Fauna. Part 3, 
379. Albany 1842-44. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 163 

(4) The streams of Long Island, especially the Nissequogue 
river flowing into Long Island sound. 

The group of sea lampreys building their nest in the American 
Museum of Natural History, N. Y., was founded upon material 
and observations obtained by Dr. Hussakof 1 in this river. 

(B) The lake lampreys (Petromyzon marinus unicolor) are 
believed to be the descendants of sea lampreys, which became land- 
locked at the close of the glacial period. They now remain their 
entire life in fresh water, never going to the ocean, and are only 
about half the length of their sea brothers. During their active, 
predatory life they are found in the larger lakes of the State as 
follows : 

(1) Cayuga lake. Special attention was called to the lake 
lampreys in 1875 when a specimen was brought to Cornell Uni- 
versity from Cascadilla creek during the spawning season. Since 
1875 it has been shown to be present in other lakes also : 

(2) Lake Erie. Specimen caught at Merlin, Ontario, 1921, by 
A. E. Crewe. 2 

(3) Lake Ontario. Specimens from Salmon creek at Hilton, 
N. Y. by Dr. A. H. Wright, and in the Humbert river near 
Toronto. 

(4) Seneca lake (1894) and Oneida lake near that time. The 
writer has made personal observations on the Cayuga lake lamprey 
every year since 1875, and at frequent intervals, those of Seneca 
lake since 1894. 3 

The lake lamprey looks exactly like a small se.a lamprey, and 
passes through the same special as well as general changes during 
its life such as coloration at the spawning season ; the formation of 
a rope-like ridge on the back of the males in front of the dorsal 
fins; the separation of the dorsal fins during their predatory life 
in the lakes, and their close approximation or fusion making them 
look like a single fin during the breeding season. 

(C) The brook lamprey (Lampetra wilderi). The brook lam- 
prey like the lake lamprey passes its entire life in fresh water. 
Unlike the lake lamprey, however, it never goes down to the 
lakes but spends its whole life in the streams. It is found swim- 
ming freely in the water only during the breeding time, April 
and May in New York. It was first taken in the inlet of Cayuga 
lake by Gage and Meek,* May 8, 1886. Before this it was not 
known in America outside the Mississippi basin. Since 1886 it 
has been found and studied in many other places and at present 

i Hussakof, L. The spawning habits of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon 
marinus). American Naturalist, p. 729, 1912. 

2 Crewe, A. E., In: Breeding habits of the landlocked sea lamprey (lake 
lamprey). Ontario Fisheries Laboratory Studies No. 9, 1922. 

3 Gage, S. H. The lake and brook lampreys of New York. The Wilder 
Quarter Century Book, p. 421-493, 1893. 

* Gage, S. H. and Meek, Seth E. The lampreys of the Cayuga lake basin. 
Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sc. vol. 35, 1886. 



164 Conservation Department 

it is known to be present in New York State in the following 
streams : 

1. Inlet of Cayuga lake. 

2. Inlet of Seneca lake (secured by Gage in 1894). 

3. Cassadaga creek, a tributary to the Alleghany river (speci- 
mens and information supplied by V. D. Smith). 

4. Chaclakoin creek, the outlet of Chautauqua lake, and tributary 
to the Alleghany river (information given by Dr. G-. W. Cottis of 
Jamestown, N. Y.). 

5. Spring creek, a tributary to Cattaraugus creek, which finally 
empties into Lake Erie (information by Dr. E. H. Eaton of 
Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y.). 

6. In 1897 Dean and Sumner found brook lampreys in Tibbits 
brook, Lincoln Park, New York City. Their account of the spawn- 
ing of these lampreys is most excellent, and the picture which 
they published of them building their nest and spawning "Shak- 
ing together" is the best representation ever published (Fig. 3). 

Doubtless brook lampreys are present in many other streams 
of the State. As their free-swimming life is only during the 
spawning season, which is very short, it is quite intelligible that 
they may have been missed in brooks where they are actually 
present. Furthermore the water is likely to be rather high and 
turbid in April and May when they spawn, and a zoologist or 
fisherman would need to be on the lookout for them especially, or 
they would escape observation. 

Outside the State of New York brook lampreys are reported 
by Jordan x to be present in the streams of New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Indiana, Wisconsin and branches of the Ohio river. 
Creaser and Hubbs 2 report its presence in southern New Eng- 
land, and as far south as Maryland. 

In the streams of Michigan the zoologists connected with Michi- 
gan University have found them in abundance near Ann Arbor 
and have made fundamental studies of their classification, habits 
and development (Reigharcl, 3 Young and Cole, 4 Okkelberg, 5 ). 



i Jordan, David Starr and Evermann, Barton Warren. Bulletin of the U. S. 
National Museum No. 47. The Fishes of North and Middle America. A de- 
scriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of 
North America north of the Isthmus of Panama. Lampreys in Part I. Four 
parts, 1896 to 1900. 

2 Creaser, C. W. and Hubbs, C. L. Revision of the holarctic lampreys. In: 
Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, No. 120, University of Mich., 
1922. 

3 Reighard, J. and Cummins, H. Description of a new species of lamprey of 
the genus Ichthvomyzon. Occasional papers, Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. No. 31, 
1916. 

* Young, R. T. and Cole, L. J. The nesting habits of the brook lamprey. 
Am. Nat. vol. 34, 1900. 

s Okkelberg, P. Notes on the life history of the brook lamprey. Occasional 
papers, Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., No. 125, 1922. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 165 

Very closely related brook lampreys are present on the west coast 
of America, and in the streams of Europe, Siberia and Japan 
(Regan 6 ). 

In size, the brook lampreys are the smallest of all the lampreys. 
Those of New York State are on the average only slightly longer 
when they transform than the transforming sea and lake lamprey, 
but unlike them, the brook lamprey never increases in size after 
transformation (Fig. 7). 

Nest=BuiIding and Egg=Laying. — These activities are so similar 
in all the different lampreys that a description of one is practi- 
cally a description of all. 

No matter whether the lampreys live in the ocean, the lakes or 
the brooks during their adult life, they all go up the fresh-water 
streams to lay their eggs. The time in this State is from April 
to the first of July. The brook lampreys are the earliest. In the 
western part of the State the egg-laying some years may begin 
the last of March and continue into April, while in New York 
City it may begin as early as the middle of April. In Ithaca 
the season is from the first to the 20th of May, but in different 
years may be somewhat earlier or later following the temperature 
(Fig. 3). 

Occasionally the spawning period of the brook lamprey may 
continue until the first lake lampreys appear, but the overlapping 
is quite infrequent and happens only in years when the season is 
unusual. 

The spawning time of the lake and the sea lampreys commences 
most often during the latter part of May, reaches its height in 
June and may extend into July. They do not all go up at the 
same time. It has been frequently noticed that after a warm rain 
many new pairs of lampreys ascend the streams; also that in the 
same or neighboring nests there may be completely spent females 
and those full of eggs. 

Brook lampreys may lay their eggs in water as cold as 10° to 12° 
Cent. (50° to 54° Fahr.) but more often the water is from 
15° to 18° Cent. (59° to 64° Fahr.). With the lake and the sea 
lampreys the water at the spawning time is usually from 15° to 
21° Cent. (59° to 70° Fahr.). 

Nest-building : In raising a family the first thing needed is a 
home and the home-maker is very often and ought always to be 
the male. All the lampreys follow the good rule, and the male 
goes ahead and starts things, but the female is no sluggard and 
when she comes along she joins vigorously in the nest-building. 
This nest or home is built in running water, most often a short 
distance above rapids or riffles, as the fishermen call them. It is 
a wash-bowl shaped excavation in the bottom of the stream made 
by pulling the stones away from an area selected and depositing 
them around the edge, especially the lower edge. To remove the 

6 Regan, Gr. C. Tate. A synopsis of the Marsipobranchs of the Order of Hy- 
peroartii. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser vii, Feb. 1911. 




Fig. 3. — Nest building and spawning of the brook lamprey from a drawing made 
at Lincoln Park, April 16, 1897 by Bashford Dean, about half natural size. 
Cut loaned by the N. Y. Acad, of Sciences. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 167 

stones the lamprey attaches its sucking disc to the stone and then 
by powerful swimming jerks pulls the stone loose. If the stone 
is small it is lifted up and carried down the stream (Fig. 1, No. 7). 
If the stone is too large to lift the lamprey drags it along down- 
stream to the edge of the nest. By working more in the middle 
than around the edges the nest is deeper and freer from stones 
in the middle and assumes the wash-bowl shape. This also leaves 
sand and fine gravel in the middle. 

Most often there are but two to a nest, but sometimes there 
may be five or six of the lake lampreys and sometimes as many 
as twenty of the brook lampreys. All may be working to build 
and perfect the nest. I have watched them by the hour but have 
never seen two lampreys pulling the same stone although one in- 
dividual often needed help badly. Others, however, have described 
such joint efforts. Occasionally there is a stupid lamprey which 
after carrying a stone to the edge brings it back and drops it in 
the middle. Mostly, however, they act as if they knew exactly 
what to do and proceeded to do it. 

Egg-Laying : When the nest is partly finished the egg-laying 
may begin if the female knows that some of the eggs are ready. 
The ovary is a single, elongated body extending practically the 
whole length of the abdominal cavity and filling it almost com- 
pletely. The eggs at the caudal or hinder end ripen first and are 
shed into the abdomen. There is a short tube extending from 
the abdominal cavity to the exterior (the genito-urinary tube). 
The eggs and milt which are shed into the abdomen are forced out 
through this tube into the water. 

When the female is ready to lay a batch of eggs she fastens 
her mouth to a large stone at the side of the nest, and the male 
fastens his mouth to the back of her head and twists his body 
partly around hers (Fig. 3). Then, both arch their backs some 
what to bring their tails down to the sand and fine gravel in the 
middle of the nest. They both vibrate their tails with great 
rapidity, "shake-together" as it is called, and stir up the sand 
and gravel into a kind of cloud. At the same time the muscles 
of the abdomen contract powerfully and force the eggs and milt 
out through the abdominal pore into the mixture of water and 
gravel. If the operation takes place in a good light, especially 
if the sun is shining on the nest, one can see the stream of white 
eggs pouring out into the cloud of sand and gravel. If the nest 
is examined immediately after an egg-laying many eggs will be 
seen scattered over the bottom of the nest, and if one takes up 
some of the sand it will be found that the eggs are sticking to the 
bits of sand and gravel. 

Before the eggs are laid the ovary puts on each one a coating 
which becomes very sticky. just as soon as it gets into the water. 
This enables the eggs to stick to the sand and gravel which the 
lampreys stir up when they shake together. The heavy sand par- 
ticles sink quickly and carry the eggs down into the nest instead 
of letting them float downstream. 



168 Conservation Department 

Just as soon as a batch of egg's is laid the lampreys commence 
to jerk the stones from the edge of the nest. That seemed puzzling 
at first, but on watching further it was found that while many 
eggs were visible immediately after they were laid, they were 
soon all covered up by the sand washed down when the stones 
were loosened at the edge. It is of great advantage to have the 
eggs buried in the sand for they do not stick tightly to the sand 
particles very long. Soon they are quite free among the sand 
grains, and might be washed downstream if not covered. 

If one examines a lamprey in the early part of the egg-laying 
time, only a limited number of the eggs will be found free in the 
abdominal cavity, all of the others will be imbedded in the ovary. 
As stated above, they ripen from behind forward, so that the last 
eggs to be laid are from the cephalic or front end of the ovary. 
This explains, too, why the eggs are laid in batches. After one 
lot is laid the lamprey works at the nest to get those well covered 
with sand, and then by some means, she knows when another batch 
is ready and proceeds to lay them, and so on till all are laid. 
From my own and the published observations of others, the egg- 
laying at its height recurs frequently, sometimes every two to 
five minutes with the brook lamprey, but the intervals may be 
much longer. Apparently it requires only a day or two for all 
the eggs to be laid, but the lamprey remains around the nest for 
several days, and spends much time and effort in moving stones 
around the edge of the nest, and thereby loosening the sand and 
gravel which washes down and covers the eggs securely. 

With the lake lamprey in one especially favorable case where 
the egg-laying was at its height the pair of lampreys "shook 
together" 5 times and at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals. With the 
sea lamprey the egg-laying as described by Hussakof* is fully 
as rapid as with the lake lamprey. It sometimes happens when 
there are several lampreys in a nest that the males attack each 
other. Then there is a lively scrap. One male grabs another by 
the back or in almost any place and jerks him out of the nest. 
They writhe and struggle in the stream making a great splashing. 
This explains in part at least why there are lamprey marks on the 
males. Other authors have commented on the attachment of male 
brook lampreys and their leaving the nest together. With the 
lake lampreys as described above, there is no doubt of the un- 
friendliness of the encounter. 

Number of Eggs Laid by Different Lampreys.— The number 
laid by the different kinds is roughly in proportion to their size. 

In round numbers thev have been found as follows: 

Sea lamprey 236,000 

Lake lamprey 108,000 

Brook lamprey 3,000 

In determining the number of eggs the female is selected at the 
beginning of the spawning season on the way to the spawning 

* Loc. cit. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 169 

grounds before any of the eggs have been laid. The abdomen is 
freely opened for its whole extent and the ovary — there is but one — 
carefully dissected out. It is weighed entire on accurate 
scales. Then, using chemical scales if possible, enough of the 
ovary is cut away to weigh one gram. The eggs in this weight are 
actually counted. Assuming that the number in a gram of ovary 
is uniform throughout, the whole number present can be deter- 
mined by multiplying the number in one gram by the number of 
grams in the whole ovary. 

In case the eggs are not easily separated from the ovarian tissue, 
the weighed gram can be macerated over night, or if necessary 
longer, in 20 per cent nitric acid in water. After the nitric acid, 
the piece of ovary should be soaked for half an hour or more in 
water. Then the eggs are easily separated and counted. 

The following were the actual counts made for the different 
lampreys and the number of eggs estimated in each : 

Sea lamprey from Lawrence, Mass., on the way to the spawning 
grounds. 

Weight of the entire animal 640 grams 

Weight of the entire ovary 121 grams 

Number of eggs in one gram 1,950 

Number of eggs in the whole ovary of 121 grams. . 235,950 

Lake lamprey from Cayuga lake, before the spawning time : 

Weight of the entire animal 124.6 grams 

Weight of the entire ovary 45. grams 

Number of eggs found in one gram 2,406 

Number of eggs in the entire 45 grams 108,270 

Two other lake lampreys taken from the spawning beds yielded : 
one, 63,000, the other 65,000. Evidently a part of the eggs had 
already been laid. 

Brook lamprey (transforming) : 

Weight of the entire animal 8.5 grams 

Weight of the entire ovary. . 150 milligrams 

Eggs counted in 50 milligrams 1,092 

Entire number of eggs in the animal 3,276 

The transforming brook lamprey was used because it is prac- 
tically impossible to secure a female at the spawning time which 
has not already laid a part of the eggs. Dean and Sumner esti- 
mated from a gravid female taken at the spawning time that she 
contained 860 eggs. It seems almost certain that a part of the 
eggs had been laid as with the lake lampreys from the spawning 
grounds. (See above.) 

Death of Lampreys After Spawning. — The question is often 
asked: What becomes of the lampreys after the eggs are laid? 
The answer is simple and certain. They all die, and none of them 
ever return to the ocean or the lakes to recuperate and prepare 
for an additional generation. This has been the belief of fisher- 
men for many years, also, of scientific men, for the ovaries aftei 



170 Conservation Department 

spawning- contain no immature eggs as with animals that lay 
eggs more than one season. For the sea and the lake lampreys 
the number of dead ones found in the streams shows at least 
a high mortality. Mr. Holmes of Lawrence, Mass., who has col- 
lected sea lampreys for many years as they went up the fish- 
ways, wrote to me that he had seen all kinds of fish going up 
and down, but he never saw any large lampreys on their return 
to the ocean. He often found the small, just transformed ones 
going down, but never the large ones. Much evidence also came 
from fishermen familiar with the sea lamprey that they all die after 
spawning. 

Proof that the Lampreys Die After Spawning. — Brook 
lampreys have been kept under observation after spawning, and 
they always die in a relatively short time. There are no micro- 
scopic eggs in their spent ovary, and as these animals never feed 
after transformation, even before spawning, it is certain that they 
die soon afterward. Dead ones have also been found in the spawn- 
ing streams, and sometimes these dead ones are so covered with 
the mold, Saproiegnia, that they look as if wrapped in cotton. 
That the lake lampreys die after spawning seems probable from 
the anatomical degeneration of the liver and intestine, and from 
the absence of minute ova in the ovary. Also from the number 
of dead animals found in the spawning stream. 

Experimental evidence. — As the situation in Ithaca is so favor- 
able it seemed that the opportunity to make a crucial test should 
not be neglected. Some vigorous lake lampreys from the spawning 
beds were put in a covered spring with bullheads to see if they 
would feed upon them. As will be shown later, the lampreys 
during their predatory life attack fish in an aquarium as readily 
apparently as in the waters of the lake, therefore it seemed that 
this was a fair trial. The water of the spring was cold. All of 
the lampreys died, although the bullheads (Ameiurus) lived for a 
long time. To make the experiment as normal as possible a wire 
cage was placed in the spawning stream in deep water, and bull- 
heads and lamprfeys put into it. As before the fish lived, but the 
lampreys all died. As the assumption always is that the lampreys 
return to the lake before they commence to feed, another cage 
was sunk in the lake and lampreys and bullheads added. The 
bullheads were used because the lampreys are particularly fond 
of bullheads and the experiment attempted to make the conditions 
as favorable as possible. The lampreys died as before, but the 
bullheads did not. 

Persistence of the Notochord. — It is often argued that if the 
lampreys all died after spawning their dead bodies would be more 
in evidence. This season (1927) and the season of 1911 were 
especially favorable for testing the matter. It is evident that 
if there were heavy rains and consequent high water, the dead 
bodies would be washed down stream and quickly disappear, but 
on the dates mentioned there was very little rain and the streams 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 171 

were clear and low. Careful observations were made for several 
miles along the main inlet to the lake where the spawning occurs 
both during and immediately after the spawning season was over, 
and then some weeks after. In the silt along the edge of the 
stream, and in the brush and other obstructions that catch floating 
objects many dead lampreys were found. In dislodging the drift 
in a brush obstruction in 1911, a couple of weeks after the spawn- 
ing was over, several long whitish bodies were found. They looked 
like very long round-worms. Investigating further these were 
found attached in some cases to a partly decayed lamprey. It 
was soon realized that these round-worm appearing bodies were 
the notochords of the decayed lampreys. These notochords seem 
to be the most persistent part of the lampreys, and they may be 
found at least a month after the lampreys have died. Since 1911 
notochords have been found every favorable year including 1927. 
Also this year Mr. J. R. Greeley found them in the Beaverkill, a 
tributary of the Delaware, where the large sea lampreys spawn. 
As some of them were connected with partly decayed lampreys 
there was no doubt of their character (Fig. 4*). 

The persistence of the notochords in the spawning streams has 
been somewhat emphasized because if they were found by a 
naturalist or a fisherman entirely separate from any part of a 
lamprey they would certainly be a puzzle. In case a paleonto- 
logist were to find a fossil notochord what would he call it? 

All of the above evidence for the death of the lampreys after 
spawning makes the statement seem wholly justified that all the 
lampreys spawn but once, and that after spawning they die. No 
doubt death is not due wholly to starvation, although none of 
them take food during the spawning time, but there are many 
contributory factors. In attaching to each other by the sucking 
mouth, the epithelial protection is removed leaving an opening for 
infections of various kinds, the most common being the mold, 
Saprolegnia. Even the large lake lamprey, may be almost covered 
with it, as described for the brook lamprey above. 

In passing it may be added that the lampreys seem to be subject 
to the ordinary defects that mar even the highest in the animal 
kingdom. For example, something happened to one specimen, 
for its oral disc was imperfect ; another had but a single eye and 
another a single kidney, and still another only an excuse for a 
tail. Only one albino larva was ever found, all the other lampreys, 
young and old were properly pigmented. Taking it by and large, 
the lampreys on the spawning grounds are quite perfect physically. 
Probably the weaklings are ground to dust by the all-prevailing 
law of the "survival of the fittest." 




Fig. 4. — Larval and transforming lake lampreys (nearly natural size). 



* 1, 2, 3, growth to Oct. of the same season. 4, 5, 6, 7, larvae possibly of 
different years. 10, larva of unusual length, Dec. Transformation the follow- 
ing year. 8, transforming lake lamprey that remained in an aquarium a 
whole year in the larval stage after reaching full length, transformation ap- 
parent in late August. 9, transforming lake lamprey from the mud-bank, Dec. 
June, three larvae taken from the mud-bank showing growth in one year. 
A, two transforming lake lampreys with contracted circular mouths, T, Aug. 
One larva of the same length, L, with the characteristic hooded mouth, upper 
and lower lip. B, about twice natural size. L, larva with hooded mouth. T. 
transforming lamprey iii a very early stage, Aug. n.c. notochords of decayed 
lampreys found in the stream in June. The cephalic end points to the right. 

[173] 



174 Conservation Department 

Development of the Eggs and Larval Life. — The eggs are 
only about one millimeter (1/25 inch) in diameter and undergo 
total but unequal segmentation, something like those of the frogs 
and toads and other amphibia. At first, as stated above, they are 
sticky, and cling very tightly to pieces of sand and gravel, but 
after a few hours the covering loses its adhesive quality and the 
eggs are then free and lie loosely among the sand particles. 

The development begins almost immediately after the eggs are 
laid and fertilized. The temperature retards if low and hastens 
if warmer. In an experiment with artificially fertilized 
eggs with the water at 22.5° Cent. (73 Fahr.) the eggs reached the 
two-cell stage within six hours. In another experiment they were 
carried till hatching in the laboratory at about 20° Cent. (70 
Fahr. ) and it required nine days. In colder water the time is con- 
siderably extended. When hatched the larvae have a considerable 
amount of food-yolk remaining, and they stay in the nest until this 
is used up, from two to three weeks. When the food-yolk is ex- 
hausted they have reached a stage of development when they 
can take and digest food. As the microscopic life in the nest is 
scanty, they migrate down the stream to a mud bank in relatively 
quiet water. .Here the microscopic organisms are more abundant 
and they are not so crowded. They secure their food in this way : 
For breathing the gill chamber is alternately filled with water and 
emptied. Going in with the stream of water are the microscopic 
forms on which they feed. In some way, no one knows just how, 
the young lamprey is able to separate at least a part of the food 
bodies from the water and pass them on to the intestine where they 
are digested. Apparently the selection is not discriminative, for 
particles of sand or any other substanee in the water are passed 
down to the intestine as well as the infusoria, diatoms, desmids, etc. 
That only a part of the particles go on to the intestine may be 
shown by putting one of the ammocoetes in a test tube or slender 
bottle with water to which a small amount of starch or flour has 
been added. By using a lens and holding the animal in a good 
light, it will be seen that a stream flows into the mouth and out of 
the gill openings or branchiopores. The starch particles help one 
to follow the stream, and it will be seen that starch grains come out 
with the expired water. Probably this also happens with the 
microscopic organisms used for food, that is, only a part of them 
are made use of. If there is considerable starch in the water one 
can see very clearly the use of the oral sieve over the opening to the 
throat (Fig. 1, No. 3). A part of the starch grains is caught b\ 
the processes making the sieve, and after a while they tend to clog 
the openings and thus hinder the free entrances of the respiratory 
water. Any other particles like the silt in muddy water would 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 175 

produce the same result. Now when the clogging has gone to a 
certain extent, the young lamprey fills its branchial chamber, and 
then closes the branchiopores so that the water cannot escape 
in the usual way in expiration. Then by a powerful constriction of 
the branchial chamber the water is forced out of the mouth in a 
rapid stream which clears away the clogging material. 

This method has been adopted by the sanitary engineers for 
cleaning their filter beds for water by reversing the current and 
allowing the dirt to flow off the top. 

Length of Larval Life.—? It is not known how long the young 
lampreys live in the mud as larvae. The only way to find that out 
with certainty would be by an experiment in which natural condi- 
tions were imitated closely and the animals kept from the egg 
until the transformation. This has never been done. The nearest 
approximation can be found by seeking the animals from month 
to month in the mud banks where they naturally live. This has 
been done for the brook and the lake lamprey in the Cayuga lake 
inlet, and in the photographs one can see the different sizes 
and appearance. There is a good certainty for the first season, 
that is from May and June until Nov.-Dec. (Fig. 5). The brook 
lamprey is three to four weeks earlier than the lake lamprey 
hence its young are further advanced. In May and June eggs and 
larvae may be found in the same nest, showing that some of the 
eggs were laid earlier than others. It often happens that succes- 
sive pairs of lampreys use the same nest during the spawning 
season. This difference in time of laying the eggs also accounts for 
the difference in size of the larvae of the brook or of the lake lam- 
prey during the same month ; for example in this figure, Nov. and 
Dec. 

From a somewhat limited series of sea lamprey larvae and trans- 
forming ones, the conclusion seems justified that the larval life 
is precisely like that of the lake lamprey. From the groups of 
sizes found by Dr. Okkelberg* of the brook lamprey in Michigan, 
he has, by a series of average curves, concluded that their larval 
life extends over a period of five years, possibly four years. From 
my own observations of both the lake and the brook lamprey 
larvae obtained nearly every month throughout the year, it seemed 
to me that the time could not be less than four years. 

Wishing to study the structural changes in the various stages of 
transformation, many large larvae were secured in Aug. and 
Sept., 1913. These larvae were as long and some of them longer 
than most of the transforming ones obtained in previous years so 
that it seemed sure that they would transform during that summer 
and autumn. They were kept in a large tank with sand and gravel 
in the bottom and a constant stream of water was turned on so that 
the conditions would be like that in the natural stream. They 
were dug up occasionally to see how they were progressing. Some 
of them commenced to transform in the usual fashion, but to my 

* Loc. cit. 




Fig. 5. — Eggs and young of the lake and the brook lamprey to show the 
growth from month to month during the first season (May to Dec.). 
Note that the brook is constantly in advance. Nearly natural size). 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 177 

astonishment some of the large larvae showed no change. These 
were kept over the winter and following summer. They com- 
menced to transform in August, 1914, but one not until September 
(Fig. 4, No. 8) . That is, some of the full length larvae lived a whole 
year after they had reached full size before they commenced to 
transform. As one can find larvae as long or longer than many 
transforming ones any month in the year, it is believed that all of 
them live a year in the larval stage after they reach full length. If 
this is a correct conclusion, then one year must be added to every 
estimate based upon size of larvae. From present knowledge it 
seems to me that the time passed in the larval period in the mud 
must be at least five years (Figs. 4, 5). 

Transformation of the Larva to the Adult Condition. — 
When the larval lamprey attains a certain definite maturity, which , 
as shown above, may take a year after it has reached full length 
(5 to 7 ] /2 inches), the process of structural changes begins to pre- 
pare it for its free-swimming, predatory life. The hooded, horse- 
shoe shaped mouth with an upper and lower lip gradually changes 
to a circular disc-shaped mouth. The sieve over the throat disap- 
pears, and on the circular disc appear numerous horny teeth, and 
in the throat appears a piston-like tongue armed with a double row 
of rake-like, horny teeth (Figs. 1, 4). 

The eyes instead of being rudimentary and deeply imbedded in 
the tissues of the head, appear at the surface and have a trans- 
parent cornea, A good crystalline lens and a more perfect retina, 
and eye muscles are developed. In place of the single chamber for 
food and respiratory water in the gill region, a separate oesophagus 
and bronchus are formed, and the gills are arranged in seven sep- 
arate sacs or pouches, each with an external opening (external 
branchiopore) and an opening to the common bronchus (internal 
branchiopore ) . 

Buccal glands for producing the anticoagulating secretion are 
developed and their ducts open into the mouth just below the rasp- 
ing tongue (Fig. 6). The liver loses its gall bladder, and its duct 
leading to the intestine, so that in its adult life the liver has no 
duct opening into the intestine. The intestine is also much modi- 
fied. Many other profound changes occur and finally the young 
lamprey is ready for its predatory life. At transformation the 
different lampreys are of about the same size, the brooks being 
slightly longer than the sea and the lake lamprey. The brook 
lamprey never increases in size, but as shown in the diagram (Fig. 
7) the lake and the sea lamprey increase greatly. 

As larvae they all look so much alike that up to the present no 
clear distinctions have ever been made, but very early in the trans- 
formation stages, the color changes and the breadth of the oral 
disc mark differences evident to any one. The brook lamprey 
changes very little in general coloration, but the sea and the lake 
lamprey change from the chestnut brown-black of the larva to 
blue-black. Indeed everywhere they are known by the fishermen 
as "blue lampers, " and are greatly prized for bait (Figs. 4, 5). 



178 Conservation Department 

The transformation begins in the summer. Some have been 
found commencing as early as the middle of July. From this time 
all along through August, and sometimes the first signs begin early 
in September. The transforming lampreys remain in the mud and 
sand the same as larvae, but they are more often found in deeper 
water. The time required for the transformation is more easily 
determined than for either the larval or the adult life. This is 
because it is shorter, and during the transformation time, no food 
is taken by the lamprey. 

In 1897 and 1898 especially, but repeated occasionally for the 
next fifteen years, large larvae and those showing the beginnings 
of transformation have been kept in an aquarium with sand and 
gravel and stones on the bottom to simulate the natural stream. 
As stated above, these transforming animals remain under the 
sand and gravel like larvae until they are ready to commence their 
predatory life. They do not all begin their transformation at the 
same time, and naturally do not all finish on the same date. When 
they are ready for their free life in the water they leave the cov- 
ering of sand and appear above it in the water. Some come out 
during the last of January, and others during February, and some 
as late as March. 

Fish of different kinds, bullheads and carp, have been put into 
the aquarium to serve as food for the young lampreys if on emerg- 
ing they were ready for it. They certainly were ready and pounced 
upon the poor fish like a pack of wolves (Fig. 1, No. 4). 

The aquarium experiments have been confirmed by the actual 
happenings in nature, for the fishermen have brought to the 
laboratory young lampreys caught on fish in January, February, 
March and the later months. It can be affirmed then with confi- 
dence that in nature it takes the transforming young lampreys be- 
tween six and seven months, that is from the middle of July to the 
middle of January, or for those commencing in August, until Feb- 
ruary and the beginning of March, to complete the profound modi- 
fications in structure to render them adapted to their free-swim- 
ming, predatory life. These experiments were made with lake 
lampreys, and from the stages of growth found with the large sea 
lamprey larvae and transforming young, it seems highly probable 
that they are an equal time in changing from the larval to the 
adult stage. Indeed the more one studies the marvelous changes 
that occur, the less one wonders that it requires six months or more 
to complete them. 

Brook Lamprey Not Parasitic. — The changes undergone in 
the transformation of the brook lamprey are almost precisely like 
those in the sea and the lake lamprey. The time they remain cov- 
ered in the sand and gravel of the stream is considerably longer, 
and the subsequent life is markedly different. This was shown in 
1897-1898, and has been repeatedly confirmed many times since 
that original experiment. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 179 

The very large larvae and those showing signs of change were 
kept in an aquarium with sand and gravel and with running water 
flowing over them as in the natural stream. Small bullheads were 
put in the aquarium for them to feed on if they wished when they 
emerged. But they paid no attention to the fish. Their sucking 
mouth, piston-like, rasping tongue and the horny teeth on the oral 
disc seemed to fit them for parasitism, but they never molested the 
fish. It was noticed, however, that when they attached to the sides 
of the glass walled aquarium that they looked very much as do the 
ones that are on their way to the spawning ground. That is, one 
could see the eggs through the thin wall of the body ; and later 
after they were shed into the abdomen they looked like little pills 
in a homeopathic vial (Figs. 1, No. 5; 2, No. 1). 

To make sure that such apparently, premature ripening of the 
eggs also occurred in nature, my trained lamprey digger and 
catcher was commissioned to get specimens from the Cayuga lake 
inlet. In these the eggs and milt were well advanced toward 
maturity, but not quite so far as with those in the laboratory 
aquarium with the warmer water. 1 

This experiment and its subsequent verification proved conclu- 
sively that the brook lamprey is not parasitic, but like many 
insects lives its growing life in the larval state, and during its 
adult life does nothing but look out for the next generation and 
then die. In 1897-1898, it was almost or quite universally believed 
that the brook lamprey with its apparently complete armature for 
parasitism, was really parasitic (Fig. 1, No. 2). The experiments 
at That time, were the first, so far as I know, to really set the 
matter at rest. And now it is universally understood that the 
brook lamphrey in all regions is non-parasitic, and that its free life 
in the water is only a few weeks in length, only long enough for it 
to reach the spawning grounds , build its nest, lay its eggs and 
care for the nest a few days. Its life work is then finished. 

A very interesting anatomical fact was recently brought out by 
Keibel, 2 viz., that in the German brook lamprey, while it under- 
goes apparently all the transformation changes, the oesophagus 
does not become hollow all the way from the throat to the 
intestine, but for a short distance near its cephalic end contains a 
solid plug of epithelium. This is true of a goodly proportion of 
the American brook lampreys, but by no means of all. Many of 
them have the oesophagus open the entire distance as with the sea 
and the lake lamprey. Of course those with a solid oesophagus 
could not swallow the blood if they were to suck some from a fish, 
but the American ones with open oesophagus could do so. But 
none of them ever attack a fish. 

No doubt the brook lamprey was at one time parasitic the same 
as the lake and the sea lamprey. Even now its first cousins 

1 Gage, S. H. Transformation of the brook lamprey (non-parasitism). 
Proc. Amer. Assoc, Adv. Sc. Vol. 47, 1808. Science, 1898, p, 401. 

2 Keibel, Franz. Eroetfmingsansprache der anatomischen Gesellscliaf t, Wien. 
Anat. Anz. Bd. GO, p. 3, 1925. 



180 Conservation Department 

(Entosphemis) of the Pacific Coast are parasitic, and some of 
them, found in the Columbia river and its tributaries, grow to a 
size almost equal to that of the sea lamprey of the Atlantic. 

This change from a predatory life must be very recent, geologic- 
ally speaking, for the animal has all the machinery for parasitism ; 
even the buccal glands with their anticoagulating secretion still 
persist. The piston-like tongue and the sucking mouth are still 
useful for nest building and mating, but the horny teeth of the 
disc and the sharp rake-like teeth of the tongue seem wholly un- 
called for. Indeed, as shown by Dr. Reighard and his pupils, some 
of the Michigan brook lampreys have almost lost these weapons. 

Summary of the Life History of Lampreys: 

1. Lampreys are among the lowest of the fish -like forms and are 
found in the temperate zones of both hemispheres but are more 
abundant in the northern than in the southern hemisphere. 

2. There are three, possibly four kinds of lampreys in New York 
State waters. 

3. The eggs are always laid in fresh water streams, mostly dur- 
ing the months of April, May and June. 

4. The lampreys spawn but once, soon after which they all die. 

5. There is a young or larval stage corresponding with the tad- 
pole of the frog and toad, in which the structure and mode of life 
is quite different from the adult. 

6. The young or larval lampreys, ammocoetes or mud lampreys, 
live from four to five years in the mud and sand along the streams 
where the eggs are laid. 

7. When sufficiently mature at the end of four to five years the 
larval lampreys transform to the adult stage. In this process they 
acquire new structures which prepare them for their free, parasitic 
life. 

8. The time required for transformation is from July- August 
to the latter part of January and extends in some to February 
and March. During transformation they remain under the sand 
and gravel for protection. 

9. When transformed, the sea lamprey migrates from the fresh 
water stream to the ocean. The lake lamprey migrates down the 
stream to one of the large, fresh-water lakes. In the ocean or the 
lake the adult lampreys pre}^ upon fish, sucking their blocd. Their 
parasitic life continues for one and one-half to three and one-half 
years, then they return to the fresh-water streams to lay their eggs 
for a new generation. 

10. The brook lamprey grows to its full size in the larval stage. 
When fully transformed, it does not, like the sea and the lake 
lamprey, go to the sea or lake to prey upon fish, but proceeds at 
once to the spawning grounds up the stream where it builds its 
nest, lays its eggs and then dies. Their free life in the water is 
then only two or three weeks, perhaps less. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 181 

Economics of Lampreys 

Economically the lampreys have two sides, good and bad. On 
the good or credit side, they supply food for human consumption 
and also for fishes ; and they form excellent bait* for fishing. In 
England especially, according to Couch and Seeley, as many as 
45,000 have been used in a single year in the cod and turbot and 
other deep sea fisheries. Also they were much sought after for 
human food as shown by the literature of England and the Conti- 
nent. In our own country, in New England, the large sea lampreys 
were much used as food in the early days, and still are used, but 
to a less extent. On the bad or debit side, the lampreys destroy 
and injure many food fishes during their parasitic or predatory 
life. 

Economics of Larval Lampreys. — The larvae, mud-or-sand- 
lampreys, ammocoetes, of all kinds have only the credit side to 
their account as they eat microscopic animals and plants abundant 
in the mud-banks where they grow up, and therefore never injure 
human food supplies. They, on the other hand, furnish excellent 
fish food when by chance of freshets or other means they are 
turned free in the water. This is probably one strong reason why 
they are so restless when free in the water, and why they seek so 
eagerly the protection of the covering of sand and mud. From 
their excellence as fish food, and their tenacity on life, they make 
good fish bait and are much sought after for that purpose. 
Formerly, and still to a less degree, there is and was quite a trade 
in larval lampreys for the fishermen. From Owego, Bingham- 
ton and Ithaca, the mud-lampreys were sent in milk cans in 
all directions. Still in the branches of the Delaware the larvae 
are much sought as fish bait to be used in the streams of the 
Catskill mountains and in New England they are supplied by the 
bait dealers. In a word, the larvae or immature lampreys in the 
mud-banks, are not at all harmful, and wholly beneficial. 

Economics of the Brook Lamprey. — As was proved by exact 
experiments in 1897-98, and subsequent years, the brook lamprey 
never takes food in its adult life, and therefore never harms in any 
way, human food supplies. Its larvae or mud-eels, eat only 
microscopic organisms, and besides are excellent bait for fisher- 
men. The brook lamprey then is never harmful, and may be 
made beneficial if its young are used for bait. 

""' The larvae or young living in the mud and gravel where there is slack 
water along the streams where the eggs are laid may be secured by means 
of a scoop- shovel or more abundantly with a hand-dredge. A scoop partly 
full of the mud where they are supposed to be is taken out on the shore and 
spread out on the ground. The larger ones will squirm out as the water drains 
away, and the smaller ones can be seen when the mud and gravel is spread 
out rather thin. They look something like angle worms. From successive 
freshets, they are carried downstream so that for the larger larvae one 
searches farther downstream, and also in somewhat deeper water. 



182 Conservation Department 

Economics of the Sea Lamprey. — On the good or credit side 
the sea lampreys always spawn in fresh water, and on their way 
from the ocean to the spawning grounds are in excellent condi- 
tion. They take no food on this migration, and therefore do not 
injure the fishes in the rivers and streams where they spawn. On 
the other hand they make wholesome food for human beings; and 
their young, the mud-eels or sand-lampreys make good bait. After 
laying their eggs, the sea lampreys die and never return to the 
ocean. Hence, in the river fisheries of New York, the sea lamprey 
is not injurious but beneficial. In New England, they were much 
sought after, and were caught by the barrel, and salted down for 
future use. The farmers away from the rivers, according to Goode,* 
would trade a barrel of pork for a barrel of lampreys. 

In Alaska, the Indians look forward to the annual migrations of 
the Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus) up their rivers and collect 
large numbers of them to supply food for their dogs as well as 
for themselves. By personal experience it is known that lampreys 
are good food when in full vigor on their way to spawn. 

The bad or debit side of the sea lamprey is comprised wholly in 
its predatory or parasitic life, and this is practically all spent 
in the ocean. The transformed young in the streams leading to 
the sea might attack river fish for a meal or two, but they are 
very small and the injury to the inland fisheries is therefore 
negligible. On the other hand no doubt many of these transformed 
ones on their way down the river are snapped up by the river 
fish and are themselves turned into food. 

Once in the ocean, those which survive must increase 35 to 55 
times in length and 95 to 135 times (Fig. 7) in weight before they 
are ready to migrate up the streams where they were born to start 
a new generation. This means an enormous amount of food, for 
in addition to the increase in weight there must be a much larger 
amount of food taken to keep them alive, and furnish energy for 
hunting their prey. 

The fishes known to be fed upon by the lampreys in the sea, 
as given by Goode x and Bigelow, 2 are : cod, haddock, mackerel, 
shad, sturgeon, salmon and even the basking shark. 

Economics of the Lake Lamprey. — Unlike the sea lamprey, 
the lake lamprey passes its entire life cycle in fresh water. All 
its predatory life is in the lakes of the State, and therefore its 



* Goode, G. Brown. The fisheries and fishery industries of the United 
States. Section 1, Natural History of useful aquatic animals. Lampreys, 
pp. 677-681, Washington Government Printing Office, 1884. 

1 Loc. cit. 

2 Bigelow, H. B. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Bull. Bur. of Fisheries. 
Vol. 40, part 1, p. 19, 1924. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 183 

influence on the inland fisheries is considerable. On the good, 
or credit side their young, the ammocoetes or mud-lampreys, are 
excellent bait for fishing, and no doubt many of them serve as 
fish food when washed from the mud-banks by freshets, also when 
migrating down the streams to the lakes. 

When they reach the lakes, there is, so far as known, no good 
economic side. They prey upon the food fishes, and in return 
never are turned into human food as are the sea lampreys. The 
food fishes that I have known to be attacked are: pike, pickerel, 
bullheads, carp and suckers. Although present in Lakes Erie and 
Ontario, their destructive habits have been most studied in con- 
nection with the fishes of Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida lakes. They 
attack all food fishes, and when hungry enough, attacked a ganoid 
(bowfin) in our aquarium. According to Surface* and Bensley, 
they have been known to tackle even a gar pike. (Lepisosteu-s 
O'sseus). Old fishermen have told me that when the sturgeon 
was still found in Cayuga lake, the lampreys were particularly 
attentive. Often six or seven might be found attached to one 
fish, something as shown for the carp in Figure 1. 

Drs. Smallwood and Struthers, investigating the carp in Oneida 
lake this summer (1927), told me that often more than half of 
the carp in a haul would be lamprey marked. Dr. Eaton in 
his work found that 34 out of 38 of the lake trout caught in 
Seneca lake were lamprey marked; and in Cayuga lake, two of 
the four trout caught were so marked. Several years ago 
when there was commercial seining of carp in Cayuga lake the 
fishermen told me that fully half of the carp seined had lamprey 
marks upon them. Dr. Embody in securing fish early in the season 
for the spawn for the Cornell fish hatchery, told me that he had 
never found more fish that had been mangled by the lampreys. 
The large number of mature lampreys at the head of Cayuga lake 
this spring was abundantly confirmed by me later in collecting 
them on the spawning grounds. They seemed as numerous as 
twenty-five years ago. 

As pointed out to me several years ago by Dr. A. H. Wright, 
the depredations of lampreys are greater at the head, or southern 
end of Cayuga lake than near the foot, and Dr. Eaton told me 
that this summer more of the fish at the southern or upper end of 
Seneca lake were lamprey marked than at the lower or northern 
end. The observations of Drs, Smallwood and Struthers in 
Oneida lake this season, point in the same general direction, that 
is, in all the lakes, the greatest destruction by lampreys is near the 
entrance of the streams in which they spawn. In Oneida lake 
the spawning streams are more distributed than in Seneca and 

* Surface, H. A. The Lamprevs of Central New York. Bulletin of the 
U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. 17, 1897. 



184 Conservation Department 

Cayuga. In these last, so far as known, only those streams enter- 
ing the southern end of the lake serve as spawning places. 

In trying to estimate the damage done to the food fishes by 
lampreys it would be of great help if it were known just how long 
it takes the lampreys to mature in the lakes. 

During the last 50 years many lampreys preying upon fish have 
been taken from Cayuga lake at all seasons of the year, even 
during the spawning season, and from a careful study of the size 
and stage of development of these direct from the lake it does 
not seem possible that any of them could reach maturity and 
lay eggs during their first parasitic year. It is possible that they 
might be ready to spawn during their second year. As they 
commence their predatory life mostly in February and March 
and lay their eggs in May and June, this would make one and 
one-third years the shortest possible time for their predatory 
life. From the material studied it seems much more likely, how- 
ever, that eggs are laid when the lampreys have been from two 
and one-third or three and one-third years in the lake. Possibly 
the time may be longer. 

As stated for the time required for their larval growth and 
development, the only sure way to find out how long a time is 
required for the growth and maturity of the adults is to secure 
just transformed lampreys and keep them under as natural con- 
ditions as possible until they are completely mature. There is 
no difficulty in keeping them alive in running water in an 
aquarium, and they are not at all backward in securing a meal of 
blood from any fish that is available. Unfortunately no such ex- 
periment has been tried with any parasitic lamprey, therefore at 
present one must depend on estimates. 

Experiments on the Predatory Habits of Lampreys. — In 

order to see how the lampreys and fish act when in the water 
together, and how the lamprey attaches itself to a fish, one of the 
bathtubs in the house was turned into an aquarium. Large and 
small stones were put in the bottom to make the place as homelike 
as possible, and running water was supplied all the time. The ex- 
periment was begun in December 1914 and continued until late 
in March, 1915, that is, somewhat over three months. At differ- 
ent times there were one or more bullheads (Ameiurus), suckers 
(Catostomus) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) with the lampreys. 
To make the fauna more complete some frogs and a necturus were 
put in the tub. 

When first brought from the lake the fish and the lampreys 
were rather restive and tried to get behind or under the stones 
in the bottom. Then a cover was put over a part of the tub, 
and they remained most of the time in the shadow. In the eve- 
ning they swam around anywhere in the tub, but when the light 
was turned on they mostly retreated to the shaded part. 

The lampreys and the fish seemed wholly indifferent to one 
another. Often a lamprey would swim alongside a fish or a 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 185 

fish would bump into a lamprey. This seemed strange, for 
chickens are much agitated when they see or hear a hawk. Per- 
haps this is because in the racial history a hawk in the neighbor- 
hood practically always meant an attack, while with the lampreys 
there is only occasionally an attack. In this experiment it was 
noticed that at night the lampreys were of a considerably lighter 
tint than in the daytime. That is, in the day time the pigment 
cells seemed to be spread out more evenly, and gave therefore a 
darker appearance. 

As stated, ordinarily the lampreys and the fish swam around 
together without apparently noticing one another. When, how- 
ever, a lamprey felt the need of a free meal he would swim along 
near a fish as usual, and then suddenly with a side movement, 
the sucking mouth was brought up against the body of the fish 
and stuck fast. Great excitment followed. The fish Avould dash 
around the bathtub as if bewitched, and run up the sloping end 
of the tub almost out of the water. But it was of no use; the 
harder the fish tore around the tighter the lamprey stuck. 

After several minutes the fish seemed exhausted and thoroughly 
discouraged and remained rather quiet. On watching the lamprey 
it seemed to be working hard to get something from the fish. The 
movements of its head and body reminded one of the actions of 
a suckling pig or kitten. After some especially hard suck the fish 
would jump and struggle as if it hurt, It probably did, for when 
the lamprey let go or was taken off there was always an ugly 
hole rasped in the fish. 

I saw many attachments, and found that the lamprey could 
hold fast in almost any position, although a favorite position was 
near one of the fins. Sometimes the attachment was over the eye. 
In that case the rasping tongue would dig the eye out, This 
happened in several instances. The lamprey could change the 
position of its sucking mouth without letting go. This was strik- 
ingly shown in a fully scaled carp. The lamprey apparently did 
not strike a good blood supply when it drilled the first well, so 
it slid along and dug another so that there were two ragged holes 
only a short distance apart. 

Besides the above, these experiments Avere carried on to settle 
the following points : 

Does the lamprey always kill the fish it preys upon? 

How long does a lamprey remain attached to a single fish? 

How often does a lamprey need a full dinner? 

What is the nature of their food? 

How much blood is required for a full meal? 

(a) In answer to the first point, it was found that if the fish was 
relatively large, the lamprey does not usually kill it, but if the fish 
is small, the lamprey may kill it. Several examples with large 
and with small fish showed this over and over. 

(b) It was shown by repeated observations that when a lamprey 
was fully satisfied, it would let go of the fish. In one especially sat- 



186 Conservation Department 

isfactory case a lamprey attached itself to a bullhead (Ameiurus) 
at 8.30 a. m. January 14, 1914. At 9 p. m. January 19 the lam- 
prey was still attached, and the bullhead seemed greatly dejected. 
At 5 a. m., January 20, the lamprey had released the bullhead. 
It showed a savage hole in its side where the lamprey had been 
attached. In this case the lamprey had been with the fish for 
about five days. From this experiment, then, it would appear 
that a lamprey remains only a few days attached to a single fish, 
and when its hunger is completely satisfied it lets go of the fish 
and swims freely in the water. This conclusion is supported by 
the observations of fishermen that lampreys often attach them- 
selves to their boats and sometimes to the oars. 

The confirmation is emphatic in the lamprey given me by Pro- 
fessor Smallwood. This was found clinging to the rudder of 
their boat when they returned from a cruise in Oneida lake. On 
opening the lamprey it was found with the entire intestine filled 
with blood. Further confirmation is given by fishermen who some- 
times find on a single large fish several lamprey marks, some fresh 
and some partly healed. 

Taking all the evidence of personal observation, the attach- 
ment of lampreys to boats and partly healed lamprey scars on 
fish, it seems certain that, as with the laboratory experiment, a 
lamprey remains with one fish only a limited time, when both go 
free. When again hungry the lamprey hunts up a new victim. 

(c) With reference to the frequency of their meals: Naturally 
their meal time must be rather irregular, but judging from the 
observations made in the bathtub experiments it seems to be once 
in about three weeks. This conclusion is reached because the 
lampreys brought fresh from the lake in December and January 
always had the intestine full of blood. These were kept in the 
bathtub with fish. The one described above in (b) came December 
9, and remained in the tub with the fish until January 14 before 
attacking the bullhead for a new food supply. In this case the 
lamprey went 36 days without seeking food, when plenty of it 
was in sight all the time. It then took about five days to get a 
new supply from the bullhead. This experiment shows then that 
the lampreys need a full meal about once a month. 

(d) For determining the nature of the food of the lamprey 
many have been killed immediately upon their receipt from the 
lake, and the intestinal contents examined both with the naked 
eye and with the microscope. The one described in (b) above 
was studied with especial care for it could be investigated within 
a very short time after it had liberated the fish. There was found 
first of all blood. The color alone might have been sufficient, but 
it was put under the microscope and the blood corpuscles, and 
blood crystals demonstrated. Then it was subjected to the spec- 
troscope and the characteristic absorption spectra found. 

In the second place there was a small amount of minced 
striated muscle, and some connective tissue with fat and pigment 
cells. The presence of the muscle, the connective tissue and the 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



187 



fat and pigment cells is perfectly intelligible for all these were 
torn away by the rasping tongue in order to reach the blood sup- 
ply. But as stated, the principal bulk of the food in the intestine 
was blood. Many other examinations showed the same to be true. 

Especial care was taken to determine the kind of food, for 
various authors have stated that lampreys eat insects and worms, 
the slime of fish and even small fish and fish eggs. The oesophagus 
of the lamprey is not well adapted to the taking of any but liquid 
food, and according to the easily verified researches of Vera 
Mather,* there is a special grating over the entrance to the 
oesophagus of the Pacific Coast lampreys (Entosphenus) which 
would make the swallowing of insects, worms, etc., very difficult. 
Neither is the mouth and rasping tongue adapted for the securing 
of such food. The whole mechanism is adapted for securing and 
swallowing liquid food, that is blood, and any minced muscle or 
other finely divided tissue present in the intestine with the blood 
is accidental, a by-product, so to speak, of the process for getting 
the blood. 

Furthermore in confirmation that the natural food is blood it 
was found the present spring, (1927) that all the lampreys have 
special glands, buccal glands (Fig. 6), to produce an anticoagulat- 




Fig. 6.— Ventral view of the head and branchial region of a lake lamprey 
to show the position of the buccal glands and the opening of their ducts. 
BG. The bean-shaped, buccal glands at the level of the eyes (E). T. The 
rasping tongue. D. The duct-opening of the left buccal gland. L. The 
infraoral lamina. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The seven branchiopores or gill 
openings on the left side. (From Science, Sept. 27, 1927). 



* Mather, Vera G. The velar apparatus of Entosphenus tridentatua 
(Pacific lamprey). Anat. Rec. Vol. 34, 1926. 



188 Conservation Department 

ing substance which is poured out near the rasping tongue where 
it can bathe the torn surfaces and come in contact with the blood 
as it emerges from the vessels, and keep it liquid. 

(e) The amount of blood required to fill the intestine of a full- 
grown lake lamprey was found on measurement to be about 25 
cubic centimeters (nearly a fluid ounce). The fishermen often 
speak of the paleness of the fish which they find a lamprey attached 
to ; is it any wonder if they look pale after losing so much blood ? 

Estimation of Damage Done by Lampreys. — With the above 
facts in mind, it is possible to give an intelligent discussion of the 
very practical question of how much injury the lampreys actually 
do to the food fishes in the waters where the lampreys are found. 
As shown above, large numbers of fishes are attacked, and of course 
the greater the number of lampreys the more damage they do. 

One year accurate count was kept of all the lampreys caught on 
the spawning beds, and the number of nests in the main inlet of 
Cayuga lake. Over four hundred nests were counted in the extent 
of about 2% miles, and more than one thousand lampreys were 
actually caught. That of course did not make the full number that 
spawned that year. They are not so numerous every year. On 
May 31, 1920, members of the department of zoology were taken to 
the inlet of Seneca lake above Montour falls. The water was 
teeming with lampreys and nearly five hundred were secured in 
a couple of hours. Great numbers have also been secured at other 
seasons in that place, so that it is quite intelligible why so many 
of the fish in Seneca lake are lamprey marked. 

Suppose that Oneida, Seneca or Cayuga lake has one thousand 
lampreys in its waters at one time. This would represent only a 
part of those that went down to the lake to begin their predatory 
life. In nature there is a great mortality. Of the hundreds of 
thousands of eggs deposited in a stream any one year, only a very 
few survive to reach maturity and return for laying eggs for 
another generation. Many of the larvae are caught by fish when 
they are washed out of the mud, and even the transformed ones 
at the beginning of life ' ' the blue lampers, ' ' are snapped up on 
their way to the lake and in hunting for victims. 

"To eat and be eaten" is the law of the water as of the jungle. 
There are also unknown causes that produce mortality with the 
lampreys as of other living things. Death may come at any time 
from the egg to the adult stage of life. One lamprey was found 
early in the season up one of the spawning streams with its branch- 
ial region so far digested that the cartilages of the branchial basket 
were exposed. Dr. Wright told me that on one occasion he was 
watching the lampreys in the inlet and saw a big water snake go 
in, grab a lamprey and carry it out on land. In spite of the great 
mortality there must be a large number preying on the fish of the 
lake all the time. 

The question then is how much fish food in the form, mostly of 
blood, is necessary for the young lake lamprey to grow from a 
length of 13-14 centimeters (about 5 to 6 inches), to a length of 40 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 189 

centimeters (15 to 16 inches), and from a weight of 5 grams (l/6th 
oz.) to 200 grams (7 ozs.). 

Every one who has had experience in feeding growing animals 
knows that it takes much more than a kilogram, or a pound of food 
to have the animal increase that amount of weight. This is because 
it requires so much food just to keep an animal alive and supply 
the energy needed for the heart to beat and the respiration to be 
carried on, and many other activities of the living body. So with 
the lamprey, a great deal of the energy supplied by its food is used 
to maintain its life processes and to hunt its prey, and once at- 
tached to rasp away the tough skin and the muscles and thus open 
the blood vessels and suck out the blood. 

As the lamprey is a cold-blooded animal and does not require 
any of the energy of its food to maintain a constant temperature 
it may be fairly assumed that more of its food might be utilized 
for growth and increase in weight than with a warm-blooded ani- 
mal. Unfortunately there is not the wealth of nutritional infor- 
mation for cold-blooded animals as for man and the domestic ani- 
mals that have a fairly uniform body temperature. 

During the last year, however, at the Connecticut fish hatchery 
some exact experiments* have been made with known diets, and 
the amounts utilized for growth have been determined with scien- 
tific accuracy. Three standard diets of liver, skim-milk, and sup- 
plementary small amounts of yeast and cod liver oil were fed to 
groups of fifty trout, An average of 29% in weight of the food 
was utilized in growth by the trout. Assuming that the lamprey 
would gain an equal amount as the trout on this liver-skim-milk 



Fig. 7. — Diagram showing the relative weight and length of lampreys at 
maturity (m) and at transformation (t). The sea lamprey (S) is about 
five times as long and weighs over one hundred times as much at maturity 
(m) as at transformation (t). The lake lamprey (L) increases about three 
times in length and twenty-seven times in weight, while the brook lamprey 
(B) is practically unchanged in length and weight from transformation 
(t) to maturity (m). 



* Information and permission to use by Dr. C. M. McCay, 



190 Conservation Department 

diet, then to grow from five grams to 200 grams in weight — or to 
increase 195 grams, would require 195 grams divided by 
29% = 672.41 grams or 1.48 lbs. of this food. But the natural food 
of the lamprey is fish blood, and from the tables in Lusk's Nutri- 
tion, p. 579, the average nutritive value of fish flesh is less than 
half that of the liver and skim-milk, hence it would require at 
least twice as much blood, probablv much more, for the lamprey 
to gain 195 grams, that is 672.41x2=1344.82 grams or 2.96 lbs. If 
there were one thousand lampreys in a lake — and more than that 
have been caught from Cayuga lake some years — it would require 
at least three thousand pounds of fish blood to bring them to 
maturity. Every one would probably agree that this would be 
a heavy toll to pay, when the only return is a limited amount 
of fish bait supplied by the ammocoetes ! 

Possibility of Ridding a Lake of Lampreys. — In the economic 
struggle with insects, and other creatures that claim a part of 
the products of the earth and waters that man wants for his 
own sustenance, man's success in overcoming his competitors de- 
pends largely upon the completeness of his knowledge of their 
life history. 

With practically every living thing there is some time in the life 
cycle when they are most easily destroyed. It is evident to every 
one that it would be hopeless to try to catch and destroy all the 
lampreys scattered throughout the waters of a lake. It would 
be equally hopeless to try to dig all the larvae out of the mud- 
banks along the spawning stream ; but there is one time when 
the lampreys that have reached maturity are particularly exposed, 
and that is when they run up from the lake into the small streams 
to lay their eggs. If weirs or traps are put across those spawn- 
ing streams and all the lampreys caught and destroyed before 
any eggs were laid there would be no new generation started. 
In streams where high dams have been constructed and no 
fishways arranged for, the fish that ascend the streams to spawn 
soon disappear above the dams. Also in some streams so much 
pollution has been poured into them that all the young fish are 
destroyed. It looks absolutely simple on the face of it to deal 
with the lampreys. But it is far from simple. If even one pair 
got through and laid the thousands of eggs carried by the female, 
enough of the eggs would hatch, and young survive to restock 
the lake in a few years. 

Again in the mud-banks of the spawning streams there are four 
to five generations of larval lampreys growing up to enter upon 
the predatory life, and every year for four to five years a genera- 
tion would mature and go down to the lake and remain from one 
and a third to three and a third years. 

If then every lamprey going up to spawn were caught and 
killed, this must be done for from six to eight years to get the 
last pair. Of course the more that are prevented from spawning 
the fewer would the predatory lampreys be, but to eliminate them 
absolutely would require the time mentioned. Furthermore as the 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 191 

waters of the lakes communicate through their emptying streams — 
Seneca river, for example, — it would be necessary to prevent their 
wandering from one lake to the other. Probably the simplest 
method would be to rid all the lakes of lampreys; but if that is 
undertaken it is worth while to know exactly what the effort would 
involve. A trial (Surface*) was once made in the inlet of Cayuga 
lake and many early lampreys caught, but a freshet washed away 
the lamprey traps, and the late lampreys went gaily up the 
swollen stream to their spawning grounds as usual. 

As a final word, the lampreys can be eliminated but it would 
be neither a short job nor an inexpensive one. 

Summary of the Economics of Lampreys : 

1. In general, lampreys are both beneficial and injurious. 

2. The brook lamprey does no harm to human food supplies, 
and its larvae furnish excellent bait for fishing. This lamprey 
in the New York waters may be put down as wholly beneficial. 

3. The large sea lampreys in the ocean feed upon the blood of 
fishes and this species is therefore injurious to the sea food-fish. In 
the rivers on its way to the spawning grounds in the headwaters it 
takes no food, and is in itself a good food for human consump- 
tion. Its larvae are excellent for bait. In the inland waters of 
New York, then, the sea lamprey is beneficial. 

4. The lake lampreys in their larval stage are excellent for bait, 
and that is their only redeeming feature. The adults live in the 
waters of the lakes and grow up on the blood sucked from food- 
fishes, killing some and weakening all they feed upon. 

5. Each lake lamprey lives from 1 1/3 to 3 1/3 years as a 
parasite on fishes in the lake, and requires for its growth to full 
maturity, probably at least three pounds of fish blood. 

6. For ridding the lake of lampreys, advantage must be taken 
of the weak spot in their life cycle, viz. their migration up the 
small streams to spawn. If they are trapped and killed before 
laying their eggs, no new generation can be provided for. 

7. As the spawning time extends from the last of May to the 
first few days of July, the trapping season must correspond, for 
one pair with their hundred thousand eggs would soon restock 
the lake. 

8. As the larvae or ammocoetes remain in the mud-banks from 
four to five years, a new generation would pass down to the lakes 
for a predatory life each year for that period. 

9. Also as the predatory life is from 1 1/3 to 3 1/3 years it 
would require from six to eight years continuous effort to rid a 
lake of lampreys, and every stream in which they spawn would 
have to be trapped. 

10. And finally provision must be made by which lampreys from 
neighboring lakes could not reinfest the lake through communi- 
cating streams: (For example, the Seneca river for Cayuga and 
Seneca lakes.) 

* Loc. cit. 



192 Conservation Department 



IX. A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF THE FISH FOOD 
SUPPLY IN SELECTED AREAS 

By P. R. Needham, 
Instructor in Limnology and Ecology, Cornell University 

The immediate purpose of these studies was to determine, as far 
as possible, the relative amounts of fish food available in different 
types of stream conditions, an important consideration in the de- 
velopment of a stocking policy. Further, it was desirable to be- 
gin research work on a few main problems in trout culture under 
wild conditions which could be carried on from year to year, 
the results, as obtained, being applied toward improvement of 
fishing conditions. 

The following problems were selected for study: 

1. Relation of width of stream to quantity of primary food 
organisms. 

2. Relation of types of bottom to quantities of food. 

3. Amounts of terrestrial food animals which fall into the 
water and probably serve as food for trout. 

4. Comparison of quantities of available food found in 
various types of submerged plant beds. 

By designating the animals found in streams as "available" 
food, it is meant that while some of the animals may not actually 
be eaten by trout, nevertheless they are present in streams and 
represent possible or potential foods which could be eaten if the 
trout desired. In quantitative studies, in order to establish aver- 
ages with a low probable error, much data must be available as a 
working basis. In these studies, with limited time, insufficient 
figures were obtained with which to calculate true averages and 
hence the probable error is doubtless greater than if more figures 
had been available. Therefore it seems, desirable to consider these 
results as tentative until further work can be done and to con- 
sider this in the nature of a progress report.* The summer sea- 
son of three months from June 15 to September 15 was devoted 
to the study of these problems. 

These results having entirely to do with potential or available 
food as it is found in the streams in this vicinity, should in future 
studies be correlated with the actual food of trout under these same 
conditions to determine what foods are actually turned into fish 
flesh and the proportionate amounts of each. Once this knowledge is 
gained, it will be possible to work towards increase of natural 
foods under wild conditions. 



* Lack of space did not permit insertion of full proof of all statements and 
description of apparatus and methods used. This can be found in the files 
of the N. Y. State Conservation Department and in the Limnological Labora- 
tory of Cornell University. 

Mr. Deleon Walsh worked with the writer during the entire period both in 
the field and in the laboratory. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 193 

Streams near Ithaca were chosen for study because first of all, 
indoor laboratory facilities were essential and easily obtained 
here, and secondly, the trout streams in this vicinity are typical 
of thickly populated regions, are heavily fished, and flow, for the 
most part, through cultivated lands. 

Places in streams where studies were made are designated by 
the term "station" and given numbers (see appendix, maps 1 
and 6). Stations were not numbered in sequence or any particular 
order and were given numbers after a given set of studies had 
been completed. Stations number 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12 and 17 were 
located on Sixmile creek; numbers 7 and 15 at the headwaters of 
Newfield creek; 5 on a tributary of Virgil creek about three- 
fourths of a mile east of Dryden, N. Y. ; 10, on lower Enfield creek 
and 18, on the East Branch of Fish creek (Lewis county) about 1 
mile west of Michigan Mills. 

Relation of Width of Stream to Quantity of Food Or= 
ganisms. — Leger* states that the food of a stream decreases by 
one half from the shore line to the middle of the channel in a 
stream five meters or more in width (16.4 ft.) and that the nutri- 
tive elements are found mostly along the banks at a distance of 1-2 
meters from the shore. He also notes that small headwater streams, 
narrow in width, are usually very rich in food. 

In order to gather data on this problem all the animals were 
collected from three separate square feet of bottom taken trans- 
versely across each stream over three feet in width, arranged as 
follows : the first square foot unit area was taken in shallow water, 
near one shore and in relatively slow current ; the second in mid- 
stream in the center of the channel in the deepest water and the 
swiftest current, and the third was in shallow water, moderate cur- 
rent near the opposite margin and in approximately the same 
corresponding position as the first square foot. 

The apparatus used in making these unit area catches consisted 
of a galvanized iron box, one foot square inside measurements, 
18" deep with square sieve dipper for washing and dipping out 
organisms (Fig. 1). This apparatus was found very satisfactory 
for obtaining practically all the available fish food from one square 
foot of bottom in all situations studied. 

After collection the specimens were brought to the laboratory, 
sorted and weighed. The total catch of available food from one 
square foot was weighed together, separate- individuals or cate- 
gories of organisms not being weighed unless an extra large indi- 
vidual or group was taken, which would throw the weight off in 
proportion to numbers. 

Table 1 shows the results obtained. The weight in grams obtained 
by weighing the animals taken from the separate square feet of 
bottom are given by station number and in sequence by stream 
width. The column "Av. difference wt. in grams" gives bv 



Loc. cit. p. 27. 

7 



194 



Conservation Department 




Fig. 1. — Galvanized square foot with sieve dipper 
in use 



averages, at each station, whether or not the center of stream beds 
contain more nutritive elements by weight, than is found at the 
sides of stream beds. 

By comparing bottom studies made in streams under seven feet 
in width with those above seven feet, it is evident that these small, 
cold headwaters produce much more available fish food per unit 
area than the larger, warmer main trunks. The average weight 
of nutritive elements per square foot of bottom in streams under 
seven feet is 2.36 grams, for those above seven feet it is 1.04 grams, 
a difference of 1.32 grams; or in other words, streams below seven 
feet in width probably produce more than twice the food by weight 
per unit area of bottom. 

It is readily seen that the quantity of food organisms in 
streams above 18 ft. in width decrease from the shore line to the 
middle of the channel. At the fifteen foot (station 6) stream width 
the three bottom catches weighed almost the same showing that the 
food was fairly evenly distributed over the bottom, but still higher 
in the center. At the eighteen foot stream width (stations 1, 3) 
the food has materially decreased in the center of the stream bed 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



195 



Table 1. — Showing Distribution of Available Fish Food in Streams 
Above and Below 18 Feet in Width 

Approximate location of separate square feet from which collections were made. 
1st sq. ft. . . in shallow water near one shore. 
2d sq. ft. . . in center of stream bed 
3d sq. ft. . . in shallow water near opposite shore. 





STATION NO. 


Width 


1st sq. ft. 
wt. in 
grams 


2d sq. ft 

wt. in 
grams 


3d sq. ft. 

wt. in 
grams 


Av. difference between 
lst-3d sq. ft and 2d 
sq. ft., in grama 


^ 


11 


3 ft.. . 
6 ft... 

6 ft... 

7 ft... 
11 ft.. . 

14 ft... 

15 ft... 


.98 
3.97 

.99 
3.64 

.78 
2.73 

.65 


2.5 
4.19 
1.98 
1.59 
1.43 
1.5 
.75 


1.5 

.65 
1.01 
5.36 

.75 
1.4 

.65 


1 . 26 higher in center. 
1 . 88 higher in center. 


00 


15 


rH 


4 


is 


7 






10 




m 


1 






6 


.098 higher in center 






«♦., 


1* 


18 ft... 
18 ft... 
25 ft.. . 
30 ft... 


1.72 

1.37 

.33 

3.67 


.53 
1.04 

.065 
1.67 


1.24 

1.14 

.63 

2.18 


.96 higher in sides. 

.21 higher in sides. 

.41 higher in sides. 

1.25 higher in sides. 


« 


2 

8 


o 


18 


< 





* These three bottom studies were weighed from alcohol after preservation for several weeks and 
the results corrected by a coefficient which reduced the probable error due to loss of body weight 
by alcohol. 

and the sides have become more productive. No studies were made 
in streams intermediate between 15 and 18 feet in width, though 
it is possible that the change may occur at some width lower than IS 
feet or above 15 feet, Thus these figures agree in general with 
Leger's work but are too few to calculate with certainty the rate 
at which this occurs. 



5.0, 
4.5 
4.0 
3.5- 
3.0- 
2.5- 
2.0- 
1.5- 
1.0 
• 5H 

o. 



li 



JLi 



O r-t r-\ 



Chart 1. — Showing relative amounts of available fish 
food by grams per one square foot in selected types 
of stream bottoms 



196 



Conservation Department 



Relation of Bottom to Quantity of Food. — Table 2 shows 
the stream bottom types studied and the relative amounts of food 
found on each type of bottom. Silt bottom supported the greatest 
amount of fish food, there being an average of 4.29 grams in one 
square foot. Bubble sheltered the next largest amount in having 
1.88 grams per square foot. Coarse gravel was nearly as productive 
as rubble, having 1.281 grams. Fine gravel, muck and sand offered 
about the same amounts, while hardpan and bedrock were very 
poor in food. Chart 1 shows graphically the relative amounts found 
on the different types of bottom. 

Comparison of Quantity of Food in Stream and Pool Bot= 
toms. — Unit area bottom studies were made in pools to determine 
the forage possibilities which pool bottoms offer as compared with 
stream bottoms. The average amount of available fish food by 

Table 2. — Showing Stream Bottom Types of Available Fish Food 



NUMBER SQUARE FEET TAKEN 


Type of bottom 


Average 

weight 

in grams 

per sq. ft. 


4 


Silt 


4.29 


12 


Rubble 

Coarse gravel 


1.88 


18 


1.281 


7 


Fine gravel 

Muck 


.98 


1 


.65 


2 


Sand 


.46 


1 


Hardpan 


.1 


1 


Bedrock 


.0065 









Average for all sq. ft 1.21 grams 



weight in one square foot of pool bottom was found to be .26 
grams, covering all types and sizes of pools. The average amount 
of available food by weight in one square foot of stream bottom 
was 1.21 grams covering all types of streams. By dividing it it is 
seen that the food, by weight, in one square foot of stream bottom 
is approximately 4.6 times as rich as the same size area in a pool 
bottom, i.e., there is 4.6 times the potential food in a stream bottom 
as compared to pool bottoms. The pool bottoms and stream 
bottoms in which these studies were made contained little or no 
aquatic vegetation which, when abundant, supports large numbers 
of animals. The populations of submerged plant beds are con- 
sidered in another section of this report. 

The low average weight of food found in a unit area of pool 
bottom is somewhat compensated for by the fact that there is 
greater area for foraging in a pool per given unit of stream, because 
pools are generally wider and deeper than the average for the 
stream. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



197 



Comparison of Quality of Food in Stream and Pool Bot= 
toms.— By referring to Table 3, it is seen that 36.9% of the 6,277 
stream bottom animals taken were mayfly nymphs, while in pool 
bottoms they constituted 41.24% of the 565 animals collected. 
Whereas the per cent of mayfly nymphs in rapid water bottoms 
was 36.9% as compared to 41.24% in pool bottoms, it must be 
kept in mind that they constituted the largest single food element 
taken in stream bottoms, while in pool bottoms they occurred 
second to fly larvae and pupae, showing a decided preference for 
lotic water. Stonefly nymphs, caddisfly larvae and pupae, beetle 
larvae and adults, crayfish and shrimps (Crustacea), snails and 
clams (Mollusca) were found in greater numbers in rapid water 

Table 3. — Showing Comparison of Available Aquatic Fish Food from Bottoms 
in Rapid Water and in Pool Bottoms. 
(Given in numbers and per cent by order) 



ORDER 



Rapid water 
bottoms 



Number Per cent 



Pool bottoms 



Number Per cent 



Mayfly nymphs 

Stonefly nymphs 

Caddisfly, larvae and pupae 

Beetle, larvae and pupae 

Fly larvae and pupae 

Sialis larvae et al. (Neuroptera) 

Dragonfly nymphs and damselfly nymphs 

Crayfish and shrimps 

Snails and clams 

Miscellaneous 

Totals 



2,316 

921 

1,335 

476 

869 

58 

8 

235 

15 

44 



36.90 

14.67 

21.27 

7.58 

13.84 

.92 

.13 

3.74 

.24 

.7 



233 

23 

7 

15 

264 

12 

3 

1 

1 

6 



41.24 

4.07 

1.24 

2.65 

46.73 

2.12 

.53 

.17 

.17 

1.06 



6,277 99 



565 



bottoms. Sialis larvae (Neuroptera), dragonfly and damselfly 
nymphs showed a preference for the quieter pool waters. 

Terrestrial and Other Food Animals Falling Into Streams. — 

For this class of food material the name "drift food" is pro- 
posed, a term including all forms of available food, both plant and 
animal, which may be carried by a current of water in a stream. 

Drift food was collected from streams of various types and 
widths in different localities in an effort to find out the relative 
amounts available under different conditions and widths of 
streams. It has long been known that terrestrial insects and other 
food animals accidentally falling into the water furnish abundant 
food for trout, though the relative amounts of such food and the 
types of stream environment which furnish the greatest amounts 
of such food have never been known. 



198 



Conservation Department 



The apparatus used in collecting the drift food consisted of a 
"drift net" (Fig. 2) and a "stop net" (Fig. 3). The drift 
net collected the drift by straining the water arid retaining the 
organisms. The stop net was placed 250 yards upstream above 
the drift net and strained all the drift food from the water which 
was being carried downstream from sources upstream, so that the 
drift food could be taken from a given area of stream (250 yards) 
over a standard period of one hour in each study. 

All the drift organisms from a 1-hour, 250 yard catch, were 
weighed together, separate food organisms not being weighed 
unless extra large individuals were taken which would throw the 
weight off in proportion to numbers. 




Fig. 2. — Drift net in use 



Selection of areas in streams for study of available drift was 
based on their ability to illustrate as far as possible the relative 
amounts of available drift food found in given types of stream 
environment. These fell roughly into four classes: arboreal 
(forest covered), areas covered by thick growths of brush, semi- 
exposed and exposed. No two selected areas will ever be exactly 
alike for many factors other than merely cover or the lack of it 
go into the making of any environment. 

Table 4 gives a summary of the results obtained. The right 
hand column of figures gives the estimated production of drift 
food in grams per 100 square feet of surface* for each type of 
habitat. These estimates are based upon the average weight of 



* This includes not only animals found floating on the surface but also those 
carried in suspension beneath the surface. 






Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



199 



drift food from each type and are calculated from the formula 
grams x 100 



square feet 



= weight in grams of drift food per 100 square feet. 



Table 4. — Summary of Stream Drift 



No. OF 
DETERMINATIONS 


Type of stream 
environment 


Average weight in 

grams of drift food 

from 100 sq. ft. 

of surface 


5 


Arboreal 


.013 


6 


Densely shaded with low brush . . 
Semi-exposed 


.0095 


9 


.0091 


9 


Exposed 


.0074 






29 


Average over all types of en- 
vironments 






.0097 









Stream width being considered first, without taking into 
account types of stream environments, it was found that in general 
the greatest quantities of drift food were taken in streams having 
the greatest widths. However it was observed that some narrow 
streams due to their more favorable surroundings yielded greater 
amounts of drift food, per 100 square feet of surface, in pro- 





200 Conservation Department 

portion to their width than wider streams less favorably situated. 
Thus it is shown that width alone is not a true criterion for avail- 
able drift food in streams. Stream environment must also be 
considered. 

By comparing the average weights, shown in Table 4, of drift 
food per 100 square feet found in each type of stream habitat, 
i. e., arboreal, densely brush-shaded, semi-exposed and exposed, it 
is seen that the arboreal type of environment contributed the most 
food per 100 square feet of surface, .013 grams. The four types 
of stream environment intergrade more or less but are sufficiently 
distinct for general comparisons. 

The arboreal type of stream environment as considered here 
consists of a tall growth of hard woods and conifers bordering the 
stream and generally not shading the stream center. Such habitats 
naturally shelter large numbers of terrestrial insects and since it 
is somewhat open to the wind, many are doubtless dislodged and 
fall into the water. Probably because of these factors, this type 
of habitat furnished the largest amount of drift food per 100 square 
feet of surface. Stream habitats densely shaded with low brush and 
small trees are common at the headwaters of streams in this 
vicinity. These also shelter many insects but being less open to 
the force of the wind, fewer insects are dislodged into streams 
at such places and less drift food is present in them. Semi- 
exposed stream habitats are bordered partially by pasture and 
partially by scattered trees such as alders, willows and sycamores. 
In exposed habitats the streams flow entirely through meadows and 
pastures and have only low grasses and herbs on their margins. 
The semi-exposed habitats furnished slightly more food, per 100 
square feet of surface, than the exposed, probably because the 
few trees growing along the banks of the former, harbored 
more terrestrial insects than the low grasses and herbs along the 
banks of exposed streams, and because the force of the wind on the 
scattered clumps of tall vegetation found in the semi-exposed areas, 
would dislodge many possible forage organisms. 

Three drift catches were made at dusk at stations 1, 2, and 6 
in July to determine whether or not more food was available in 
streams at this time of day. It was found that slightly less drift 
food was available at this time as compared to that found during 
the full daylight hours. Two drift studies were also made at mid- 
night. Although the differences in productivity per unit area were 
very slight between dusk and midnight drift catches, it was found 
that in daylight hours, slightly larger amounts of forage organisms 
were available, less being found at dusk and least in the midnight 
catches. However, the figures available are too few to draw 
definite conclusions on the diurnal fluctuations in stream drift 
at this time. 

A general comparison of weights of the drift catches showed 
that the greatest amounts of drift food was available in June, 
there following a decrease through July and the least in August. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



201 



The Relative Abundance and Kinds of Animals Taken in 
the Stream Drift Studies. — Considering per cents (Table 5) 
over the entire three months, it is seen that the flies were numeri- 
cally dominant constituting 38.46% of all the animals taken and 
hence furnished one large possible source of food for the trout. 
Mayflies came second making up 28.94% of the total, while stone- 
flies formed 3.43%, caddisflies, 1.43% and butterflies and moths 
only .36% of the total number collected. The mayflies, stoneflies 
and caddisflies having aquatic larval stages are available as 
food for trout during their entire life cycle. Ants, bees and wasps 
formed 4.33% of the total number and have long been known to 
furnish excellent food for trout. Both larvae and adults of the 
butterflies and moths are good trout food, but do not seem to 

Table '5. — Showing Available Fish Food Taken feom Streams in Drift Net 

by Month 
(Given in numbers and per cent by order) 





June 


July 


August 


Total 
num- 
ber 


Per 

cent 


ORDER 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 

cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent 




629 

548 
483 

102 
100 
85 
27 
18 
17 

15 
8 


30.95 
26.97 
23.77 

5.02 
4.92 
4.18 
1.33 
0.89 
0.84 

0.74 
0.39 


1,173 
623 
218 

34 
65 
25 
22 
12 
104 

'"is 


51.2 
27.19 
9.52 

1.54 
2.84 
1.09 
0.96 
0.52 
4.54 

*6!65 


242 

367 

91 

94 
39 
39 

27 

8 

61 

4 
19 


24.42 

37.03 

9.18 

9.49 
3.94 
3.94 
2.73 
0.81 
6.16 

0.4 
1.91 


2,044 

1,538 

792 

230 
204 
149 
76 
38 
182 

19 
42 


38.46 


Mayflies (ephemerida) 

Aphids et al. (homoptera) . . . 
Ants, bees and wasps (hyme- 


28.94 
14.91 

4.33 


Beetles (coleoptera) 


3.84 
2.80 


Caddisflies (trichoptera) .... 
Spiders and mites (arachnida) 

Stoneflies (plecoptera) 

Butterlies and moths (lepi- 


1.43 

.72 

3.43 

.36 




.79 






Totals 


2,032 


100.00 


2,291 


100.05 


991 


100.02 


5,314 


100 01 







be generally available as very few were taken in the drift net. 
Beetles and bugs occurred in the catches in about the same num- 
bers and are generally considered as second rate food because of 
their very hard, thick, chitinous exoskeletons and usually small 
size. Aphids and their near relatives, while they formed 14.91% of 
the total number of animals taken, offer little actual food for trout 
on account of their exceedingly small size. Members of other 
orders of insects which Embody and Gordon* list as being found 
in trout stomachs, but which were not taken in these drift studies, 
were adult fishflies and grasshoppers. In the miscellaneous list 
are included a few leeches, hairworms, springtails, millipedes, 
worms and one snail. 



* Embody, G. C. & Gordon, Myron. A Comparative Study of Natural and 
Artificial Foods of Brook Trout. Transactions Amer. Fisheries Soc, Vol. T»4, 
pp. 185-200, 1924. 



202 



Conservation Department 



Considering next, the months when the different kinds of insects 
were most available, it is seen that the aphids, true bugs, beetles, 
butterflies, moths, spiders and mites were taken in the greatest 
numbers in June. In July the flies reached their highest numbers 
as taken in the drift net catches, and in August mayflies, stoneflies, 
caddisflies, ants, bees and wasps were most abundant. 

A study of all the stream drift organisms showed that 93.02% 
were terrestrial in origin, i. e., adult animals non-gill-bearing 
and non-aquatic. The remaining 6.98% was aquatic in origin, 
i. e., nymphs, larvae or pupae of insects which are generally gill- 
bearing and live in the water during their immature stages. This 
shows that some aquatic insect larvae, which normally live attached 
to the stream bed in a more or less fixed position, are constantly 
being swept downstream by the current and when found thus, 
they are probably consumed by trout. 

Pool Drift. — This was studied to determine the relative 
amounts of drift food available in this type of stream condition. 
The same apparatus was used in making these studies as was used 
for collecting the stream drift. The stop net was always placed 
at the point where the water flowed into the pool, to stop stream 
drift from entering the pool. The drift net was placed at the lower 
end of the pool where the water flowed out and thus the drift taken 
was only that from the pool alone. 

Pools densely shaded by low brush (Table 6) produced the 
largest amount of drift food, .13 grams per 100 square feet of 
surface. The average production over all types of pool habitats 
studied was as shown .0535 grams. 

Table 6. — Summary of Pool Drift 



No. OF 

DETERMINATIONS 


Type of stream 
environment 


Average weight in 

grams of drift food 

from 100 sq. ft. 

of surface 


1 


Low brush densely shaded 


.13 


3 . 


Exposed 


.042 


1. . 


Semi-exposed 


.021 


2 


Arboreal 


.0205 








7 


Average over all types of environ- 
ments 






.0535 









By comparing the average production in drift food per 100 
square feet of surface over all types of habitats in streams and 
pools (Tables 4 and 6), it is seen that pools are richer in drift 
food per unit area by a difference of .0441 grams in favor of pools. 
This being the case, then the more abundant drift organisms in 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



203 



pools compensate somewhat for the lack of available bottom foods 
in pools. 

93.48% of all the forage organisms taken in pool drift were ter- 
restrial in origin, the remaining 6.52% aquatic in origin. It is 
interesting to note the close correlation between percentages of 
aquatic and terrestrial food in stream drift and pool drift. In 
the former, 6.98% was aquatic and 93.02%. was terrestrial. In 
the latter 6.52% aquatic, and 93.48%; terrestrial, slightly less of 
the organisms being aquatic in origin in pool drift. 

Comparison of Total Available Food and Food Actually 
Eaten by Trout. — An angler permitted us to remove the stomachs 
from twelve brook trout he had caught in the same section of the 
stream (station 15) in which drift and bottom studies were being 
made. Examination of the food found in these stomachs corre- 
lated with data on total avadable food permits this comparison. 

Table 7 shows that the trout had largely eaten of the most availa- 
ble type food, the aquatic. More than 83% of the food found in the 
twelve stomachs was aquatic in origin, i. e., it was food indige- 
nous to and grown in the stream itself. The remaining 17% was 
terrestrial in origin, i. e., adult animals, non-gill-bearing and non- 
aquatic, which had probably fallen into the water accidentally. 
As taken in the drift net catches here, the latter type of food formed 
only .7% of all available foods. Insects formed 61% of the diet 
of the trout and formed 59.93% of all available foods. Crayfish 



Table 7. 



Summary of Total Available Food and Food Actually Eaten 
by Trout 





Type of food 


Total 

available 

foods 


Foods 
con- 
sumed 


A. 


As to origin: 

Aquatic 


99.3 

.7* 


83% 

17% 




Terrestrial 

As to classes of foods: 

Insects 




100% 


100% 


B. 


59.93 
40.07 


61% 

32% 
7% 




Crayfish and shrimp 

Worms and millipedes 

As to origin of insects: 

Aquatic 




100% 


100% 


C. 


99.3 

.7. 


50% 
11% 




Terrestrial 




100% 


61% 



* Foods listed in the above table as being "terrestrial", can all properly be 
termed "drift food." 



204 



Conservation Department 



and shrimps constituted 32% of foods eaten and formed 40.07% 
of that available. No worms or millipedes were taken in either 
the drift or bottom studies, yet they formed 7% of the food found 
in these stomachs. 

Gordon and Embody 1 state that insects constituted 88.88%, cray- 
fish and shrimps 8.23%, fish 2.52% and clams and snails .27% 
(excluding plant and animal debris) of the total contents of 161 
brook trout stomachs examined by them. We found no fish in any 
stomach examined by us. These results are not truly comparable 
to our figures since they are given in per cent by volume while ours 
are expressed in per cent by number, although they both show 
about the same choice of foods taken by the trout. They quote 
from Juday 2 that "with the exception of small brook trout and 
fry, insect material found consisted of such forms as fell into the 
water accidentally." This is the reverse of our findings, only 11% 
of the insect material being terrestrial in origin. Needham 3 in 
reporting the food of 25 brook trout taken from Bone pond, Sara- 
nac Inn, New York, found the food all aquatic in origin but two 
beetles. This is more in accord with our findings at this station. 

Available Fish Food in Submerged Plant Beds. — The avail- 
able fish foods found in various types of submerged plant beds 
were studied to ascertain the relative value of such beds in relation 

Table 8. — Types of Submerged Plant Beds and the Weight in Grams per 
Square Foot of Available Fish Food 



Common name 


Scientific name 


Date and place collected 


Wt. in 

grams of 

fish food 

from 

1 sq. ft. 






North brook, Price spring, Auburn, 
N. Y., Aug. 17, 1927 






Nasturtium nasturtium- 
aquaticum 

Potamogeton americanus. 


37.0 


Watercress 


Price brook, Auburn, N. Y., Aug. 17, 
1927 


12.8 


Pondweed 


East branch Owego creek, Hartford 
Mills, Aug. 25, 1927 


5.85 




Sixmile creek, Slaterville, N. Y., 
Aug. 13, 1927 






Ranunculus aquatilis 

Potamogeton pectinatus. . 


4.88 


Water buttercup. . 
Sago pondweed . . . 


West branch Owego creek, Caroline, 

N. Y., Aug. 23, 1927 

East branch Owego Creek, Hartford 

Mills, N. Y., Aug. 26, 1927 

Sixmile creek, Slaterville, N. Y., 

Aug. 15, 1927 

Canoga Spring brook, Canoga, N. Y., 

Aug. 16, 1927 


3.51 
3.19 


Horned pondweed. 


Zannichelliapalustris 


*3.12 
2.93 




Average weight in grams per unit area 








9.16 









* Based upon actual weight of available fish food from one-twelfth of one square foot. 



i Loc. cit. 

2 Juday, C. A. Study of Twin lakes, Colorado, with especial consideration of 
the food 'of the trouts." Bull. U. S. Bur. of Fisheries, Vol. 26, 1906. 

s Needham, J. G% Food of Brook Trout in Bone Pond. Bulletin 68, New 
York State Museum, Albany, N. Y., 1903. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



205 



to trout streams. Due to lack of time the potential animal foods 
were taken from only one square foot in each of the eight types 
selected and hence the weight in grams of available food given for 
each type, cannot be considered as average. The bottom fauna as 
well as organisms on or about the plants in one square foot were 
taken in each study and therefore the available food cannot be 
considered as that which the weed beds alone produced. All of 
these studies were made in quiet or semi-quiet waters. The plant 
beds were practically pure stands, occasionally having small 
amounts of others plant forms growing with them. 

In chart 2 the plant beds from which the forage organisms 
were taken are shown in order of their productiveness in grams 
per unit area (derived from Table 8). It is seen that the largest 
amount per square foot 37.0 grams was found in a chara bed, 



38 

37 

3H 

35 

34 

33- 

32- 

31 

3 on 

29- 

28' 

27" 

2b- 

25- 

24 

23 

22 

21 

20 

1? 

18- 

17- 

16 

15H 

14 

13 

12- 

11 

10' 
9- 
8H 




Chart 2. — Showing 
foot 



lilable fish food by weight in grams per one square 
certain types of submerged plant beds. 



20(3 



Conservation Department 



watercress was second with 12.8 grams; pondweed* third, 5.85 
grams, while willow roots, water buttercup, sago pondweed and 
water moss produced, less each respectively down to horned pond- 
weed which gave the least, 2.93 grams per one square foot. 

Considering next, the potential fish foods available over all 
types of plant beds, Table 9 shows the relative abundance of each 
class of food. In a total of 7,505 organisms collected, crayfish 
and shrimps constituted the highest percentage, 40.95%. Most of 
these were Caledonia shrimps (Gammarus limnaeus), other crusta- 
ceans being comparatively rare. 

If a comparison is made of the average weight in grams of 
potential food found per unit area of one square foot as taken in 
pool bottoms, stream bottoms and plant beds, it is seen that 



Table 9. 



Available Fish Foods by Number and Per Cent Collected in 
Submerged Plant Beds * 



Order 



Number Per cent 



Crayfish and shrimps (Crustacea) 

Flies (Diptera) 

Bugs (Hemiptera) 

Caddisflies (Trichoptera) 

Beetles (Coleoptera) 

Mayflies (Ephemerida) 

•Stoneflies (Plecoptera) 

Snails and clams (Mollusca) 

Sialis larvae et al. (Neuroptera) . . 

Dragonflies (Odonata) 

Miscellaneous 

Totals 



3,073 


40.95 


1,618 


21.56 


710 


9.46 


710 


9.46 


567 


7.55 


416 


5.54 


83 


1.11 


64 


.85 


11 


.15 


1 


.01 


252 


3.37 



7,505 



100.01 



* This table includes the bottom fauna in all square feet studied as well as the 
animals on or about the plants. 

the plant beds were by far the most productive, giving an average 
of 9.16 grams against .26 grams for pools and 1.21 grams for 
streams. From these figures plant beds plus the bottom foods 
beneath, are 35.2+ times as rich in food as pool bottoms, and 7.5 + 
times richer than stream bottoms, As stated elsewhere, stream 
bottoms were found to be 4.6 times richer in potential food than 
pool bottoms per unit area. Thus it is seen that great increase 
in potential food is found in bottoms in which various types of 
aquatic vegetation have developed. The reason for greater pro- 
ductivity in plant beds, aside from the fact that they are largely 
responsible for the oxygenation of the water, must be due to the 
fact that they furnish more food and shelter for aquatic organisms 
than do merely bare pool or stream bottoms. 



* Long-leaved pondweed. 



Biological Survey — Oswego AVatershed 



20^ 



Appendix I. — Blank Forms Used in the Field 

New York State Conservation Department 
Stream Survey 

Name : Length Date 

Tributary to River System__ 

Town _ County Authority 



Region 


Upper 


Middle 


Lower 


Region 


Upper 


Middle 


Lower 


Width 








Air temp. 








Flow 








Water 
temp. 








Velocity 








Hour and 
weather 








Color and 
turbidity 








Food grade 








Permanency 








Pool grade 









Fish Food: Upper; mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, blackflies, midges, shrimps 
minnows. 

Middle; __.__ 

Lower;. __ 

Pools: L T pper; size __ type ....frequency.-.. 

Middle; 

Lower; _ ; 

Bottom: mud, silt, sand, detritus, hardpan, gravel, rubble, bedrock 

Vegetation: watercress, pondweeds, water moss, chara, filamentous algae, water lilies, 
cat-tails _ 

Springs: location, temperature, flow, sulphur, iron, lime.. 

Dams and Falls: location, height. Area and depth of pond 

Pollution: location, extent, nature, index organisms 

Game fish present: _ _ 

Character of region: open fields, wooded, wild, cultivated, hilly, low, swampy 



Value of fishing: 



Planting places: location..... 

Posted area : length ......owner's name ...town..... 

Length suitable for: S. T B. T R. T Sm.B Lm.B Pp. 

Miscellaneous: 

Stocking policy: species size number 



208 Conservation Department 

Appendix II 

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN STOCKING LISTS FACING MAPS 

S. T. = Brook trout (speckled) advanced fry. 
S. T.-f- = Brook trout fingerlings. 
B. T. = Brown trout advanced fry. 

B. T.+ = Brown trout fingerlings. 

R. T. = Rainbow trout advanced fry. 

H. T.+ — Rainbow trout fin gerlings. 

Sm. B. = Small-mouthed bass. 

Lm. B. = Large-mouthed bass. 

Y. P. = Yellow perch. 

Pp. = Pike-perch 

Bg. S. = Bluegill sunfish. 

G. Sh. = Golden shiner 

Co. = Calico bass. 

C. = Bullhead. 

Bh. C. = Bullhead catfish. 

PH. = Pickerel. 

M. = Maskinonge (Muskalonge). 

Legend for maps: 

■. ■■ ■ Boundary of watershed. 

, Dry runs or streams becoming dry. 

O Spring. 

X Outfall of pollution. 

— Dam. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



209 



Appendix III 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 1 
Highmarket and Port Leyden quadrangles 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


14 (East Branch Fish creek) 


14 miles, 32 to source . 

(Posted 1.25 miles 
above and below 
32) 


2,200 S.T.+ 
None. 


9 (Point Rock creek"* 


4 miles below 32 

(Posted 1 mile be- 
tween 27 and 29) . . 
3 miles 


5,000 B. T.+ 

None. 

270 S. T.+ 


9 


1 mile 


90 S. T.+ 


16 


0.8 mile 


90 S. T.+ 


18 


0.5 mile 


180 S. T. 


(8, 14, 15, 17, 19 and tributaries 
of 9 and 16) 


Small 


None. 


18 


0.5 mile 


450 S. T. 


21 (Beaver Meadow brook) 


6.5 miles 


630 S. T.+ 


2 (Broad brook) 


5.5 miles 


360 S. T.+ 


2 


2.5 miles 


90 S. T. 


(1 and tributaries 1,3,4 and 5 of 2) 


Small 


None. 


22 (Mud brook) 


4 miles 


540 B. T.+ 


1 


0.5 mile 


70 B. T.+ 


2 


Small 


None. 


23 


2 miles 


360 S. T.+ 


25 


0.5 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


26 


1.5 miles 


90 B. T.+ 


27 


1 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


28 


Warm or small 

12 miles 


None. 


29 (Alder creek) 


900 S. T.+ 


1 


0.6 mile 


100 B. T.+ 


3 


1 mile 


180 B. T.-f- 


5 (Sucker brook) 


9 miles 


650 B. T.+ 


1 (Little Alder) 


5 miles 


450 S. T.+ 


1 


Small . . 




8 


1.5 miles 


180 S. T.+ 


9 


1.5 miles 


70 S. T.+ 


10 


1.5 miles. . . 


360 S. T.+ 


11 


1.5 miles. . . 


360 S. T.+ 


12 


1 mile. . 


90 S T.+ 


13 


2.5 miles. . 


540 S. T.+ 


(2, 4, 6, 14, tributaries 2-8 of 5, 1 of 
9 and 1 of 11) 


Small . . 


Pond at Paige 


50 acres 


300 S. T.+ 


30 


1.5 miles. . 


500 B. T.+ 


1-2 


Small.. 




31 


1.5 miles. . 


270 B. T.+ 


32 (Pringle creek) 


Lower 0.3 mile 
(posted) 


None. 


1 (Moose Meadow stream) .... 


Upper 7 miles 

2.5 miles 


720 S. T.+ 
540 S. T.+ 


1 


2 miles. . 


125 S. T.-f- 


2 


0.6 mile. . . 


70 S. T.+ 


1 


Dry 


None. 


3.. 


Small 


None. 



210 



Conservation Department 
Appendix III — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


32 (Pringle creek) — (Cont'd) 
Moose Meadow strea,m-(C oni'd) 
2 


1 mile 


50 S. T. 


3 


0.5 mile 


70 S. T. 


4 


1.5 miles 


585 S. T.+ 


5 


Small 

0.5 mile 

5 miles 

4 acres 

Small 

1.5 miles 


None. 


6-8 


Natural spawning, 
adequate S. T. 

700 S. T.+ 
300 S. T.+ 
None. 


33 (Dirreen creek) 

Michigan Mills pond 

1 


34 - 


234 S. T.+ 


35 


0.8 mile 


575 S. T.+ 


1 


Small 

4 miles 


None. 


36 (Roaring brook) 


720 S. T.+ 


1 


0.5 mile 


90 S. T. 


2 


1.5 miles 


125 S. T.+ 


3 


2.5 miles 


180 S. T.+ 


1-2 


Small 


None. 


4 


1.5 miles 


180 S. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 


90 S. T. 


5 


1.5 miles 


180 S. T.+ 


37 


1.5 miles 


430 S. T.+ 


1 


0.3 mile 


117 S. T. 


38 


1.8 miles 


700 S. T.+ 


1 . 


1 mile 


230 S. T. 


1 


Small 

0.5 mile 


None. 


2 .. 


230 S. T.+ 


39 (Six Mile creek) 


4 miles 


600 S. T.+ 


1 


0.3 mile 


70 S. T. 


2 .. 


1 mile 


125 S. T. 


1.. 


Small 

Small 

Small 


None. 


3... 


None. 


40 


None. 


41 (Seven Mile creek) . 


5 miles 


1,000 'S..T.+ 
126 S. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 




2 miles 


360 S. T.+ 




Small 

Small 


None. 


42-43 


None. 




10 acres 


300 S. T.+ 


44 


2 miles 


360 S. T.+ 


1 


0.4 mile 


90 S. T. 


45 


0.5 mile 


90 S. T. 


46 


0.5 mile 


90 S. T. 


47 


Small 


None. 


48 


1.5 miles 


90 S. T. 


49 (Dunton creek) 

1 


1.5 miles 


800 S. T.+ 


1.5 miles 


180 S. T.-|- 


50 . 


0.8 mile 

4 miles 

1 mile 


117 S. T. 


51 (North Branch) 


810 S. T.+ 


1 


234 S. T.+ 


3 


1 mile 


90 S. T. 


4 .. : . . . . 


1 mile 


270 S. T.+ 


5 


1.5 miles 


180 S. T.4- 


1 


0.5 mile 


90 S. T. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix III — Continued 



211 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


(2, 6, 7 and tributaries 
52 


of 1 and 3) . 


Small 

Small 


None. 
None. 


53 


0.4 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


54 


1.5 miles . . 


180 S. T.+ 


55 


Small 

0.4 mile 


None. 


56 


90 S. T. 


57 


1 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


1-2 


Small 


None. 



212 



Conservation Department 



Appendix IV 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 2 

Oswego, Fulton, Mexico, Kasoag, Taberg and Boonville 

quadrangles 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Oswego river 

Black creek 

1-5 and tributaries 

Paddy pond 

Crooks pond 

Mud pond 

Black creek 0.1-3. . . 
Oneida river 

Sixmile creek 

Potts creek 



4-6 and tributary of 3 

Potts creek 0.1 

Potts creek 0.8 to P. 0. 10 and 

tributaries 

Caughdenoy creek 



Crippen pond 

Caughdenoy creek 0.1 and 

tributary 

*Oneida lake: 

1, 2 and tributary and Little 
Bay creek and tributaries 

Big Bay creek 



1-6 and tributaries . 
7 (Dykeman creek) 

Mallory pond . . . 

2 (Shanty creek) . 



(1, 3, 5, 6, 7 and tributa- 
ries of 2 and 4) 

8-11 and tributaries. 

Threemile creek and tributa- 
ries. 



19 miles 

Warm 

Dry, warm or small. . 

50 acres 

50 acres 

50 acres 

Dry, warm or small . . 

4 miles 

Dry, warm or small . . 

Below Pennellville, 
polluted 

Pennellville to tribu- 
tary 4, 4 miles 

Tributary 4 to source, 
warm 

1 mile 

1 mile 

2.5 miles 

Small 

Warm 



Small or dry 

Mouth to Crippen 
pond, 5 miles 

Crippen pond to 
source, warm and 
small 

Dam out, too small . . 

Dry 



Small 

Mouth to Mallory 

Sta., warm 

Mallory to source. . . . 

Small or dry 

5 miles 

15 acres 

Lower, 1 mile 

0.6 mile 



Dry or small . 

Small 

Small 



Pp., Bg. S. 



Bg. S., Bh. C. 
Bg. S., Bh. C. 
Bg. S., Bh. C. 



Lm. B., 
None. 
None. 
Lm. B., 
Lm. B., 
Lm. B., 
None. 
Sm. B., Pp. 
None. 

None. 

700 B. T.+ 

None. 

125 S. T.+ 
125 S. T.+ 
180 B. T.+ 
None. 
None. 

None. 

Lm. B., Y. P., Bg. S. 



None. 
None. 

None. 



None. 

None. 

600 B. 

None. 

360 B. T.+ 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

235 B. T.+ 

280 B. T.+ 



T.+ 



Bh. C. 



None. 
None. 
None. 



* The forthcoming report of the Roosevelt Wild Life Forest Experiment Station 
covering a period of several years, gives special attention to the fish of Oneida lake. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix IV — Continued 



213 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Scriba creek 



1 (Frederick creek) 



5 (Spring brook) 

1-2 and tributaries . . 

Pond 

6-8 and tributaries . . . . 
9 (Potter creek) 

1-3 and tributaries . . 

4 

1, 2, 5, 6 

10-11 and tributary. . . . 
12-14 and tributaries . . . 
15 (Crandall creek) 

1 

2 

1-2 and pond 

16-17 

South pond 

18 

19 

20 

Myer creek (Dolby creek) 

1 

2 

3 

4 

Kibby lake 

6-7 



Vandercamp lake , 
8 and tributaries . . . 
Black creek 



Pond. 



(1, 5 and tributary) 



3 and Cleveland reservoir. 



11 



Mouth to Gayville, 

warm 

Gayville to source (8 

miles posted) 

Below pond, warm. . . 
Pond to posting, 3 

miles 

Upper 1.5 miles 

(posted) 

Small 

5 miles 

Small or warm . . . 
25 acres (posted) . . 

Small 

7 miles (posted) . . 
Small or warm . . . 
1.5 miles (posted). 
Small or warm . . . 
Small or (posted) . 
Small 

2 miles (posted) . . 

Small 

(Posted) 

Small 

Warm 

50 acres 

2.5 miles (posted) . 
1 mile (posted) ... 
Small 

3 miles (posted) . . . 
Small 

1 mile (posted) .... 

2 miles (posted) . . . 

1 mile (posted) .... 

30 acres 

Small, warm or 

(posted) 

49 acres (posted) . . 

Small 

Lower 3 miles 

Upper 2 miles 

(posted) 

2 miles 

Small 

10 acres 

1 mile 

Small 

Dry 

0.5 mile 

Small 

1 mile 

Small 

0.5 mile 



12 Small 



None. 

None (1,000 B. T.+) 
None. 

450 B. T.+ 

None (180 B. T.+) 

None. 

850 S. T-.+ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None (250 S.T.+) 

None. 

None (180 S.T.+) 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None (450 B.T.+) 

None. 

None (180 B.T.+) 

None. 

None. 

Lm. B.. Bg. S., Y. P. 

None (600 B. T.+) 

None (90 B. T.+) 

None. 

None (600 S.T.+) 

None. 

None (90S. T.+). 

None (180 S.T.+). 

None (180 S. T.+). 

Lm. B., Bg. S., Y. P. 

None. 
None. 
None. 
650 B. T.+ 

None (600 B. T.+). 

90 B. T.+ 

None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S., Y. P. 

235 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

350 S. T.-h 

None. 

350 B. T.+ 

None. 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 



214 



Conservation Department 
Appendix IV — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 




Tributary 7 to Cam- 
den, 18 miles 

Camden to Williams- 
town, 12 miles. . . . 

Williamstown t o 
Kasoag lakes, 6 
miles 

Kasoag lakes t o 
source, 6 miles .... 

Lorena downstream, 
2 miles 

Remainder, warm or 
polluted 

Upper, warm 

Lower, 4.5 miles 

Lower mile 

0.3 mile 




1 (Wood creek) 

10 (Canada creek) 


4,000 B. T.+ 
Lm. B. 

1,350 B. T.+ 

315 S. T.+ 

200 S. T.+ 

None. 
None. 


2 (Beaverbrook) 


1,600 S. T.+ 
180 S. T.+ 


2 


90 S. T.+ 


(1, 3 and tributary of 2) 

3 


Small 

2 miles 

3 miles 


None. 

126 S. T.+ 


4 (Frog Harbor brook) .... 
1 


180 S. T.+ 


Upper 1 mile 

(posted) 

Lower 0.7 mile 

0.4 mile 




1 


None. 

180 S. T.+ 
450 S. T.+ 


2 


0.3 mile 


450 S. T.+ 


5 (Golly brook) 


Upper 0.5 mile 

(posted) 

Lower 0.5 mile 

Small, warm or dry. . 

Small or dry 

Small 




6-12 


None. 

180 S. T.+ 
None. 


16-18 


None. 


2 3 4 and tributary 


None. 


8' 


0.4 mile 


270 S. T.+ 


9 (Sash Factory brook) 

2 


6 miles 


720 S. T.+ 


1.5 miles 


180 S. T.+ 


2 


0.2 mile 


125 S. T.+ 


3 (Jones brook) 

(1, 4 and tributary of 2) 

10 (Baker brook) . 


1.5 miles 


360 S. T.+ 


Small 

1 mile 


None. 

65 B. T.+ 


11 (Buttermilk brook) 

12 


Small 

0.3 mile 


None. 

190 B. T.+ 


13 


(Posted) 

13 miles 

Small 

12 miles 


None. 


14 (East Branch of Fish 

creek) 

1 


4,000 B. T.+ 
None. 


2 (Furnace creek) 

1 (Green brook) 

3 (Horse brook) 

5 (Lasher brook) 

1 


720 B. T.+ 


1.5 miles 


270 B. T.+ 


2 miles 


450 B. T.+ 


4 miles 


270 B. T.+ 


1 mile 


270 B. T.+ 


2 


Small 

0.5 mile 


None. 


3 


750 B. T. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix IV — Continued 



215 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


(2, 4, 6, 7 and tributaries) 

3 


Small 

Small 

3 miles, below dam at 

Glenmore 

Above Glenmore, 9 

miles 


None. 
None. 


4 (Florence creek) 


1,600 B. T.+ 

720 S. T.+ 


1 (Christian brook) . . . 


4 miles 


180 B. T.+ 


Oneida reservoir 


60 acres 


300 S. T.+ 


3 


3 miles 


180 S. T.+ 


Spring run 


1 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


4 (Big brook) 


8 miles 


450 S. T.+ 


6 


1 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


7 


3 miles 


360 S. T.+ 


(2, 5, and 8; tributaries of 1, 4 and 
7) 


Small 


None. 


5 (Fall-Sullivan brook) . . 


11 miles 


1,400 S. T.+ 


1 


0.5 mile 


400 S. T. 


2 (Mack brook) 


4 miles 


270 S. T.+ 


3 (Hennesey brook) . . . 


3.5 miles 


270 S. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


Spring run 


0.3 mile . . 


1,200 S. T. 

150 S. T.+ 


4 


7 miles 


1 


Small . 


None. 


2 (Cody brook) 


3.5 miles 


540 S. T.+ 


1-2 


Small . . 


None. 


3 


1 mile 


80 S. T.+ 


5 (Finn brook) 


2.5 miles 


234 S. T.+ 


1 


2 miles 


180 S. T.+ 
None. 


1 


Small . . 


6 


0.7 mile . . 


1,000 S. T. 
None. 


6 and tributary 


Small 


7 .'....' 


2 miles 


150 S. T.+ 


8 (Cold brook) 


1 mile 


90 B. T.+ 


9 (Point Rock creek) .... 
1 


Below dam, 
Above dam, 

miles 

0.3 mile . . 


0.5 mile. 
11.5 


2,300 B. T.+ 

2,000 S. T.+ 
2,000 S. T. 
2.000 S. T. 


2 


0.3 mile . . 


3 


Small . . 


None. 


1 


0.2 mile . . 


1,000 S. T.+ 
Lm. B. 


Point Rock pond 


50 acres 


4 


2 miles . 


270 S. T.+ 


1 and tributary 


Small . 


None. 


5 


1.5 miles. . 


180 S. T.+ 


1 


Small. .. 


None. 


6 


2 miles . 


100 S. T.+ 


1 


Small. .. 


None. 


7 




240 S. T.+ 


1 . 


Small 


2 .... ■ 




120 S. T + 


8 (Pond brook) 

Mud pond 


Below Mud pond, 0.7 

mile 

Above pond, small . . . 
12 acres 


90S. T.+ 
None. 

100 S. T.+ 



216 



Conservation Department 
Appendix IV — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


9 (Point Rock creek) 
— (Continued) 
9 


1.5 miles 


270 S. T.+ 


1-2 


Small 


None. 


10-14 and tributaries.. 


Small 


None. 


10 


1.5 miles 


270 B. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


11 


0.5 mile 


125 B. T.+ 


12 


2.5 miles . 


270 S. T.+ 


1 


2 miles 


700 S. T.+ 


- 13 


0.2 mile 


1,000 B. T.+ 
470 S. T.+ 


14 . 


2 miles 


1 


Small 


None. 


15 


0.5 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


16 . 


Small 


None. 


17 


25 miles 


900 S. T.+ 


1 . 


2 miles 


450 S. T.+ 


2-4 and tributaries .... 


Small 


None. 


18 


2 miles 


540 S. T.+ 


1-2 


Small 


None. 


19 


2 miles 


350 B. T.+ 


1-4 . 


Small 


None. 


20 


Small 


None. 


21 


1.5 miles 


540 S. T.+ 


1 and tributary 

2 


Small 


None. 


0.5 mile 


360 S. T.+ 


22 


1 mile 


540 B. T.+ 


1 


0.5 mile 


70 B. T.+ 


23 


0.6 mile 


360 S. T.-f- 


24 and tributary 

25 


Small 


None. 


1.2 miles 


180 B. T.+ 


1 . 


Small 


None. 


15-16 


Dry 


None. 


17 


1.25 miles 


100 B. T. 


18 (Cold brook) . 


7 miles 


720 S. T.+ 


2 . 


1 mile 


300 S. T.+ 


1 . 


1 mile 


90 S. T.+ 


3 


1.5 miles 


90 S. T.+ 


5 


1 mile 


180 S. T.+ 




Warm or small ...... 

10 acres 


None. 




Sm. B. 


19. . 


1 mile 


180 B. T. 


20 


Upper 1 mile (posted) 

Lower 1 mile 

0.3 mile 


None. 


1 . . . . 


702 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 


21 and tributary 


Small 

Below dam at Carter- 

ville, 11 miles 

Above dam, 7.5 miles. 
1.5 miles 


None. 


22 (Little river) 




1 


1,800 B. T.+ 
441 S. T.+ 
75 B. T.+ 


1 . 


Small 


None. 


2 


1.5 miles 


70 B. T.+ 


3, pond and tributaries . . 


1.5 miles (posted).. . . 


None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix IV — Continued 



217 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


22 (Little River)— (Cont'd) 
4 (Pierce brook) 


5 miles 


540 B. T.+ 
None. 

585 S. T.+ 
None. 
350 S. T.+ 
None. 
540 S. T.+ 
180 S. T.+ 
360 S. T.+ 
270 S. T.+ 
140 S. T.+ 
180 S. T.+ 
None. 
190 S. T.+ 
None. 

250 B. T.+ 

None. 

Lm. B., Pp., Bg. S., Y. 

350 B. T.+ 

270 B. T.+ 

None. 

75 B. T.+ 

None. 

270 S. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

270 S. T.-f- 

None. 

350 S. T.+ 

None. 

400 B. T. 

360 B. T.+ 

180 B. T.+ 

1,000 S. T.+ 

117 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 

90 S. T.+ 

90 S. T.+ 

90 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 

235 S. T.+ 

90 S. T. 

360 S. T. 

180 S. T.+ 

None. 

90 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 

90 S. T.+ 




1-3 


Small 




5 (Fields brook) 


3 miles 




1-3 


Small or dry 

2 miles 




6 (Trout brook) 




1-2 


Small 




7 (South Branch) 


6 miles 




1 


1 mile 




2 


3 miles 




1 


1 mile 




3 


2 miles 




1 


1.2 miles 




8, 9-13 and tributaries. . . 
14 (Bullhead brook) 


Small or warm 

2 miles 




1 (Hopkins brook) .... 


Small 




15 West Branch, Panther 
lake outlet 


3 miles 




1 and tributaries 


Warm 




Panther lake 


0.5 square miles 

1.5 miles 


P 


16 




17 


2 miles 




1 


Small . . 




18 


1.5 miles. 




19 


Lower 1 mile (posted) 

Upper 1.5 miles 

Small . . 




1 




Carterville pond 


(Posted) 




20 


Lower (posted) 

Upper, small 

Small 




21-22 




23 


1 mile . 




24 


Small . . 




23 (Cook brook) 


2 miles. 




1 


Small 




24 


0.5 mile . . 




25 (Colburn brook) 


1.5 miles 




1 


0.5 mile 




26 (Cobb brook) 


10 miles . 




1 


2 miles 




3 


0.5 mile 




4 






Spring run 


0.3 mile . . 




1 


0.2 mile 




5 


1 mile 




6 


0.4 mile . 




1 


0.2 mile 




7 


2.5 miles 




5 


0.5 mile 




6 


Small . 




9 


0.3 mile 




11 


0.3 mile. 




12 


0.4 mile 





218 



Conservation Department 
Appendix IV — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


(2, 8, 10, tribs. of 1 and 1-4 of 7) . . 
27 (Emmons brook) 


Small 

4 miles 


None. 

600 S. T.+ 
None. 
235 S. T.+ 
235 S. T.+ 
90 S. T.+ 
180 S. T.+ 

1,400 B. T.+ 
1,250 S. T.+ 
700 B. T. 
None. 
700 B. T. 
None. 

270 B. T.+ 
None. 
125 B. T.+ 
315 B. T. 
450 S. T.+ 
125 S. T.+ 

125 S. T.+ 
None. 

270 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

270 B. T.+ 

None. 

500 S. T.+ 

190 S. T. 

450 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

360 S. T.+ 

270 S. T.+ 

216 S. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

180 S. T. 

None. 

190 S. T.+ 

None. 

126 S. T.+ 
None. 
None. 

200 S. T.+ 

100 S. T.+ 

100 S. T.+ 

None. 

200 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

Lm. B., Y. P., Bg. 

Bh. C. 
None. 




1 and tributary 

2 


Small 

1 mile 




3 


0.5 mile 




Spring run 

4 


0.3 mile 




0.6 mile 




28 (Mad river) . . . 


Below dam at 14, 11 
miles 








1 


Above dam, 5 miles. . 
0.2 mile 




2 


Dry 




3 


0.7 mile . . 




1 . 


Small . . 




4 


2 miles 




1 . . 


Small . 




5 


0.5 mile 




6 (Williams brook) 


2 miles 




7 (Finnegans brook) 

1 


4 miles 




0.7 mile 




3 


1 mile 




(2. 4, and tributaries of 3) 

8 (Wickwire creek) 


Small 




3 miles 




1 


Small 




9 


Small 




10 (Stamford brook) .... 


1 mile 




1-2 






11 (Little river) 






1 






2 


3 miles 




3 




(4, 5 and tributaries of 1 , 2 and 3) 
12 and tributaries 










13 (Spellicy creek) 

1 


4 miles 




1 mile 




2 






(3 4 and tributary of 2) 


Small 




14 


Lower 1 mile warm. . 

Upper 1 mile 

Small 




1 




15 (Perry brook) 


3 miles 




16-17 


Small 




18 


1 mile 




1 


Small 




19 and tributaries 

20 


Small or (posted) 
2 miles 




1 






2 


1 mile 




29-30 

31 (Thompsons brook) .... 
1-3 


Small or warm 

1 5 miles . . 




Small or warm 

Dry, small or warm. . 
1.2*^x0.3 miles 

Small 




32-37 and tributaries 

Gifford lake 

38 (Mower brook) 


S. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix IV — Continued 



219 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


39 (Walker brook") .... 


3.5 miles . . 


450 S. T.+ 


1 


1 mile ... . 


180 S. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


2 


Small . . . 


None. 


40 (Hare brook) . . . 


Lower 1.5 miles 

(posted) 

Upper 1.5 miles 

2 miles 




1 (Hyatt brook) 


None. 

180 S. T. 
270 S. T. 


1-2 


Dry or small 

1 mile. . . . 


None. 


3 


180 S. T. 


1 


Small 

Dry or small 

3 miles. 

1.5 miles 

0.2 mile 


None. 


2-4 


None. 


41 


540 S. T.+ 


1 

2 


270 S. T.+ 
180 S. T.+ 


3 


1 mile 


90 S. T.+ 


42 


3.5 miles 


540 S. T.+ 


1-2 


Dr y or small 

1.5 miles 


None. 


43 


360 S. T.+ 


44 (Wells brook) 


Lower 5 miles (posted) 

Upper 3 miles 

2.5 miles 


None. 


1 (Rowell brook) 


270 S. T.+ 
270 S. T.+ 


(2, 4 and tributary of 1) 


Small 


None. 


45, 46 and tributary 

Pond at Williamstown 


Small 

10 acres. 


None. 

Lm. B., Y. P., Bg. S., 
Bh. C. 

75 B. T.+ 


47 


2.5 miles 


1 


Small 

0.5 mile 

Dry. . 


2 


180 B. T. 


48 




49 (Poth brook) 


3 miles 


360 S. T.+ 


50 


0.7 mile 

Small . . 


90 B T. 


51 




52 


Lower 0.5 mile 

(posted) 






None. 


1 


Upper 3 miles 

Lower 0.3 mile 

(posted) 


315 S. T.+ 




None. 


53 


Upper 1.5 miles 

Small 


180 S. T.+ 


54 


0.5 mile 


70 S. T.+ 
360 S. T.+ 


55 


3 miles 


1-2 


Small 


Kasoag lake 


(Posted) 


None (Lm. B., Bg. S.). 


Green lake 


Shallow 


56, 57 and tributaries 

58 


Small, warm or dry. . 
1 .2 miles 


None. 

180 S. T.+ 


59 


Small 

2.5 miles 

0.5 mile 

Small 


60 


270 S T 


1 


126 S T 


61 




62 


0.5 mile 

Dry, warm or small . . 
0.8 square mile 

Warm or small 


126 S T 


Ontario- West 0.1-2 and tributaries 
Lake Neatahwanta 


None. 

Lm. B., Bh. C. ; Bg. S., 

Y. P. 
None. 


Ox creek and Ox creek 0.1 



220 



Conservation Department 



Appendix V 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 3A 
Macedon, Palmyra, Clyde and Weedsport quadrangles 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Seneca river 

1 (Cross lake) 

Skaneateles creek 

1 

S. S. 1-3 

North brook (Cold spring) . . . 

1 (Putnam brook) 

3 

5 

6 

1 

1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9 and tributaries 

2-10 

Owasco outlet 

1-5 and tributaries 

O. S. 1, Old Erie canal and tribu- 
taries 

Crane creek 

1-4 and tributaries 

C. L. S. 1-2 

Muskrat creek and tributaries . . 

Parker pond 

Otter lake 

M. S. 1 and tributaries 

Stark pond 

M. S. 4 and tributaries 

Slayton pond 

M.S. 8 

3 

Duck lake 

1, 2 and 4 

M. S. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 

Crusoe creek and tributaries . . 

Clyde river (including Canan- 

daigua outlet) 

1-22 and tributaries 

23 (Ganargua creek) 

I (Marbletown creek) 

14 

15 

1-9, 11-13, 16, 17 and 

tributaries 

II (Military run) 

1-4 and tributaries 



21 miles 

Small and warm 

Polluted 

Small and warm 

Small and warm 

Small or warm 

From tributary 3-9, 
2.5 miles 

1 mile 

2 miles 

2 miles 

1 mile 

Small or warm 

Small or warm 

Polluted or warm. . . . 
Small or warm 

Small, warm, dry or 
fluctuating water 
level 

2 miles, lower 

Small or warm, upper 

Small or warm 

Small and warm 

Small, warm or dry. . 

320 acres 

256 acres 

Small, warm or dry . . 

160 acres 

Small, warm or dry. . 

60 acres 

Small or warm 

2 miles 

320 acres 

Small and warm 

Small, warm, dry or 
(posted) 

29 miles 

Small, warm, dry or 

sluggish 

34 miles 

9 miles 

1.5 miles 

1 mile 

Small, warm or dry. . 

3.5 miles 

Small, warm or dry. . 



Lm. B., Pp. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

370 B. T. + 
70 B. T. + 
180 B. T. + 
180 B. T. + 
180 B. T. + 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 



None. 

Sm. B. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

None. 

190 B. T. + 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

None. 



None. 

Sm. B. ; Pp. 

None. 
Sm. B. 
450 S. T. + 
70 S. T. + 
90 S. T. + 

None. 

75 S. T. + 

None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix V — Continued 



221 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Seneca river — (Cont'd) 
Clyde river — (Cont'd) 

23 (Ganargua creek — Cont'd) 
14 (Stebbins brook) 

1 

2-5 and tributaries 

Spring brook 

24 (Red creek) 

3 

1-5 

1-2, 4-15 and tributaries 
2-10, 12, 13, 15-23, 25-40 

and tributaries 

24-29 and tributaries 



0.5 mile, middle 
(posted) 

2.5 miles 

0.25 mile 

Small, warm or dry. . 

0.5 mile 

Warm, dry or inter- 
mittent 

1.75 miles 

Small, warm or dry . . 

Small, warm or dry . . 

Small, warm or dry . . 
Small, warm or dry . . 



None. 

250 S. T. + 
70 S. T. + 
None. 

90 S. T. + 

None. 

125 S. T. + 

None. 

None. 

None. 
None. 



222 



Conservation Department 



Appendix VI 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 3B 

Baldwinsville, Syracuse, Chittenango, Oneida and Oriskany 

quadrangles 



Stream and tributary number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy per 


mile 




5.5 miles 


Sm. B., Pp. 

None. 

Sm. B., Pp. 

None. 

None. 

180 B. T. + 

None. 

None. 
None. 

None. 

900 B. T. + 

180 B. T. + 

540 S. T. + 

None. 

400 S. T. + 

None. 

470 B. T. + 

180 B. T. + 

180 B. T. + 

540 S. T. + 

None. 

None. 

Pp., Sm. B. 

None. 

None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

Bg. S., Bh. C. 
None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 
None. 

None. 

Sm. B. 

None. 

1,000 B. T. + 

90 B. T. + 

180 B. T. + 

None. 

180 B. T. + 

None. 




B 3 


Dry 






13 miles 

Dry 




B 03 








Warm . 




P 1 


1 mile 




P 2— C. 0.2 


Dry, small or warm . . 

Dry, small or warm. . 
20 acres (posted) .... 

Small or warm 

1.5 miles 




Tributaries on south 
Oneida river S. 0.1— Y. 
Pleasant lake 


side 
0.5. 




*Oneida lake 

1—8 and tributaries 








1 


1 mile 




9 


2 miles 




1 


Small 




2 


0.3 mile 




10 


Small 




11 


0.5 mile upper 

0.5 mile 




1 . 




1 


0.5 mile 






2 miles (lower) 

Small 




1 




13-16 and tributaries 


Dry or small 

14 miles 




Fish creek 






Polluted 




4 (Beaver brook) 
tributaries . . 


and 


Warm 




Teelins pond . . 


4 acres 




8 (Stony brook) 


7 miles 




1-9 and tributar 
10 (Canada creek) 


ies. . 


Warm or small 

S. T, above Coonrod 
(Map 2) 






Below Coonrod too 
warm 




(1-3- 5-7- 9- 11-15) 


Dry, small, warm or 
polluted 










2-7 


Dry or small 

Mouth to Oneida, 
polluted 














6 (Sconondoa creek) . . . 
11 . 


Oneida to Bennet Cor- 
ners, 7 miles 

Bennet Corners to 
No. 22, warm 

12 miles 




0.5 mile 




12 (Dix brook) . . 


2.5 miles 






Small 




13 (Porter brook) 


2 miles 




1-2 


Small 





* Loc. cit. p. 212 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 223 

Appendix VI — Continued 



Stream and tributary number 



Oswego r'ver — (Cont'd) 

(1-10, 14 and tributaries 

9 (Mud creek) 

Sunset lake 

12 

Lower Oneida reservoir . . . 
Upper Oneida reservoir . . . 

1-3 

16 

20 

1-2 

(1-5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13-15, 17-19 
21, 22 and their tributaries. 

17-23 

Cowaselon creek 

2 (Canaseraga creek) 

2 

1-2 

5 

1-4 

(1, 3-4, and tributaries) 

5 

2 

1-4 

8 m 

(1, 3-7, 9 and tributaries) 

13 (Clockville creek) 

2 

2 

3 , 

(1,4) 

6 

7 

8 

(1, 3-5, 9-11 and tributaries) . . 

14 

15 

16 

18 

19 

25 

(1,3,4,6-12, 17,20-24) 

24-26 

Chittenango creek 

6 (Butternut creek) 

2 (Limestone creek) 

1-6 

Snooks pond 

Evergreen lake 

7 

9 

10 

3-12 

13 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Dry, small or warm . . 

7.5 miles 

60 acres 

3 miles 

2 acres 

10 acres 

Dry or small 

1.5 miles 

1 mile 

Dry 

Dry, small or warm . . 

Dry.... 

19 miles 

9 miles 

2 miles 

Small 

1 mile 

Dry, small or warm . . 
Dry, small or warm . . 

7 miles 

3.5 miles. . 

Small 

2 miles 

Dry or small 

6 miles 

4 miles 

0.25 mile 

0.25 mile 

Small 

1 mile 

0.5 mile 

1 mile 

Dry, small or warm . 

0.5 mile 

0.5 mile 

0.5 mile 

0.25 mile 

0.5 mile 

0.25 mile 

Dry, small or warm . 

Dry or small 

24 miles 

13 miles 

9 miles 

Dry or small 

35 acres 

35 acres 

Small 

0.5 mile 

Small 

Warm, small or pol 

luted 

(Posted) 

2 miles 



Stocking policy per mile 



None. 

380 B. T. + 

Sm. B. 

150 B. T. + 

None. 

3,000 R. T. + 

None. 

150 B. T. + 

180 B. T. + 

None. 

None. 

None. 

Lm. B. 

1,300 B. T. + 

200 B. T. + 

None. 

280 B. T. + 

None. 

None.. 

900 B T. + 

190 S. T. + 

Non^.T 

60 S. . + 

None. 

450 S. T. + 

270 S. T.+ 

125 S. T.+ 

65 S. T.+ 

None. 

450 S. T. + 

150 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 

None. 

50 S. T.+ 

100 S.-T.+ 

90 S. T.+ 

80 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 

360 S. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

2.000 B. T.+ 

1.400 B. T.+ 

3.500 B. T.+ 

None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 

Stocking not desired. 

None. 

150 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

None (S. T.+) 

400 B. T.+ 



224 



Conservation Department 
Appendix VI — Continued 



Stream and tributary number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy per mile 



Ch*ttenango creek (Cont'd) 

1 (and tributary) 

Green lake 

Round lake 

9 (Pools brook) 

1-3 

4 

18 

19 

20 

(1-5, 7, 10-17, 21-24 and tribu 

taries) , 

27-32 (and tributaries) 

Seneca river 

*0. S. 1-5 

Onondaga outlet (and tribu 

tary) 

Onondaga lake 

Ley creek 

1 (Bear Trap creek) . . 
2-11 and tributaries.. 
(1-2, Onondaga creek, Nine 
mile, No. 4 and tributaries) 

|0. S. 1-0. S. 3 

Dead creek 

6 (Gully brook) 

(1-5, 7) 

D. S. 1-D. S. 4 

Carpenter brook 

1 

2 

3 

Cross lake 

1-2 and tributaries 

Skaneateles creek and tribu 
taries 

Ox creek 

1 (Little Ox creek) upper 

1-4 (and tributaries) 

Mud pond 

2-4 . 

Ox cr. 0.2 and tributaries 

Ox cr. 0.3-Ox. cr. S. 8 



Warm 

62 acres 

(Posted) 

3 miles (above Myce- 
nae) 

Dry or small 

0.5 mile 

0.2 mile 

0.2 mile 

0.5 mile 



Dry or small 

Dry, small or warm 
From Cross lake to 

Three rivers .... 
Small or warm .... 



Polluted. 

Polluted 

Warm , 

Upper 2 miles . 
Small or warm . 



Small, warm or pol 

luted 

Small or warm 

Warm 

3 miles 

Small or warm 7 

Small or warm ...'... 

7 miles 

5 miles 

1 mile 

Dry 

3 square miles 



Small or warm 



pol 



Small, warm or 
luted 

Warm 

1 mile above pond . . . 

Dry or small 

Area, 65 acres; depth 
40 feet 

Small 

Small or warm 

Small or warm 



None. 

20,000 R. T.+ 

None (R. T.+) 



T.+ 



540 S. 
None. 

S. T.+ 
100 B. T.+ 
150 B. T.+ 
180 B. T.+ 

None. 
None. 

Pp., Lm. B. 
None. 

None. 
None. 
None. 

270 S. T.+ 
None. 



None. 

None. 

None. 

360 S. 

None. 

None. 

300 S. 

180 S. 

350 S. T.+ 

None. 

Bg. S., Co., 

B., Pp. 
None. 



T.+ 



T.+ 

T.+ 



Sm.B., Lm. 



None. 
None. 
125 S. T.-f- 
None. 

Lm. B., Pp., Pkl., Bh. C. 

None. 

None. 

None. 



*0. S.=Oswego-Seneca. 
f 0. S.= Onondaga-Seneca. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



225 



Appendix VII 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 4A 
Canandaigua, Phelps, Geneva and Auburn quadrangles 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Seneca river 

North brook (Cold spring) 

1 (Putnam brook) 

6 

1 (Crocker brook) 

2 

3 (Cady brook) 

4 

10 

1 

10 (Wheeler brook) 

1-7 and tributaries 

8 . 

Spring run (Payne spring) .... 
Price spring run 

11-13 and tributaries 

Coldspring brook (E. C. 4) 

Owasco outlet 

6-9 

Owasco lake 

Dutch Hollow brook 

4 (Long Point brook) 

1, 2, 3, 5, 35-49 and tribu- 
taries 

Crane creek, Crane S. 1-4 and 

tributaries 

Cayuga lake 

Sawyer creek 

8 and pond 

137 

1 

1-3, 4-7, 9-21, Great Gully 
brook, Glen creek, Dean 
creek, Schuyler creek, Sal- 
mon creek, 121-136, 138 

and tributaries 

Cayuga lake S. 1-2, Sucker 
brook, S. S. 1-3 and tribu- 
taries 

* See map 4B. 



19 miles 

1.5 miles (Price spring 

to Throop) 

Not on this map 

Warm, above No. 3, 

below 3, 0.5 mile. . . 

2 miles 

Small 

2 miles 

Small 

Small 

Small and warm 

2 miles, uppermost, 

above tributary 

No. 3 

2 miles, lower 

Small and warm 

0.5 mile 

0.1 mile 

Oxygen content too 

low 

Small, warm or dry. . 
Warm or sulphurous . 
1.5 miles (lake to 

Woolen mills) 

Small and warm 



Lm. B., Pp. 
1,600 S. T.+ 



2.5 miles 

sources* .... 
5 miles (lower) 

0.25 mile 



Dry, warm or small . 
Warm 



4 miles (middle) . 
Private preserve. 

0.7 mile 

0.5 mile 



Dry, warm or small 
Dry, warm or small 



180 B. T.+ 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 

200 B. T.-f- 

None. 

None. 

None. 



180 B. T.+ 
110B. T.+ 
None. 
180 B. T.+ 

200 S. T.+ 

None. 
None. 
None. 

Sm. B., Pp. 

None. 



270 S. T.+ 

R. T. natural spawning 

adequate. 
R. T. natural spawning 

adequate. 

None. 
None. 



380 B. T.+ 
None (R. T. 
300 R. T.+ 
100 R, T.+ 



None. 
None. 



S. T.) 



226 



Conservation Department 
Appendix VII — Continued 



Stream and tributary number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy per mile 



Seneca river — (Cont'd) 

Kendig creek 

1-8 and tributaries 

Seneca lake 

Reeder creek 

1-5, Silver creek, Wilson 
creek (east shore), Ka- 
shong creek, 107-109, 
Benton run, Wilson creek, 
White Spring brook, 110— 
114 and tributaries. ...... ., 

, Clyde river (including the 
Canandaigua outlet) ...... 

1-15 and tributaries 

18 (Pond brook) and tribu- 
tary streams 

Newton ponds 

Lowery pond 

Phillips pond 

Vandemark pond 

23 (Ganargua creek, includ- 
ing Mud creek — head- 
waters of Ganargua 

creek) . 

45 (Fish creek) 

I 

8 

1 

2 

3 

1-6. 9-11 and tribu- 
taries 

(41-44, 46-77 and tributaries) 
Sterling pond (near East 

Bloomfield) 

30 

Spring run 

Spring run 

Spring run 

35 

1,2,3,4 

(29, 31-34, 36-39 and tribu 

taries) 

40 (Flint creek) 

1 and tributary streams. 
Newark reservoir 

2-15 and tributaries. ... 



1 mile (lower) 
Warm or dry 

2 miles 



Dry, small or warm. . 



5 mi. (lower) 

6 mi. (29-37) 
18 mi. .(37- 

[ Chapinville) . 
Small, warm or dry . . 



34 mi. 



Warm 

12 acres, municipal 

water supply 

30 acres (posted) . . 
15 acres (posted) . . 
40 acres 



Warm and polluted . 

6 miles 

1.5 miles 

2 miles 

0.5 mile 

Small and warm 

0.5 mile 

Small, warm or dry . . 
Small, warm or dry . . 

64 acres 

0.5 mile , 

0.25 mile 

0.75 mile 

0.5 mile 

2 miles 

Small, warm or dry . . 

Small, warm or dry . . 
Mouth to tributary 7 

warm 

Tributary 7-13...... 

Small and warm 

Newark water sup> 

ply (posted) 

Small, warm or dry . . 



Lm. B. 
None. 

400 R. T.+ 



None. 

Lm. B., Pp. 

1,500 B. T. (trial planting), 

Sm. B. 
None. 

None. 

None (Lm. B.) 
None (Lm. B., Bg. r S.) 
None (Lm. B., Bg.[S.) 
Lm. B., Bg. S. 



None. 
720 B. T.+ 
190 B. T.+ 
120 B. T.+ 
18 B. T. 
None. 
180 B. T. 

None. 
None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 
180 B. T. 
300 B. T.+ 
300 B. T.+ 
300 B. T. 
300 B. T. 
None. 

None. 



None. 
Lm. B. 
None. 



Pp. 



Stocking not desired. 
None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix VII — Continued 



227 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Clyde river — (Cont'd) 

41 


1 mile . . . 


300 S. T. 


1 

2 


Dry 

0.1 mile 


None. 

200 S. T.+ 


42-58 and tributaries 


Small, warm, dry and 
polluted 


None. 


Canandaigua lake 

West river 


5 miles, lower 

Remainder, dry or 
small 


Lm. B., Pp. 
None. 


(1-14, 31-48 and tributaries of 
West river) 


Dry, small or warm . . 

3 miles 

Small 


None. 


Back Channel (Seneca river) 

1 and pond 


Lm. B. ; Pp. 

None. 


Black lake 


As Seneca river 

Warm and small .... 

Small, warm or dry . . 
7 acres 


Lm. B., Pp. 
None. 

None. 

Lm. B., Bg. S. 


1-2 and tributaries 

Clyde S. 1-5 and tributary 

streams 

Gem lake 







228 



Conservation Department 



Appendix VIII 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 4B 

Skaneateles, TuIIy, Cazenovia, Morrisville and Sangerfield 

quadrangles 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Oneida creek 


10 miles 


1,000 B.T.+ 

315 B. T.+ 


6 (Sconondoa creek) 


3 miles 


15 


0.5 mile 


190 B. T.+ 


18 


1 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


20 (Knoxboro brook) 


0.5 mile 


50 B. T.+ 


25 


1 mile 


50 B. T.+ 


1 


1.5 miles 


50 B. T.+ 


, 2 


Small 


None. 


14, 16, 17, 19, 21-24, 26. 27 

and tributaries 

23 . 


Dry, small or warm . . 
1.5 miles 


None. 

100 S. T.+ 


24-28 and tributaries , 


Small 


None. 


29 . . 


0.5 mile 


125 B. T.+ 


30 


0.75 mile 


125 B. T.+ 


31-34... . 


Dry, small or warm . . 
4.5 miles 


None. 


35. . 


250 B. T.+ 


1. . . . 


3 miles 


150 S. T.+ 


3 


0.75 mile . . 


75 S. T.+ 


1,2, 4-6 and tributaries. . . . 
36-39 and tributaries 


Small, warm or dry . . 
Small, dry or warm. . 
2.5 miles 


None. 
None. 

360 S. T.+ 


Canaseraga creek 


Small 


None. 




0.5 mile 


180 S. T.+ 




Small 


None. 


26-27 


Dry 


None. 




19 miles 


1,500 B. T.+ 


6 (Butternut creek) 


No. 14 to Apulia dam, 
13 miles . 




1,500 B. T.+ 

None. 

360 S. T.+ 
2.000 B. T.+ 




Apulia dam to No. 39 
and pond, polluted . 

No. 39 to source, 2 
miles 

18 miles 


8 


4 miles 


800 B. T.+ 


8 


4.5 miles 


140 B. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 


70 B. T.+ 


2-6 and tributaries .... 
1-7, 9-14, and tributaries. 

9-33 

34. . 


Small or dry 

Dry, small or warm . . 
Dry, small or warm . . 
Mouth to Delphi, pol- 
luted 


None. 
None. 
None. 




None. 




Delphi to source, 1.5 
miles 


90 S. T.+ 


5 


0.5 mile . . 


70 S. T.+ 


l-4 ; 6, 7, and tributaries . 
37 


Small, dry or warm . . 
4 miles 


None. 

1,500 B. T.+ 


1 


2 miles 


150 B. T.+ 


41 


0.5 mile 


130 B. T.-f- 


35, 36, 38-40, 42-44 and 


Dry, small and warm. 


None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 229 

Appendix VIII — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Chittenango creek — (Cont'd) 
6 Butternut creek — (Cont'd) 
14 


0.5 mile 


125 B. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


15 


Lower 2 miles 

1 mile 


250 B. T.+ 


1 


270 B. T.+ 


1 


Small . . . 


None. 


2 


Lower 0.4 mile 

Small 


250 B. T.-r- 


1 


None. 


3-4 


Small 


None. 


Jamesville reservoir 


0.52 square miles .... 
Drv ...... 


Lm. B., Bg. S. 
None. 


16-18 


19 


1 mile . . 


180 B. T.+ 


20 


Dry 


None. 


21 


2 miles. . 


360 B. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


2 


Small . 


None. 


22 ■.. 


Small . 


None. 


23 


1 mile 


270 B. T.+ 


24 and tributaries 


Warm . 


None. 


25 


Lower 0.4 mile 

small or warm 

0.5 mile 


720 B. T.+ 


26-28 and tributaries 

29 


None. 

125 B. T.+ 

None. 


1 


Small . . . 


30-34 and tributaries 

35 


Dry or small 

1 mile 


None. 

180 B. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


36 


1.5 miles ... . 


360 B. T.+ 


1-2 


Small . . 


None. 


37-38 


Dry or small 

Polluted.. 




Pond 


None. 


39 




90 S. T.+ 
None. 


40 


Small 


41 


0.3 mile 


90 S. T.+ 


25-28 


Drv • 


None. 


29 (Munger brook) 


3 miles 


500 S. T.+ 


1 and tributary 


Dry. . 


None. 


2 




190 S. T.+ 
None. 


1-2 


Small . . 


3 


0.5 mile . 


90 S. T.+ 


4 


0.5 mile. . 


235 S. T.+ 


5 


Small . . 


None. 


3 


0.2 mile 


120 S. T.+ 
None. 


30 and tributary 


Small . . . 


31 


2 miles 


270 S. T.+ 


1-3 


Small . . 


None. 


32-33 


Dry or small 

1 mile 




34 


180 B. T.+ 


1-2 


Small 




35 


Warm 


None. 


Cazenovia lake 


2 square miles 

Dry or small 


Sm. B., Pp., Y. P. 

None. 
270 S. T. 


1-9 and tributaries 

36 


1 


0.5 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


37-46 and tributaries 


Dry, small or warm . . 


None 



230 



Conservation Department 
Appendix VIII — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Chittenango creek — (Cont'd) 
47 


2.5 miles 


1,300 S. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


2 . 


2 miles 


450 S. T.-f 


1-3 and tributary 

3 


Small or dry 

Small 


None. 
None. 


4 


0.5 mile 


235 S. T.+ 


1. 


Small 


None. 


5 (Spring run) 


0.5 mile 


290 S. T.+ 


48 and tributary 


Dry 


None. 


49 


0.6 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


50 . . 


0.5 mile 


235 B. T.+ 


,51 . 


3 miles 


360 B. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 


126 B. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


2 and tributary 


Small 


None. 


3 


0.5 mile 


65 B. T. 


4 5 


Dry or small 

Small 


None. 


52 53 and tributary 


None. 


54 


1 mile 


125 B. T.+ 


1-2 


Small 


None. 


55 


1 mile 


235 B. T.+ 


56 


Small 


None. 




No. 8 to No. 26 15 
miles 






600 B. T.+ 




No. 26 to source, 5 
miles 


320 S. T.-f 




Small or warm 

5 miles 


None. 


9 


216 B. T.+ 


1 


0.5 mile 


90 B. T.+ 


2-3 and tributary 


Dry or small ........ 

0.3 mile 


None. 


4 


65 B. T.+ 


5-7 


Small 


None. 


8 


0.4 mile 


90 B. T.+ 


10 


Dry 


None. 




8 miles 


380 S. T.+ 


3 


0.5 mile 


125 S. T.+ 


Pond 


1 acre 


300 S. T.+ 


6 


1 mile 


100 S. T.+ 




Dry 


None. 


3 


0.5 mile 


190 S. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


4 


0.5 mile 


75 S. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 


235 S. T.+ 


2 


Small 


None. 


5-8 


Dry or small 

Lower 0.5 mile 

Small 

Dry, small or warm . . 
Dry 


None. 


8 


142 S. T.+ 


1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 and tribu- 


None. 
None. 


12-13 


None. 


14 


Lower 1 mile 

Dry or small 

Lower 1 mile 

Small 

Dry or warm 


450 B. T.+ 


15-17 


None. 


18 


450 B. T.+ 


1. . . . 


None. 


19-24 


None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix VIII — Continued 



231 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Chittenango creek — (Cont'd) 
Onondaga creek — (Cont'd) 
11 (West branch) — (Cont'd) 
25 


1 mile 


180 B. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


26 


0.7 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


27 


Small 

0.6 mile 


None. 


28 


110 S. T.+ 


1 


Small 


Xone. 


29-30 


Drv. . 


None. 


31 


0.3 mile . 


75 S. T.+ 


32 


Dry 


None. 


33 


0.6 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


Ninemile creek 


Warm 


None. 


2 


Small 


None. 


Mud pond 


About 3 acres. ...... 

Small and warm 

7 acres 

Dry, small or warm . . 

Tributary No. 3 
Otisco, 80 acres. . . . 

Mouth to dam. 1.5 
miles 

Dam to source, 2 
miles 


Lm. B., Bg. S. 


6-15 


None. 


Mud pond 


Lm. B.. Bg. S., Y. P. 


16-27 


None. 


Otisco lake 

Pond 




4 


Lm. B.. Bg. S. 




400 R. T.+ 
450 S. T.+ 


1-3 and tributaries. . . . 


Small 


None. 


6 


0.5 mile . 


180 R. T.+ 


14 


Mouth to dam, 0.5 
mile 

Dam to source, 1.5 
miles 


270 R. T.-f . 
180 S. T.+ 


1 






Spafford creek 


6 miles 


400 S. T.+. 300 R. T.-f- 


1 


0.3 mile 


75 S. T.+ 


1-2 and tributaries . . 


Small 


None. 


5 


1 mile 


65 S. T.+ 


8 


0.6 mile . 


235 S. T.-f- 


9 




65 S T + 


2-4, 6, 7 and tribu- 
taries 


Small 

Dry, small 
2 miles. . . . 


or warm . . 




1-3, 5, 7-13, 15-44 and 
tributaries 




1 (tributary to Carpenter brook) 


360 S. T.+ 


Skaneateles outlet 


Polluted... 
Small and i 

0.5 mile . 


ivarm 


None. 


3-5 and tributaries 


None. 


Skaneateles lake 

14 


180 R, T.+ 


Skaneateles inlet 


2 miles . 


250 B. T. + ,200R. T -f- 
None. 


1 


Small . . 


11 


0.5 mile 


180 B T + 


1-13, 15-54, 55-71 and tribu- 
taries of 14 


Drv. small 


"1 

sr warm. J 


None. 



232 



Conservation Department 
Appendix VIII — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Skaneateles Outlet — (Cont'd) 
Skaneateles Lake — (Cont'd) 
Bear Swamp creek 

11 

13 

1-10, 12, 14 

72-91 

Putnam brook and tributaries .... 
9 (tributary to No. 10 of 

North brook) 

Owasco lake 

Dutch Hollow brook 

1-28 

4 

1, 2, 3, 5-26 and tributaries. . 

Owasco inlet 

1-2 and tributaries 

1 (Decker brook, tribu- 
tary to No. 17) 

1 

1-3 

2 

1 

2 

6 

3-5,7-10 

1, 2, 3, 5-26, 27, 28 and tribu- 
taries 



Mouth to New Hope, 
precipitous 

New Hope to source, 
4.5 miles 

0.3 mile 

0.6 mile 

Dry 

Dry 

Small 

Small or warm 

Mouth to No. 27, 9 
miles 

1 mile above No. 27. . 
Dry or small 

1 mile 

Dry or small 

Warm and sluggish . . 
Dry 

3 miles 

2 miles 

Small 

1.5 miles 

1.5 miles 

Small 

0.4 mile 

Small, warm or dry . . 

Dry, small or warm . . 



None. 

1,500 S. T.+ 
300 S. T.+ 
300 S. T.+ 
None. 
None. 
None. 

None. 



R. T. — natural spawning 

adequate. 
200 B. T.+ 
None. 
R. T. — natural spawning 

adequate. 
None. 
None. 
None. 



820 S. 
720 B. 
None. 
350 S. 
180 S. 
None. 
120 S. 
None. 

None. 



T.+ 
T.+ 

T.+ 
T.+ 

T.+ 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 



233 



Appendix IX 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 5 

Naples, Penn Yan, Ovid, Genoa, Moravia and Cortland 

quadrangles 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Skaneateles inlet 

Spring run 

(2-10) 

Bear Swamp creek . . . 
Owasco inlet 

3-16 

17 (Dresserville creek) 



1 (Decker brook) 



1 

Spring run 

2 

2-10 

11 (Butler brook) 

1 . . . 

1 

12 

1-2 

13 

14 

15-18 

Pond on 18 

18-28 

29 (Hemlock creek) .... 
2 (Hollow brook) . . 

1-6 

(1, 3-10 and tributaries) 
30-42 

43 (Sears brook) 

44 (Peg Mill) 

1 (Cogshall brook) . . . 

2 (North brook) 

3 (Middle brook) 

4 (Lane brook) 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



4.5 miles 

0.3 mile 

Dry or small 

1 mile 

19 miles 



Dry 

1.5 miles (mouth to 

Montville) 

3 miles (Montville to 

Dresserville) 

3 miles, middle 

(posted) 

Dresserville to source, 

warm 

1.5 miles (mouth to 

No. 1 ) 

1.5 miles (No. 1 to 

0.5 mile above No. 

2) 

1.5 miles 

0.3 mile 

2 miles 

Dry or small 

1.3 miles (below dam) 
1 mile (above dam) . . 
0.5 mile (lower and 

middle) , posted .... 

0.5 mile 

Small 

0.5 mile, lower 

(posted) 

1 mile (above posting) 

Small 

0.5 mile 

0.3 mile (lower) 

Dry or small 

4 acres 

Dry or small 

5 miles 

4.5 miles 

Dry, warm or small . . 
Dry, warm or small . . 

Dry or small 

0.5 mile 

3 miles 

1 mile 

2 miles 

2 miles 

1.5 miles 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



200 B. T.+,350R. T.+ 

90 R. T.+ 

None. 

1,000 S. T.+ 

1,000 B. T.+, 1,500 

R. T.+ 
None. 

900 B.T.+, 1,000 R.T.+ 

1,200 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

2,000 B. T.+ 



1,000 S. T.+ 
450 B. T.+ 
300 S. T.+ 
350 S. T.+ 
None. 

1,300 B. T.+ 
350 S. T.+ 

None. 

235 S. T.+ 
None. 



None. 
350 B. 
None. 
235 B. 
120 B. 
None. 
Lm. B. 
None. 
1,200 S. T.+ 
900 S. T.+ 
None. 
None. 
None. 
125 B 
540 S. 
180 S. 
360 S. 
360 S. T.+ 
270 S. T.+ 



T.+ 

T.+ 
T.+ 

Bg.S. 



T.+ 
T.+ 
T.+ 
T.+ 



234 



Conservation Department 
Appendix IX — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 



(5~and tributaries of 1, 2, 4) 
45 (Weaver brook) .... 

1 

46 

47 (Booth brook) 

48 (Bosard brook) .... 

49 

50 (Hart brook) 

1 

2-3 

51-52 

53 (Carey brook) 

54 (Dick brook) 

55 (Stoddard brook) . . 

56 (Peruville creek) . . . 

4 "..... 

(1,2,3,5,6,7) 

57 

58 

59 (Spring brook) 

60 and tributary 

Cayuga lake 

22-51 and tributaries. . . . 

Salmon creek 

1-7 

8 (Gulph creek) 

1-11 

9-23 

24 

1 

1 

25-38 

52-57 

Fall creek 



16 (Virgil creek) 

15 ; 

1 

2 

(2, 4, 11, 13, 16-20 and tributaries) 

Spring run 

17-18 and tributaries 

19 (Mud creek) 

1-4 and tributaries 

20-21 and tributaries. ........ 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Small. . . 
1 mile . . . 
Small . . . 
Small . . . 

1 mile . . . 
0.5 mile . 
Small.... 

2 miles. . 
1 mile . . . 
Small . . . 
Small... 
1 mile . . . 
1 mile . . . 
1.5 miles. 
6 miles . . 
1 mile . . . 
Small . . . 
0.6 mile . 
0.5 mile . 
1.5 miles. 
Small . . . 



Dry or small 

17 miles 

Dry or small 

4 miles 

Dry or small 

Dry or small 

2 miles 

1.5 miles. 

Small 

Dry, warm or small 

Dry or small 

8.5 miles (No. 15 to 
McLean) 



5 miles (McLean to 
Groton City pond). 

6 miles (Groton City 
pond to source) .... 

Small 

2.5 miles 

0.5 mile (lower) 

Upper, dry 

1.5 miles 

Dry 

Dry 

0.3 mile 

Dry or warm 

2 miles 

Dry or small 

Drv 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



None. 

270 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

125 B. T.+ 

70 B. T.+ 

None. 

350 B. T.+ 

235 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

270 S. T.+ 

125 B. T.+ 

90 B. T.+ 

540 B. T.+ 

90 B. T.+ 

None. 

90 B. T.+ 

90 B. T.+ 

470 S. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

300 B. T.+, 200 R. T.+ 

None. 

200 B. T. + , 100R. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

180 B. T.+ 

90 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

Natural spawning of Sm. 
B. adequate. 

2,000 B.T.+ 

1,500 S.T.+ 

None. 

1,300 B.T.+ 

270 B. T.+ 

None. 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 

585 S. T.+ 

None. 

None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 
Appendix IX — Continued 



235 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Fall creek (Cont'd) 
22 


3.5 miles 


1,400 S. T.+ 

180 S. T.+ 


1 


1 mile 


2 


0.5 mile 


117 S. T.+ 


3 


0.5 mile 


360 S. T.+ 


4 


1 mile 


90 S. T.+ 


5 


1.5 miles 


270 S. T.+ 


1 


0.5 mile 


90 S. T.+ 


23 


Small 


None. 


24 (Hart brook) 


1 mile 


350 B. T.+ 


25 


0.4 mile 


470 B. T.+ 


26 (Jones brook) 

1 


1.5 miles 


350 B. T.+ 


Small . . . 


None. 


27 (Blanchard brook) 

1 


0.5 mile 


432 B. T.+ 


Small 


None. 


28 


Small . . 


None. 


29 


1 mile 


575 B. T.+ 


1 


0.3 mile 


150 B. T.+ 


30 (Webster brook) 


2 miles (lower) 

Upper, warm 

1.5 miles 

Dry or small 


900 B. T.+ 


1 (Wilson's brook) 

2-7 


None. 

190 B. T.+ 

None. 


31 . .' ; 


235 B. T.+ 
None. 


1 


Small 


32 


0.6 mile . 


290 S T + 


33 and tributaries 


Warm 




Spring run 


0.3 mile . 


235 S. T.+ 


34 


0.3 mile . 


575 S. T.+ 


35 


Small 




36 


1.5 miles. . 


575 S. T.-h 


37-38 


Dry or small 

5 miles 


None. 


39 


935 S. T.+ 


1 


2 miles 


235 S. T.-f 


1 


Small 


None. 


2-8 


Dry or small 

0.3 mile . . 




9 ;. 


120 S. T.+ 


10 


Small 


40-41 


Dry 


None. 


Lake Como .... 


0.12 square miles. . . . 

Dry or small 

0.8 mile (mouth to 
falls) 


20,000 R. T.+, Sm. B. 


73-82 


Taghanic creek 






1,000 R.T.+ 


6 (Reynoldsville creek) 


6 miles (falls to No. 3) 
1.5 miles 


800 B. T.+ 
1,200 B. T.+ 


(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and tributaries of 6) 
83-121 and tributaries 


Dry, small or warm . . 
Dry. small or warm . . 

Dry or small 

0.3 mile (mouth to 

Cascade Falls) .... 
Cascade Falls to 

source, polluted . . . 
Dry or small 


None. 


Seneca lake 

(6-33, 77-94, Big Stream and all 
tributaries) 




Keuka lake outlet 




1-14 :. 


3,000 R. T.+ 

None. 
None. 



236 



Conservation Department 
Appendix IX — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Keuka lake outlet — (Cont'd) 
Keuka lake 

61 


9 miles 


200 S. T.+, 300 R. T.+ 


(1-25, 43-60, 62-68 and tribu- 
taries of 61) 


Dry, small or warm. . 
Dry 


None. 


95-106 


None. 


Kashong creek and tributaries. . 


Dry 


None. 


Flint creek (tributary of Canan- 
daigua outlet) 


12 miles (Potter to 
source) 






600 B. T.+ 


26 (Nettle Valley creek) 

38. . . 


5 miles (14 to Potter) 
5 miles 


Lm. B., Pp. 

270 B. T.+ 


1 mile 


125 B. T.+ 


39 . . 


3 miles . 


315 B. T.+ 


40. . 


0.25 mile . . 


180 B. T.+ 


(13-25, 27-37 and tributaries of 
26 and 39) 


Dry, small or warm . . 

Dry or small 

4 miles (lower) 

6 miles (upper) 

Drv 


None. 


Canandaigua lake 

15-31 


None. 




Sm. B., Pp. 


1 


190 R. T.+ 
None. 


2 (Naples creek) 


4 miles flower) 

5 miles, upper (Eelpot 

creek) 


1,000 B. T.+, 1,000 




R. T.+ 
450 S. T.+ 


1-2 


Dry 


None. 


3 


2 miles 


180 B. T.+ 


4-7 


Dry 


None. 


8 (Grimes creek) 

1 


2 miles (below falls) . . 
6 miles (above falls) . . 
Small 


800 B. T.+ 
500 S. T.+ 
None. 


2 


2 miles (lower 0.5 

mile posted) 

Small 






350 B. T.+ 
None. 


3 


Dry 


None. 


4 


1.25 miles 


270 S. T.+ 


5 and tributaries 


Warm 


None. 


6 


1 mile 


125 S. T.+ 


7-10 


Dry or small 

1 mile (below dam) . . 
4 miles (above dam) . . 

Dry or small 

1 mile (below dam) . . . 
2.5 miles (above res- 
ervoir) 


None. 


9 (Tannery creek) 

1-5 


600 B. T.+ 

500 S. T.+ 
None. 


10 (Reservoir creek) 


360 B. T.+ 
360 S. T.+ 


1 


Small 


None. 


2 


2 miles 


360 B. T.-f 


3 


2 miles 


500 R. T.+ 


1—4 and tributaries. . 


Small 


None. 


11 


Small 


None. 


12 


1.5 miles 


360 B. T + 


1-4 


Small 


None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 237 

Appendix IX — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


West river — (Cont'd) 

2 (Naples creek) — (Cont'd) 

13 and tributaries 

14 


Small and dry. ...... 

1.5 miles 


None. 

270 S. T.+ 


15 


1 mile 


235 S. T.+ 


16 


Small 


None. 


17 


0.5 mile 


180 S. T.+ 


18 


1 mile 


125 S. T.+ 


19 


1 mile 


125 S. T.+ 


Mud creek (and tributaries 
77-80) 


Dry, small or warm . . 


None. 







238 



Conservation Department 



Appendix X 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 6 

Bath, Hammondsport, Watkins, Ithaca, Dryden and Harford 

quadrangles 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Cavuga lake 

57-64 

Fall creek , 

1-15 

16 (Virgil creek) 

1-4 

5 

6-7 and tributaries 

8 

9 '.. 

10.... 

11 and tributary. . . 

12 

13 

14 

1 

1 

Cayuga inlet , 



1-2 

3 (Cascadilla creek) 

1-7 

8 

1-2 

Spring runs between 8-9. . 

9 

10 (Ringwood brook) 

1 

Tributaries and 11-13 

4 

5 (Sixmile creek) 



1-38 and tributaries. 



Dry 

10 miles 

Dry, small or warm. . 

8 miles 

Dry 

Sulphurous 

Dry or warm 

0.5 mile 

Dry 

0.3 mile 

Dry 

0.4 mile 

Dry 

1 mile, lower 

1 mile, warm (upper). 

0.6 mile 

0.2 mile 

Mouth to Fair 

Grounds, polluted. 
Fair Grounds to Nina, 

6 miles 

Nina to Stratton, 2 

miles 

Small 

Mouth to 7, warm . . . 
7 to source, 2.5 miles. 

Dry 

0.5 mile, lower 

Small 

Small (posted) 

Dry 

2 miles 

0.3 mile 

Small or dry 

Dry 

Mouth to Potters 

Falls dam, 1 mile. . 
Potters Falls dam to 

37, 7.5 miles 

37 to falls at 49, 5.5 

miles 

49 to source, 2 miles. . 
Drv warm or small . . 



None. 

Natural spawning of Sm. 

B. adequate. 
None. 

1,350 B. T.+ 
None. 
None. 
None. 
Natural spawning of S. T. 

adequate. 
None. 
200 B. T.+ 
None. 
300 S. T.+ 
None. 
180 B. T.+ 
None. 
100 B. T.+ 
200 B. T.+ 

None. 

600 B. T. + , 600R. T.-h 

720 R. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

720 B. T.+ 

None. 

250 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

270 B. T.+ 

150 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

1,000R. T.-f- 
^OOOR. T.+.800B. T.+ 

1.600 B. T.+ 
1,200 S.T.+ 

None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 239 

Appendix X — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Cayuga lake — (Cont'd) 
Cayuga inlet — (Cont'd) 
5 (Sixmile creek) — (Cont'd) 

Potters Falls reservoir 

39 (Mulks brook) 

Tributaries and 40-41 . . . 

42 (Bull brook) . 

1 

2 

Bull pond 

43-44 

45 (Trout brook) 

Tributaries and 46-47 . . . 

48 (Dusenbury brook) 

Tributaries and 49-59 . . . 

6-7 and tributaries 

Burrts Spring run 

8-9 and tributaries 

10 (Buttermilk creek) and 

| 11-15 

* Jennings pond 

16 (Butternut creek) 



1-3 

4 (Enfield creek or Five- 
mile) 



1-19 and tributaries. 
5-17 and tributaries 

18-24 

25 (Newfield brook) 



and 



1-5 and tributaries 

6 

7-10 and tributaries 

11-13 

26 

27 

1-2 

28 (Robinsons Spring brook) . 

Tributaries and 29-30 

31 (Stratton brook) 

Tributaries and 32-48 and 

tributaries 

Williams brook — 73 

81 

Taghanic creek 

5 



192 acres. . . . 

2 miles 

Dry 

1 mile 

0.5 mile 

0.4 mile 

(Posted) 

Small or dry . 

1 mile 

Small or dry . 
2.5 miles 
Small or dry . 
Dry or small 

0.2 mile 

Dry or small 



50,000 R. T.+ 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 

200 B. T.+ 

100 B. T.+ 

70 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

300 S. T.+ 

None. 

1,200 S.T.+ 

None. 

None. 

300 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 



Dry, small or warm . 

28 acres Lm.B., Bg. S 

Mouth to falls, 2 

miles 

Falls to 15, 2 miles 
15 to source, dry. . 
Drv 



Co. 



3 miles, lower 

Upper, dry 

Dry, small or warm. . 

Dry, small or warm . . 
Mouth to falls, 0.8 

mile 

Falls t o Newfield 

dam, 1 mile 

Dam to source, 3.5 

miles 

Dry, small or warm . 

0.8 mile 

Dry, small or warm. 

0.3 mile each 

Dry.. 

1.5 miles 

Dry or small 

1.5 miles 

Small or dry 

1.3 miles 



Dry, warm or small . . 
Drv, small or warm. . 

Small 

7 to 15, 7 miles 

15 to source, Small. . . 
Dry 



800 R. T. + ,800B. T.+ 

700 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 



1,000 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

1,200 R.T.+ 

1,000 B. T.+ 

1,000 S. T.+ 

None. 

180 S. T.+ 

None. 

275 S. T.+ 

None. 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 

360 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

700 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 



240 



Conservation Department 
Appendix X — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Cayuga lake — (Cont'd) 
Tagbanic creek — (Cont'd) 
6 (Reynoldsville creek) . . 



3 (Allen brook) 

Tributaries and 4-15. 

7-14 

15 

Tributaries and 16-19. . 
Seneca lake 

Sawmill creek 



34-43 and tributaries. 
44 



1-3 

4 (Texas Hollow brook) 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-7 



11 



45 — Excelsior Glen brook 
Catharine creek 

1-4 and tributaries 

5 (Catlin Mills creek) . . . 



2 (Cranberry creek) 
1 



4-11 and tributaries. 
6 (Havana Glen brook) 



3 to Reynoldsville, 4 
miles 

Reynoldsville to 

source, dry or small. 

1 mile, lower 

Small, dry or warm. . 

Dry, small or warm . . 

1.5 miles 

Small 



Tributaries and 7- 
tributaries 



and 



9. 



Tributaries and 10-22 and 

tributaries 

Watkins Glen creek 

46-75 and tributaries 

Big Stream creek and tributaries 



Mouth to falls, 0.3 

mile 

Falls to source, small . . 

Dry or small 

Mouth to Burdett, 
precipitous 

Burdett to source, 5 
miles 

Dry or small 

3 miles 

Dry 

0.5 mile 

Small 

Small 

0.5 mile 

Small 

Dry 

10 miles 

Dry or small 

Mouth to falls, 0.8 

mile 

Odessa to 4, 2 miles. . 

4 to source, small. . . 

Dry. 

3 miles 

Small 

0.5 mile 

Dry or small 

Below falls, 0.5 mile . 
Above falls, warm . . 



Dry or small 

Below falls, 0.5 mile . 
Above falls, small. . . 



Dry or small 

Small 

Dry, small or warm . 
Dry, small or warm . 



700 B. T.+ 

None. 

500 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

75 B. T.+ 

None. 



450 R. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

700 B. T.+ 

None. 

450 B. T.+ 

None. 

120 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

270 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

1,000 R.T.+ 

None. 

1,000 R. T.+ 

120 B. T.+ 

None. 

None. 

125 B. T.+ 

None. 

180 B. T.+ 

None. 

1,000 R.T.+ 

None. 



None. 
180 R. 
None. 

None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 



T.+ 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 241 

Appendix X — Continued 



Stream and tributary 
number 



Mileage available 
for stocking 



Stocking policy 
per mile 



Keuka lake 

26-35 .... Drj T , small or warm. . None. 

Keuka inlet . Mouth to dam at 5, 

2 miles .1 2,0n<> H ! 

5 to State Hatchery, 

1.5 miles. 
Hatchery to source. 
0.5 mile 

1 and tributaries Dry 

2 1 mile, lower 235 R. T.+ 

Upper, small None. 

Drv None. 

0.2*mile 200 R. T. 

Dry or small None. 

Drv or small None. 



1,000 B.T.+ 

300 B. T. 
None. 



Spring run 

3-8 and tributaries 
37-42 



242 



Conservation Department 



Appendix XI 

Stocking List to Accompany Map 7 
Elmira quadrangle 



Stream and tributary 
number 


Mileage available 
for stocking 


Stocking policy 
per mile 


Catharine creek 


3 miles 

Small, dry or warm . . 

3 miles 

Drv .... 


1,000 R. T.+, 1,000 B 


23-26 

27 (Chemung canal) 


T.+ 
None. 
1,000 S.-T.+ 


1 


None. 


2 

1-2 


0.5 mile, lower. . 
Small or dry 


200 S. T.+ 
None. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 243 

Appendix XII 
Vegetation of Cayuga and Seneca Lakes 

W. C. MUENSCHEE 

The plant life of a lake is limited to that part of the water 
which is penetrated by the sunlight. Aquatic vegetation consists 
of two general types of plants: (1). The attached plants consisting 
of the larger "pondweeds" which often form extensive weed beds. 
(2). The microscopic free-floating plants (phytoplankton) 
usually unobserved unless they are present in enormous numbers 
when they produce the so-called "water bloom." 

The attached plants occur in shallow lakes or in the shoal waters 
of deeper lakes often forming extensive weed beds. The most 
common kind of weed beds in Cayuga and Seneca lakes consist of 
large submerged plants that are rooted on the bottom, such as 
"pondweed, " Potamogetons sp. and eel-grass, Vallisneria sp. etc. 
Among these larger plants smaller plants are often so abundant 
that the weed bed consists of a very dense tangled mass of vege- 
tation which may or may not reach the surface of the water. 
Attached to the stems and leaves of these larger* plants are in- 
numerable smaller plants, algae and diatoms, many of which are 
seasonal. Sometimes they completely cover the larger plants. 
In Cayuga and Seneca lakes these weed beds are practically 
limited to the water which is between 5-15 feet in depth. Another 
type of weed bed common in Cayuga and Seneca lakes consists of 
stoneworts or "grass," species of Chara and Nitella, covering 
sometimes extensive areas of almost pure stands. In the shallow 
water these plants usually have numerous diatoms and small algae, 
or even larger filamentous algae, attached to them. The beds of 
Chara occur in water from a few feet deep to a depth of about 
20 feet. Nitella was observed only rarely in water less than 10 
feet deep but more commonly in water from 15 to 25 feet deep. 
In a few places, notably at the north end of Cayuga lake, at 
Canoga marshes, and to a less extent at the south end of Cayuga 
lake and Seneca lake cat-tail marshes occur in which the predom- 
inating species is Typha angustifolia, Along the outer margin 
of the cat-tail marshes other emersed plants such as rushes. 
Scirpus a cuius and 8. americanus, may extend over considerable 
areas of shallow water. 

The attached plants, and the smaller plants such as diatoms 
and algae growing among them, form one of the principal primary 
sources of food for fish and other animals living in a lake. Some 
of the larger plants may furnish food or shelter for certain fish 
or other animals that are eaten by fish. Some of the algae are 
eaten directly by fish and other animals. Most of the larger 
plants act as supports on which myriads of smaller plants, algae 
and diatoms, and also many smaller animals may grow to furnish 
food for other organisms. When the weeds die they decompose 
and add to the organic matter in the water or the ooze on the 



244 Conservation Department 

bottom. Some of the products of this decomposition, at least to 
some extent, are used as a source of food by other organisms. 

Cayuga and Seneca lakes are both long narrow deep lakes with 
very steep sides except at a few points where streams enter. The 
areas of these lakes that are shallow enough for attached plants 
are therefore very limited except in the shoal water at or near 
their ends. The shallow area, and therefore the area covered by 
weed beds, is much greater in Cayuga lake than in Seneca lake. 
A list of the principal weed beds in Cayuga and Seneca lakes 
together with the approximate areas covered by them is given 
at the end of this chapter. A list of all the species of larger plants 
observed in the two lakes, indicating the predominating species, 
is also included. 

Because the time available for the study of the attached 
plants of Cayuga and Seneca lakes was limited, only very general 
statements can be made regarding the distribution, abundance and 
relative importance of the various species of plants. Much more 
intensive work is needed to determine the role played by the several 
species in contributing either directly or indirectly to the food 
supply of fish. Probably of greater importance than the larger 
weeds themselves are the algae that grow attached to them, among 
them, or on the rocks along the shores. It is generally assumed 
that each kind of "pondweed" produces a single crop. More 
information is desirable regarding the rate of growth and the 
conditions under which growth takes place before very accurate 
quantitative estimates can be made regarding the productivity 
of a given species. 

On the other hand it is known that several attached algae will 
produce a crop, disappear, and produce another crop. This may 
be repeated three or four times in one year. In some cases differ- 
ent species may be concerned. It is evident that it is not possible 
to estimate the amount of food contributed by a given species 
unless it is known how rapidly or under what conditions it con- 
tinues to grow or reproduce or how many crops are produced in a 
season or year. The significant fact is not the amount of plant 
material that is present, in a given area or lake, at a given time, 
but how much can be produced in one season or one year and what 
the most important conditions are affecting this production. To 
obtain such information it will be necessary to make an intensive 
study of each species and the conditions under which it thrives. 

The principal weed beds in Cayuga lake. — The largest weed 
beds in Cayuga lake occur near its north end. From Union Springs 
to the north end the bottom is mostly less than 25 feet deep. 
Probably about one-half of this area of approximately 10 square 
miles is covered with weed beds. In some places even where the 
water is less than 15 feet deep rather extensive barren areas occur. 
The most prolific beds of larger weeds occur from the railroad 
trestle at Cayuga village to the north end, and north of Cayuga 
Park and about Canoga marshes on the west shore. These beds 
consist largely of species of pondweeds, Potamogeton Richardsonii, 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 245 

P. pectinatus, P. Bobbinsonii, P. compressus and P. amplifolius, 
eel-grass, Vallisneria americana, hornwort, Ceratophyllum demer- 
sum, Najas flexilis, Elodea canadensis, mud plantain, Heteran- 
thera dubia, water marigold, Bidens Beckii, and a number of less 
common species. Buppia maritima and Najas marina, two brackish 
water plants, were found only at the north end of Cayuga lake. 
Both were rather common at Cayuga Park and the latter was also 
found at Canoga marshes. From Canoga northward, weed beds 
were observed almost to the middle of the lake in several places. 
The vegetation in the deeper water sometimes consisted entirely 
of Chara or Nitella or both growing together. Potamogeton 
gramineus var. graminif alius was frequently found associated with 
Chara. 

The bottom at the south end of the lake is rather shallow and 
sandy near the shore, but somewhat muddy near the 15-25 foot 
depth which marks the limits of rooted aquatics. Except for 
some barren sandy places near the southeast corner and the deeper 
bottom near the middle of the lake, most of the bottom of the area 
between the south end of the lake and a point one-half mile to the 
north is covered by rather dense weed beds. The total area 
occupied by these weed beds is probably less than one square mile. 
The densest of these beds are located between the lighthouse and the 
west shore and off the east shore, extending for some distance in 
each direction from the Kemington Salt Works. The predominat- 
ing species in the southwest corner were Potamogeton pectinatus, 
P. Bichardsonii, P. crispus, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, and 
in deeper water, Zannichellia palustris and Nitella were abundant. 
Along the east shore Potamogeton Bichardsonii and P. Friesii 
were the predominating species. 

Along the east shore small areas of weed beds occur in the little 
bays to the north and south of Myers point, in Aurora bay and 
to the north and south of Farley's point. At the first two places 
the predominating species were Potamogeton Bichardsonii and 
P. pectinatus and in deeper water also P. gramineus var. gramini- 
folius. At Farley's point the vegetation was very dense and con- 
sisted of representatives of most of the species found in Cayuga 
lake. Along the rest of the shore only scattered and very narrow 
weed beds occur. These beds are usually less than 100 feet in width 
and seldom extend for more than 100 yards from shore except on 
each side of the larger points. 

Weed beds in Seneca lake. — There are but two localities in 
Seneca lake where extensive weed beds occur. The largest and 
most productive weed beds are at the north end, especially in the 
northwest corner, covering a total area of probably less than one 
square mile. In the shallow water near the shore the vegetation 
was very dense and consisted of numerous species among which 
Potamogetons predominated. In deeper water Chara and Nitella 
were the predominating plants, usually alone or sometimes asso- 
ciated with Potamogeton gramineus var. graminif 'alius. The only 



246 Conservation Department 

other weed beds of any extent occur between Dresden and Long 
point on the west shore of the lake. Here occurred several fairly 
dense beds of Potamogeton with minor species intermingled, but 
they are mostly near the shore and only in a few places extend 
more than 300 yards from shore. The total area of these beds is 
probably less than one-half square mile. Only a very few small 
weed beds were noted at the south end of Seneca lake. These occur 
near the inlet in the southeast corner. In Seneca lake, as in 
Cayuga lake, only occasional narrow scattered weed beds were 
found along the east and west shores. 

A rough estimate of the areas covered by weed beds would be 
about six square miles in Cayuga lake and about two square miles 
in Seneca lake. 

A List of the Larger Plants in Cayuga and Seneca Lakes 1 

C = observed in Cayuga lake. 
S = observed in Seneca lake. 
* = predominating species. 

Algae 

The following genera of the larger algae were represented by one 
or more species which were abundant in at least one or more localities 
in both lakes: * Chara, Chaetophora, * Cladophora, Drapernaldia, 
Hydrodictyon, * Mougeotia, * Nitella, Oedogonium, Oscillatoria, 
Phormidium, Rivularia, Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Vaucheria, Zygnema. 

Marsileaceae 
C Marsilea quadrifolia L. Water clover, Pepperwort. 

Equisetaceae 
C Equisetum limosum L. (Piper) 

Typhaceae 

C S Typha angustifolia L. Narrow-leaved Cat-tail. 

C S Typha angustifolia L. var. elongata (Dudley) Wiegand. 

Sparganiaceae 

C S Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. Giant Bur-reed. 
C S Sparganium americanum Nutt. Bur-reed. 

Najadaceae 

C S Potamogeton natans L. Pondweeds 

C S Potamogeton amplifolius Tuckerm. 

C S Potamogeton americanus C. & S. var. novaeboracensis 

(Morong) Benn. 
C S *Potamogeton gramineus L. var. graminifolius Fries. 
C S Potamogeton angustifolius Birch & Presl. 

1 Note: Specimens of nearly all of these plants are preserved in the herbarium of 
Cornell University. 



Biological Survey — Oswego Watershed 247 

C S Potamogeton lucens L. 

C S *Potamogeton Richarclsonii (Benn.) Rydb. 

C S Potamogeton bupleuroides Fernald. 

C S Potamogeton crispus L. 

C Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. var. cayugensis (Wiegand) Benn. 

C S Potamogeton compressus L. 

C S *Potamogeton Friesii Rupr. 

C S Potamogeton pusillus L. 

C S Potamogeton vaginatus Turcz. 

C S Potamogeton filiformis Pers. var. borealis. 

C S ^Potamogeton pectinatus L. 

C Potamogeton Robbinsii Oakes. 

C Ruppia maritima L. var. longipes Hags. Sea- or Ditch-grass. 

C S *Zannichellia palustris L. var. major (Boen.) Koch. Horned 

Pondweed. 
C Najas marina L. Large Naiad. 
C S *Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt. Naiad. 

Alismaceae 
CS Sagitt aria latifolia Willd. Arrow-head. 
C S Sagittaria heterophylla Pursh. Arrow-head. 

Hydro charitaceae 
C S *Elodea canadensis Michx. Water-weed. 
C S *Vallisneria americana Michx. Eel-grass. 

Cyperaceae 
C S Scirpus americanus Pers. Rush. 
C S Scirpus validus Vahl. Bulrush. 
C S Scirpus acutus Muhl. Bulrush. 

Araceae 
C S Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunth. Arrow Arum. 

Lemnaceae 
C S Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Duckweed. 
C S Lemna trisulca L. Duckweed. 
C S Lemna minor L. Duckweed. 
C Wolffia columbiana Karst. 

Pontederiaceae 
C S Pontederia cor data L. Pickerel weed. 
C S Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Mud plantain. 

Ceratophyllaceae 
C S *Ceratophyllum demersum L. Hornwort. 

Nymphaeaceae 
C S Nymphozanthus ad vena (Ait.) Fernald. Yellow water-lily. 
C Nymphaea odorata Ait. Sweet white water-lily. 
C S Nymphaea tuberosa Paine. White water-lily. 
C Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. Yellow nelumbo or lotus. 



248 Conservation Department 

Ranunculaceae 

C S Ranunculus longirostris Godr. White water buttercup. 
C Rannunculus aquatilis L. var. capillaceus D. C. White water 
buttercup. 

Haloragidaceae 
C S *Myriophyllum exalbescens Fernald. Water milfoil. 

Lentibulariaceae 

C Utricularia vulgaris L. var. americana Gray. Great bladder- 
wort. 

ACANTHACEAE 

C Dianthera americana L. Water willow. 

COMPOSITAE 

C S Bidens Beckii Torr. Water marigold. 




Key map of Oswego watershed showing the principal 



is. Outlines in red indicate the boundaries of the U. S. G. S. quadrangles 




Map 1. 



Highmarket and Port Leyden quadrangles 



'! 



I 1 





M.,f, :.. n.1,.1.--. i'.iu. v.i.., tui.i, i;.-n,m, 











Map I.. Iiiilli. II.iii. in. .1 Ml-|.,ir. W.ilkin-. Ill Hr>.ln. .....I 1I...I....I , |u .iilr.iii|ilr 




■ r \ V K ' v 

Map 7. — Elmira quadrangle 



835tt 



27 




University of 
Connecticut 

Libraries